Treatment of facial photodamage and rhytides using a novel 1,565 nm non-ablative fractional erbium-doped fiber laser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL) generate microscopic non-contiguous columns of thermal injury in the dermis, resulting in collagen remodeling. This manuscript details our experience with a novel 1,565 nm scanned, erbium-doped fiber NAFL for the treatment of facial photodamage. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, open-label clinical trial was conducted at two clinical sites in the United States on 16 female subjects with a mean age of 49.6 years, Fitzpatrick skin types II to IV, and a baseline Fitzpatrick-Goldman Wrinkle and Elastosis Score (FGWES) of 3-6. Each subject received three treatments at 4-5 week intervals with follow-up assessments at 1, 3, and 6 months after the last treatment. RESULTS: The mean FGWES demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from baseline both at 3 months (-0.58 +/- 0.23, P = 0.02) and 6 months (-0.66 +/- 0.22, P = 0.008) after the last treatment. Fifty percent (95%CI [24.21%, 68.49%]) of subjects showed a significant (at least 1 grade) improvement in FGWES from baseline at 3-month follow-up. At least 72% of subjects perceived the results as "moderate" to "very good" at 3 months post-treatment, with comparable satisfaction rates. Treatments were not associated with a high level of pain or discomfort and typical downtime was less than 2 days. No unexpected adverse events or serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The 1,565 nm erbium-doped scanned NAFL is an effective treatment for facial wrinkles with a favorable recovery and side effect profile. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:174-180, 2016. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Combined blue nevus-smooth muscle hamartoma: a series of 12 cases
BACKGROUND: One of the most common types of combined melanocytic nevus is that of a blue nevus with ordinary melanocytic nevus. Blue nevi have also been described in association with non-melanocytic cell types, such as those of neural or mesenchymal derivation. Although there are rare descriptions in the literature of blue nevi with myomatous structures, the specific association of combined blue nevi with smooth muscle hyperplasia has not been reported METHODS: We review the clinicopathological features of 12 cases of combined blue nevi with smooth muscle hyperplasia. RESULTS: The majority of these lesions occurred on the back of middle-aged patients and were clinically interpreted as melanocytic nevi or melanoma. Histopathologic examination revealed a combined population of 'common' and blue nevus melanocytes with accompanying smooth muscle hyperplasia. In addition to a lentiginous proliferation of melanocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction with variable basilar hyperpigmentation, there were varying degrees of epidermal acanthosis and follicular induction (three cases). CONCLUSION: We present an unusual hamartoma with features of combined blue nevus and smooth muscle hyperplasia, which has not been previously described.
Lupus erythematosus tumidus with discoid lupus erythematosus-induced alopecia of the scalp [Case Report]
Lupus erythematosus tumidus (LET) is an uncommon variant of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Lupus erythematodes tumidus is characterized by smooth, erythematous plaques on sun-exposed areas without surface changes, such as follicular plugs, atrophy, or scale. Histopathologic features include a lymphocytic, perivascular and periadnexal infiltrate with abundant interstitial, superficial, and deep dermal mucin without appreciable epidermal and vacuolar changes. Typically, LET is responsive to treatment with systemic antimalarials. We present a unique case of alopecia associated with LET, which was partially responsive to hydroxychloroquine. We also note that the plaque of LET is adjacent to the plaque of discoid lupus erythematosus.
Glomuvenous Malformations (Familial generalized multiple glomangiomas) [Case Report]
A 15-year-old boy with a diagnosis of generalized multiple glomangiomas was referred for evaluation and treatment of enlarging and increasingly painful lesions on his right ankle. The patient underwent a series of two treatments with long-pulsed KTP 1064 nm laser that resulted in substantial improvement in appearance and decreased pain. Generalized glomuvenous malformations, or multiple glomangiomas, are the less common presentation of proliferation of glomus cells and may have extracutaneous involvement. Whereas surgical management is often employed and definitive for solitary lesions, interventions such as laser therapy, may be beneficial for improvement of functional impairment and cosmesis as was observed in our patient.
Morphea with discoid lupus erythematosus [Case Report]
The presence of lupus erythematosus with morphea in the same patient has rarely been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with the overlap of discoid lupus erythematosus with superficial morphea, diagnoses that are supported by histopathologic features and laboratory studies.
Acanthosis nigricans in the setting of niacin therapy [Case Report]
We report the case of a 63-year-old obese man with a rapid-onset of widespread acanthosis nigricans (AN) in the setting of having recently initiated treatment with niacin for dyslipidemia. Although obesity and insulin-resistance are risk factors for AN, AN associated with endocrine dysfunction tends to have a more gradual onset and limited involvement. Owing to our patient's age, the rapid onset, and extensive distribution of his eruption, we initially were concerned about paraneoplastic AN. However, an evaluation for a malignant condition was negative. The timing of the onset of our patient's eruption within several months of starting niacin therapy is consistent with niacin-induced AN. Niacin is known to cause rapidly progressive, widespread AN that is reversible upon discontinuation of the medication. We discuss the pathogenesis of AN, which is thought to be the final common manifestation of stimulation of different subtypes of tyrosine kinase receptors by various epidermal growth factors.
Photolichenoid plaques with associated vitiliginous pigmentary changes [Case Report]
A 49-year-old man with advanced HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) presented with a several-month history of pruritic, erythematous, lichenified papules that coalesced into hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities in a sun-exposed distribution. He shortly thereafter developed a progressive depigmentation over more than 80 percent of his body surface area. A biopsy specimen of an erythematous plaque on the trunk showed a superficial and mid-dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes with eosinophils, most consistent with either chronic lichenoid drug eruption or atypical lymphoproliferative disorder (ACLD) of HIV. The patient's lichenoid skin disease has persisted despite discontinuation of TMP-SMX, although it has improved partially with administration of topical glucocorticoids and acitretin. His depigmentation has continued to progress. We discuss the overlapping diagnostic entities which may be comprised by this patient's clinical disease, and highlight a unique presentation of the complex interaction between HIV infection and the skin.
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [Case Report]
Gorlin syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that results in numerous basal cell carcinomas as well as a number of other facial and skeletal findings. We present a patient with many classic features and review some of the treatment options available for these patients.
Deep dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum [Case Report]
A 50-year-old man with hepatitis C virus infection and liver cirrhosis, who was awaiting transplantation, was admitted to the Transplant Surgery Service for treatment of a pleural effusion and an elevated ammonia level. Skin examination showed violaceous, firm nodules on the right thigh, which had been present for eight months. A fungal culture showed Trichophyton rubrum. The patient was started on itraconazole with improvement in the eruption.
Squamous-cell carcinoma in situ in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism [Case Report]
A 36-year-old African man from Guinea with a history of albinism presented with a many-year history of scaling and erythema of the face, neck, and arms. The patient had light eyes, hair, and skin. Physical examination showed extensive photodamage. A skin biopsy specimen from the posterior aspect of the lower leg showed a squamous-cell carcinoma in situ. The most common types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), OCA 1 and OCA 2, are autosomal recessive disorders of pigmentation that commonly affect the skin, hair, eyes, and ears. Photodamage and skin cancers plague patients with albinism. In Africa, where albinism is prevalent, albinos face a myriad of social and medical issues. Skin cancer surveillance is an important consideration for albinos, and sun protection is paramount.