Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Fast and sensitive pretargeted labeling of cancer cells through a tetrazine/trans-cyclooctene cycloaddition

Devaraj, Neal K; Upadhyay, Rabi; Haun, Jered B; Hilderbrand, Scott A; Weissleder, Ralph
PMID: 19697389
ISSN: 1521-3773
CID: 3983362

Effective use of PI3K and MEK inhibitors to treat mutant Kras G12D and PIK3CA H1047R murine lung cancers

Engelman, Jeffrey A; Chen, Liang; Tan, Xiaohong; Crosby, Katherine; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Upadhyay, Rabi; Maira, Michel; McNamara, Kate; Perera, Samanthi A; Song, Youngchul; Chirieac, Lucian R; Kaur, Ramneet; Lightbown, Angela; Simendinger, Jessica; Li, Timothy; Padera, Robert F; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos; Weissleder, Ralph; Mahmood, Umar; Cantley, Lewis C; Wong, Kwok-Kin
Somatic mutations that activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been identified in the p110-alpha catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA). They are most frequently observed in two hotspots: the helical domain (E545K and E542K) and the kinase domain (H1047R). Although the p110-alpha mutants are transforming in vitro, their oncogenic potential has not been assessed in genetically engineered mouse models. Furthermore, clinical trials with PI3K inhibitors have recently been initiated, and it is unknown if their efficacy will be restricted to specific, genetically defined malignancies. In this study, we engineered a mouse model of lung adenocarcinomas initiated and maintained by expression of p110-alpha H1047R. Treatment of these tumors with NVP-BEZ235, a dual pan-PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor in clinical development, led to marked tumor regression as shown by positron emission tomography-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic examination. In contrast, mouse lung cancers driven by mutant Kras did not substantially respond to single-agent NVP-BEZ235. However, when NVP-BEZ235 was combined with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, ARRY-142886, there was marked synergy in shrinking these Kras-mutant cancers. These in vivo studies suggest that inhibitors of the PI3K-mTOR pathway may be active in cancers with PIK3CA mutations and, when combined with MEK inhibitors, may effectively treat KRAS mutated lung cancers.
PMID: 19029981
ISSN: 1546-170x
CID: 2270332

Real-time assessment of inflammation and treatment response in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation

Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Swirski, Filip K; Waterman, Peter; Yuan, Hushan; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Newton, Andita P; Upadhyay, Rabi; Vinegoni, Claudio; Kohler, Rainer; Blois, Joseph; Smith, Adam; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Josephson, Lee; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that degrade and remodel tissue extracellular matrix through production of proteolytic enzymes, release of proinflammatory factors to initiate and propagate inflammatory responses, and direct activation of mucus secretion and smooth muscle cell constriction. Thus, eosinophils are central effector cells during allergic airway inflammation and an important clinical therapeutic target. Here we describe the use of an injectable MMP-targeted optical sensor that specifically and quantitatively resolves eosinophil activity in the lungs of mice with experimental allergic airway inflammation. Through the use of real-time molecular imaging methods, we report the visualization of eosinophil responses in vivo and at different scales. Eosinophil responses were seen at single-cell resolution in conducting airways using near-infrared fluorescence fiberoptic bronchoscopy, in lung parenchyma using intravital microscopy, and in the whole body using fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography. Using these real-time imaging methods, we confirmed the immunosuppressive effects of the glucocorticoid drug dexamethasone in the mouse model of allergic airway inflammation and identified a viridin-derived prodrug that potently inhibited the accumulation and enzyme activity of eosinophils in the lungs. The combination of sensitive enzyme-targeted sensors with noninvasive molecular imaging approaches permitted evaluation of airway inflammation severity and was used as a model to rapidly screen for new drug effects. Both fluorescence-mediated tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy techniques have the potential to be translated into the clinic.
PMID: 19033674
ISSN: 0021-9738
CID: 3983342

Regression of drug-resistant lung cancer by the combination of rosiglitazone and carboplatin

