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Germline PTEN mutations in three families with Cowden syndrome

Celebi, J T; Ping, X L; Zhang, H; Remington, T; Sulica, V I; Tsou, H C; Peacocke, M
Cowden syndrome (CS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by hamartomas in a variety of tissues including the skin, thyroid, breast, endometrium, and the brain. Individuals with CS are predisposed to development of malignancy in these organs, especially the breast and the thyroid. We describe 3 unrelated individuals with CS associated with germline PTEN mutations. While the frameshift (375insTTTA) and the missense (Gly69Arg) mutations reported herein are novel in CS, the nonsense (Arg130stop) mutation has been described in 2 families with CS and in a single family exhibiting both CS and Bannayan Zonana phenotype.
PMID: 10772390
ISSN: 0906-6705
CID: 5181042

Phenotypic findings of Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome in a family associated with a single germline mutation in PTEN

Celebi, J T; Tsou, H C; Chen, F F; Zhang, H; Ping, X L; Lebwohl, M G; Kezis, J; Peacocke, M
Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome (BZS) are two hamartoma syndromes with distinct phenotypic features. Although partial clinical overlap exists between CS and BZS, they are considered to be separate entities. PTEN has been identified as the susceptibility gene for both disorders, suggesting allelism. We have identified a germline mutation, R335X, in PTEN in a family consisting of two female members with the phenotypic findings of CS and two male members with the phenotypic findings of BZS. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows the presence of separate subjects with CS and with BZS in a single family associated with a single germline PTEN mutation.
PMID: 10353779
ISSN: 0022-2593
CID: 5181022

Identification of PTEN mutations in five families with Bannayan-Zonana syndrome

Tok Celebi, J; Chen, F F; Zhang, H; Ping, X L; Tsou, H C; Peacocke, M
Germline mutations in PTEN, a putative tumor suppressor gene, has been identified in 2 autosomal dominant inherited hamartoma syndromes, Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome (BZS). While both diseases exhibit distinct phenotypic features, there seems to be a partial clinical overlap between the 2 diseases. To date, 9 families with BZS have been screened for PTEN mutations, of which 5 were found to exhibit mutations in this gene. We report 5 novel germline mutations in the PTEN coding sequence from 5 unrelated families with the BZS phenotype. While all the mutations we identified are novel in BZS, 1003C-->T (nonsense mutation) and 209+5G-->A (putative splice site mutation) have been previously reported in unrelated families with CS and Lhermitte Duclos disease. Interestingly, 1 of the families has an individual with BZS and 1 with CS phenotype, associated with a single PTEN mutation, 885insA. These data support the notion that CS and BZS may be within the spectrum of the same primary disorder.
PMID: 10232405
ISSN: 0906-6705
CID: 5181382

Germline mutations of the PTEN gene in Cowden disease, an inherited breast and thyroid cancer syndrome

Liaw, D; Marsh, D J; Li, J; Dahia, P L; Wang, S I; Zheng, Z; Bose, S; Call, K M; Tsou, H C; Peacocke, M; Eng, C; Parsons, R
Cowden disease (CD) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome associated with an elevated risk for tumours of the breast, thyroid and skin. Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) cosegregates with a subset of CD families and is associated with macrocephaly, ataxia and dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytomatosis. The common feature of these diseases is a predisposition to hamartomas, benign tumours containing differentiated but disorganized cells indigenous to the tissue of origin. Linkage analysis has determined that a single locus within chromosome 10q23 is likely to be responsible for both of these diseases. A candidate tumour suppressor gene (PTEN) within this region is mutated in sporadic brain, breast and prostate cancer. Another group has independently isolated the same gene, termed MMAC1, and also found somatic mutations throughout the gene in advanced sporadic cancers. Mutational analysis of PTEN in CD kindreds has identified germline mutations in four of five families. We found nonsense and missense mutations that are predicted to disrupt the protein tyrosine/dual-specificity phosphatase domain of this gene. Thus, PTEN appears to behave as a tumour suppressor gene in the germline. Our data also imply that PTEN may play a role in organizing the relationship of different cell types within an organ during development.
PMID: 9140396
ISSN: 1061-4036
CID: 1265742

A beta 2RARE-LacZ transgene identifies retinoic acid-mediated transcriptional activation in distinct cutaneous sites

Tsou, H C; Si, S P; Lee, X; Gonzalez-Serva, A; Peacocke, M
Retinoic acid and its derivatives (retinoids) exert profound influences on epithelial growth differentiation in a variety of tissues, including the skin. How retinoic acid mediates these effects is not fully understood. The recent cloning of a series of nuclear receptors for retinoic acid (RARs) has demonstrated that these proteins can function as ligand-inducible transcriptional enhancing factors. Moreover, all receptors are members of the steroid/thyroid hormone multigene family. In vitro studies have demonstrated the expression of RAR alpha, RAR beta, and RAR gamma in various cell types found in the skin. While multiple isoforms exist for each of the three RARs, it is unclear where each of these receptors functions in vivo to mediate the tissue-specific effects of retinoic acid. As a first step in determining sites of retinoic acid-mediated transcriptional activation in the skin and its appendages, we developed a transgenic model in which the retinoic acid response element (RARE) of the RAR beta 2 isoform is linked to a beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Our observations consistently demonstrate that retinoic acid transcriptionally activates the beta 2RARE in distinct areas of the skin. Of interest, certain of these areas are known to contain stem cells. These data clearly demonstrate that this type of transgenic "reporter" model can be used to further define retinoic acid-regulated signal transduction pathways in the skin, as well as other complex tissues. Furthermore, these observations raise the possibility that transcriptional activation of RAR beta 2 may regulate the growth and differentiation programs of selected populations of stem cells in the skin and its appendages.
PMID: 8082729
ISSN: 0014-4827
CID: 340192