Quality Improvement in Neurology: Concussion Quality Measurement Set
Effects of the Medicare Part D comprehensive medication review on medication adherence among patients with Alzheimer's disease
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Older patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are challenged with adhering to complex medication regimens. We examined effects of Comprehensive Medication Review (CMR), a required Medicare Part D Medication Therapy Management (MTM) program component, on medication adherence among AD patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:This retrospective study analyzed 100% of 2016-2017 Medicare claims covering the entire United States, linked to Area Health Resources Files. Medicare beneficiaries aged â‰¥65â€‰years were included. Propensity score matching identified comparable intervention and comparison groups with the intervention defined as receiving a CMR in 2017. A difference-in-differences analysis included in multivariate logistic regressions an interaction term between CMR receipt and year 2017. The outcome measured was nonadherence to diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia medications, with nonadherence defined as proportion of days covered <80% for study medications. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Unadjusted comparisons indicated the proportion of nonadherence for intervention group members decreased from 2016 to 2017 but increased for the comparison group. In adjusted analyses, reduction in medication nonadherence among the intervention group remained higher: odds ratios for the interaction term were 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]â€‰=â€‰0.54-0.71), 0.54 (95% CI = 0.50-0.58) and 0.50 (95% CI = 0.47-0.53) respectively for diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia medications. This suggests that the likelihood of nonadherence in the intervention group was respectively reduced by 38%, 46% and 50% more than the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:CMR was found to reduce nonadherence to diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia medications among older Medicare beneficiaries with AD. This provides evidence that the MTM program is effective for a population with unique medication compliance challenges.
Structural and functional organization of the lower jaw barrel subfield in rat primary somatosensory cortex
Barrel subfields in rodent primary somatosensory cortex (SI) are important model systems for studying cortical organization and reorganization. During cortical reorganization that follows limb deafferentation, neurons in deafferented forelimb SI become responsive to previously unexpressed inputs from the lower jaw. Although the lower jaw barrel subfield (LJBSF) is a likely source of the input, this subfield has received little attention. Our aim was to describe the structural and functional organization of the normal LJBSF. To investigate LJBSF organization, a nomenclature for lower jaw skin surface was developed, cytochrome oxidase (CO) was used to label flattened-cut LJBSF sections, microelectrodes were used to map the lower jaw skin surface representation in SI, and electrolytic lesions, recovered from electrode penetrations, were used to align the physiological map to the underlying barrel map. LJBSF is a tear-shaped subfield containing approximately 24 barrels, arranged in eight mediolateral rows and a barrel-free zone capping the anterior border. The representation of the lower jaw skin consisting of chin vibrissae and microvibrissae embedded in common fur is somatotopically organized in a single map in the contralateral SI. This physiological map shows that the activity from the vibrissae aligns with the CO-staining of the underlying LJBSF. LJBSF barrels receive topographically ordered barrel-specific input from individual vibrissa and microvibrissae in the lower jaw but not from trident whiskers. The barrel-free zone receives topographically ordered input from the lower lip. These data demonstrating that the LJBSF is a highly organized subfield are essential for understanding its possible role in cortical reorganization.
Acute neurocognitive deficits in active duty service members following subconcussive blast exposure
Military service members are frequently subjected to subconcussive blast events during training and deployment. Emerging evidence suggests blast exposures of these magnitudes may have long-term consequences for dimensions of cognitive function. Less is known about cognitive sequelae acutely following deployment-related subconcussive blast events. The current study addressed this knowledge gap by assessing the extent to which subconcussive blast exposure affected performance on the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics 4 TBI-MIL (ANAM). Baseline-referenced and normative comparisons of archival ANAM data were analyzed for a cohort of personnel who were exposed to blast (blast group; nâ€‰=â€‰27) and personnel who were not exposed to blast (no-blast group; nâ€‰=â€‰36) that were otherwise asymptomatic for a concussion. The blast group exhibited statistically significant lower scores compared to the no-blast group (between-subjects), baseline assessments (within-subjects), and an age-matched normative population. Normative comparisons revealed that the scores for the reaction time subtests (i.e., procedural and both simple reaction time tasks) were outside the range of normal functioning (1 SD) and reliable change indices revealed clinically meaningful change only for simple reaction time. The results highlight covert effects of subconcussive blast exposure that may warrant further monitoring in the immediate aftermath of a blast event.
Lessons From Disaster Medicine for the Neurologist in the COVID-19 Era: Going Viral [Editorial]
Clinical evaluation of the revolutionizing prosthetics modular prosthetic limb system for upper extremity amputees
Individuals with upper extremity (UE) amputation abandon prostheses due to challenges with significant device weight-particularly among myoelectric prostheses-and limited device dexterity, durability, and reliability among both myoelectric and body-powered prostheses. The Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL) system couples an advanced UE prosthesis with a pattern recognition paradigm for intuitive, non-invasive prosthetic control. Pattern recognition accuracy and functional assessment-Box & Blocks (BB), Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT), and Assessment of Capacity for Myoelectric Control (ACMC)-scores comprised the main outcomes. 10 participants were included in analyses, including seven individuals with traumatic amputation, two individuals with congenital limb absence, and one with amputation secondary to malignancy. The average (SD) time since limb loss, excluding congenital participants, was 85.9 (59.5) months. Participants controlled an average of eight motion classes compared to three with their conventional prostheses. All participants made continuous improvements in motion classifier accuracy, pathway completion efficiency, and MPL manipulation. BB and JHFT improvements were not statistically significant. ACMC performance improved for all participants, with mean (SD) scores of 162.6 (105.3), 213.4 (196.2), and 383.2 (154.3), pâ€‰=â€‰0.02 between the baseline, midpoint, and exit assessments, respectively. Feedback included lengthening the training period to further improve motion classifier accuracy and MPL control. The MPL has potential to restore functionality to individuals with acquired or congenital UE loss.
Helmet use in equestrian athletes: opportunities for intervention
Background/UNASSIGNED:Equestrian athletes (horse riders) are at high risk for head injury, including concussions. Materials & methods/UNASSIGNED:Adults riders were recruited via social media posting to complete a branching survey collecting data on demographics, riding experience, helmet use, injury history and concussion symptom knowledge. Results are reported as frequencies and percentages, with associations tested using chi-square with significance level p < 0.05. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 2598 subjects, about 75% reported always wearing a helmet. Of those who did not, the most common reasons were that helmets are unnecessary (57.4%) or do not fit well (48.6%). Many indicated improper storage conditions and/or did not follow manufacturer's replacement recommendations. Most (75.4%) reported a high level of comfort with recognizing concussion signs, with half experiencing a prior head injury. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:This information suggests opportunities for intervention to improve helmet use through increased fit, while the responses indicate a need for further education on proper helmet use.
Alzheimer Disease (Nursing)
Treasure Island FL : StatPearls, 2018
Treasure Island FL : StatPearls, 2018
Telemedicine in neurology: Telemedicine Work Group of the American Academy of Neurology update [Comment]
PURPOSE:While there is strong evidence supporting the importance of telemedicine in stroke, its role in other areas of neurology is not as clear. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of evidence-based data on the role of teleneurology in the care of patients with neurologic disorders other than stroke. RECENT FINDINGS:Studies across multiple specialties report noninferiority of evaluations by telemedicine compared with traditional, in-person evaluations in terms of patient and caregiver satisfaction. Evidence reports benefits in expediting care, increasing access, reducing cost, and improving diagnostic accuracy and health outcomes. However, many studies are limited, and gaps in knowledge remain. SUMMARY:Telemedicine use is expanding across the vast array of neurologic disorders. More studies are needed to validate and support its use.