Girnun, Geoffrey D; Chen, Liang; Silvaggi, Jessica; Drapkin, Ronny; Chirieac, Lucian R; Padera, Robert F; Upadhyay, Rabi; Vafai, Scott B; Weissleder, Ralph; Mahmood, Umar; Naseri, Elnaz; Buckley, Stephanie; Li, Danan; Force, Jeremy; McNamara, Kate; Demetri, George; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Wong, Kwok-Kin
PURPOSE: Current therapy for lung cancer involves multimodality therapies. However, many patients are either refractory to therapy or develop drug resistance. KRAS and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations represent some of the most common mutations in lung cancer, and many studies have shown the importance of these mutations in both carcinogenesis and chemoresistance. Genetically engineered murine models of mutant EGFR and KRAS have been developed that more accurately recapitulate human lung cancer. Recently, using cell-based experiments, we showed that platinum-based drugs and the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone (PPARgamma ligand) interact synergistically to reduce cancer cell and tumor growth. Here, we directly determined the efficacy of the PPARgamma/carboplatin combination in these more relevant models of drug resistant non-small cell lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumorigenesis was induced by activation of either mutant KRAS or EGFR. Mice then received either rosiglitazone or carboplatin monotherapy, or a combination of both drugs. Change in tumor burden, pathology, and evidence of apoptosis and cell growth were assessed. RESULTS: Tumor burden remained unchanged or increased in the mice after monotherapy with either rosiglitazone or carboplatin. In striking contrast, we observed significant tumor shrinkage in mice treated with these drugs in combination. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that this synergy was mediated via both increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Importantly, this synergy between carboplatin and rosiglitazone did not increase systemic toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the PPARgamma ligand/carboplatin combination is a new therapy worthy of clinical investigation in lung cancers, including those cancers that show primary resistance to platinum therapy or acquired resistance to targeted therapy.
PMID: 18927287
ISSN: 1078-0432
CID: 2270342

Human breast cancer tumor models: molecular imaging of drug susceptibility and dosing during HER2/neu-targeted therapy

Gee, Michael S; Upadhyay, Rabi; Bergquist, Henry; Alencar, Herlen; Reynolds, Fred; Maricevich, Marco; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To use near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging to assess the therapeutic susceptibility and drug dosing of orthotopic human breast cancers implanted in mice treated with molecularly targeted therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Imaging probes were synthesized by conjugating the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-specific antibody trastuzumab with fluorescent dyes. In vitro probe binding was assessed with flow cytometry. HER2-normal and HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells were orthotopically implanted in nude mice. Intravital laser scanning fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the in vivo association of the probe with the tumor cells. Mice bearing 3-5-mm-diameter tumors were intravenously injected with 0.4 nmol of HER2 probe before or after treatment. A total of 123 mice were used for all in vivo tumor growth and imaging experiments. Tumor fluorescence intensity was assessed, and standard fluorescence values were determined. Statistical significance was determined by performing standard analysis of variance across the imaging cohorts. RESULTS:HER2 probe enabled differentiation between HER2-normal and HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with binding levels correlating with tumor trastuzumab susceptibility. Serial imaging before and during trastuzumab therapy revealed a significant reduction (P < .05) in probe binding with treatment and thus provided early evidence of successful HER2 inhibition days before the overall reduction in tumor growth was apparent. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:NIR imaging with HER2-specific imaging probes enables evaluation of the therapeutic susceptibility of human mammary tumors and of drug dosing during HER2-targeted therapy with trastuzumab. This approach, combined with tomographic imaging techniques, has potential in the clinical setting for determining patient eligibility for and adequate drug dosing in molecularly targeted cancer therapies.
PMID: 18647846
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 3983332

Multiparameter noninvasive assessment of treatment susceptibility, drug target inhibition and tumor response guides cancer treatment

Gee, Michael S; Upadhyay, Rabi; Bergquist, Henry; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar
New cancer therapies are increasingly molecular-pathway specific. The evaluation of these novel therapies would be greatly facilitated by the development of noninvasive methods to assess multiple tumor cellular and molecular parameters. Using fluorescent probes specific for HER2/neu (AF750-trastuzumab) and apoptosis (Cy5.5-Annexin), we demonstrate a multichannel near infrared molecular imaging approach that yields accurate and early assessment of treatment susceptibility, drug target inhibition and tumor response during HER2-targeted therapy of orthotopic human mammary carcinomas in mice with trastuzumab (Herceptin). This combined approach detects both partial treatment response (tumor growth inhibition without regression) as well as therapeutic resistance before alterations in tumor growth are apparent. Partially responsive tumors exhibit increased Annexin signal when trastuzumab is combined with a cytotoxic agent (paclitaxel), which predicts subsequent tumor regression and suggests that imaging can guide therapy optimization. This multiparametric imaging approach has great potential in the clinical setting for determining patient eligibility, adequate drug dosing and early biological response of molecularly-targeted cancer therapies.
PMID: 17683072
ISSN: 1097-0215
CID: 3983292

Quantitative real-time catheter-based fluorescence molecular imaging in mice

Upadhyay, Rabi; Sheth, Rahul A; Weissleder, Ralph; Mahmood, Umar
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To prospectively evaluate an optical imaging system designed to perform quantitative, intravital catheter-based imaging of fluorescent molecular probes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This study was performed according to a protocol approved by the institutional animal care committee. A fiberoptic catheter imaging system was developed to implement a normalization algorithm for real-time quantitative near-infrared (NIR) imaging. The system was validated with in vitro imaging of fluorochrome phantoms and in vivo fluorescence measurements obtained in tumors implanted in murine abdomens (n = 7) after administration of an enzyme-activatable NIR probe. Standard analysis of variance tests were used to determine significant dissimilarities in signal from distinct fluorochrome concentrations. The clinical utility of the system was further evaluated by imaging orthotopically implanted murine colonic adenocarcinomas (n = 4). RESULTS:Raw NIR fluorescence intensities, which were measured with a fiberoptic catheter placed above wells of varying NIR fluorochrome concentration, varied markedly (>100%) with catheter position, while the corrected NIR signal was confined to a range of values within 10% of their mean for each individual fluorochrome concentration and were significantly distinct (P < .001) between relevant concentration ranges. Similar results were observed for the in vivo measurements from the abdominally implanted tumors, with raw NIR signal varying 20% from the mean and corrected NIR signal varying only 1% from the mean. The colonic studies revealed that the correction method was robust enough for use during minimally invasive imaging procedures. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The authors have developed and implemented a method for quantitative real-time catheter-based fluorescence imaging that resolves NIR signal dependence on changes in catheter position.
PMID: 17940307
ISSN: 0033-8419
CID: 3983312

Improved in vivo whole-animal detection limits of green fluorescent protein-expressing tumor lines by spectral fluorescence imaging

Tam, Jenny M; Upadhyay, Rabi; Pittet, Mikael J; Weissleder, Ralph; Mahmood, Umar
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been used for cell tracking and imaging gene expression in superficial or surgically exposed structures. However, in vivo murine imaging is often limited by several factors, including scatter and attenuation with depth and overlapping autofluorescence. The autofluorescence signals have spectral profiles that are markedly different from the GFP emission spectral profile. The use of spectral imaging allows separation and quantitation of these contributions to the total fluorescence signal seen in vivo by weighting known pure component profiles. Separation of relative GFP and autofluorescence signals is not readily possible using epifluorescent continuous-wave single excitation and emission bandpass imaging (EFI). To evaluate detection thresholds using these two methods, nude mice were subcutaneously injected with a series of GFP-expressing cells. For EFI, optimized excitation and emission bandpass filters were used. Owing to the ability to separate autofluorescence contributions from the emission signal using spectral imaging compared with the mixed contributions of GFP and autofluorescence in the emission signal recorded by the EFI system, we achieved a 300-fold improvement in the cellular detection limit. The detection limit was 3 x 10(3) cells for spectral imaging versus 1 x 10(6) cells for EFI. Despite contributions to image stacks from autofluorescence, a 100-fold dynamic range of cell number in the same image was readily visualized. Finally, spectral imaging was able to separate signal interference of red fluorescent protein from GFP images and vice versa. These findings demonstrate the utility of the approach in detecting low levels of multiple fluorescent markers for whole-animal in vivo applications.
PMID: 17711782
ISSN: 1535-3508
CID: 3983302

Current and Future Imaging Paradigms in Colorectal Cancer

Mahmood, Umar; Upadhyay, Rabi
PMID: 18516215
ISSN: 1043-1489
CID: 3983322

Real-time multichannel imaging framework for endoscopy, catheters, and fixed geometry intraoperative systems

Sheth, Rahul A; Upadhyay, Rabi; Weissleder, Ralph; Mahmood, Umar
To address the need for a clinically applicable intravital optical imaging system, we developed a new hardware and software framework. We demonstrate its utility by applying it to an endoscope-based white light and fluorescent imaging system. The capabilities include acquisition and visualization algorithms that perform registration, segmentation, and histogram-based autoexposure of two imaging channels (full-spectrum white light and near-infrared fluorescence), all in real time. Data are processed and saved as 12-bit files, matching the standards of clinical imaging. Dynamic range is further improved by the evaluation of flux as a quantitative parameter. The above features are demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments, and the in vivo application is shown with the visualization of fluorescent-labeled vasculature of a mouse peritoneum. The approach may be applied to diverse systems, including handheld devices, fixed geometry intraoperative devices, catheter-based imaging, and multimodal systems.
PMID: 17532881
ISSN: 1535-3508
CID: 3983282