How does a "Dry Tap" Impact the Accuracy of Preoperative Aspiration Results in Predicting Chronic PJI?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is challenging to diagnose. We aimed to evaluate the impact of dry taps requiring saline lavage during preoperative intraarticular hip aspiration on the accuracy of diagnosing PJI before revision surgery. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted for THA patients with suspected PJI who received an image-guided hip aspiration from May 2016 to February 2020. Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) diagnostic criteria for PJI were compared between patients who had dry tap (DT) versus successful tap (ST). Sensitivity and specificity of synovial markers were compared between the DT and ST groups. Concordance between preoperative and intraoperative cultures was determined for the two groups. RESULTS:In total, 335 THA patients met inclusion criteria. A greater proportion of patients in the ST group met MSIS criteria preoperatively (30.2%vs.8.3%, p<0.001). Patients in the ST group had higher rates of revision for PJI (28.4%vs.17.5%, p=0.026) and for any indication (48.4%vs.36.7%, p=0.039). MSIS synovial WBC count thresholds were more sensitive in the ST group (90.0%vs.66.7%). There was no difference in culture concordance (67.9%vs.65.9%,p=0.709), though the DT group had a higher rate of negative preoperative cultures followed by positive intraoperative cultures (85.7%vs.41.1%, p=0.047). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that approximately one-third of patients have dry hip aspiration, and in these patients cultures are less predictive of intraoperative findings. This suggests that surgeons considering potential PJI after THA should apply extra scrutiny when interpreting negative results in patients who require saline lavage for hip joint aspiration.
The Effects of Patient Point of Entry and Medicaid Status on Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Pain After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Medicaid expansion has allowed more patients to undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA). Given the continued focus on the opioid epidemic, we sought to determine whether patients with Medicaid insurance differed in their postoperative pain and narcotic requirements compared with privately or Medicare-insured patients. METHODS:A single-institution database was used to identify adult patients who underwent elective THA between 2016 and 2019. Patients in the Medicaid group received Medicaid insurance, while the non-Medicaid group was insured commercially or through Medicare. Subgroup analysis was done, separating the private pay from Medicare patients. RESULTS:A total of 5,845 cases were identified: 326 Medicaid (5.6%) and 5,519 non-Medicaid (94.4%). Two thousand six hundred thirty-five of the non-Medicaid group were insured by private payors. Medicaid patients were younger (56.1 versus 63.28 versus 57.4 years; P < 0.001, P < 0.05), less likely to be White (39.1% versus 78.2% versus 76.2%; P < 0.001), and more likely to be active smokers (21.6% versus 8.8% versus 10.5%; P < 0.001). Surgical time (113 versus 96 versus 98 mins; P < 0.001) and length of stay (2.7 versus 1.7 versus 1.4 days; P < 0.001) were longer for Medicaid patients, with lower home discharge (86.5% versus 91.8% versus 97.2%; P < 0.001). Total opioid consumption (178 morphine milligram equivalents [MMEs] versus 89 MME versus 82 MME; P < 0.001) and average MME/day in the first 24 hours and 24 to 48 hours (52.3 versus 44.7 versus 44.45; P < 0.001 and 73.8 versus 28.4 versus 29.8; P < 0.001) were higher for Medicaid patients. This paralleled higher pain scores (2.71 versus 2.31 versus 2.38; P < 0.001) and lower Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores (18.77 versus 20.98 versus 21.61; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Medicaid patients presenting for THA demonstrated worse postoperative pain and required more opioids than their non-Medicaid counterparts. This highlights the need for preoperative counseling and optimization in this at-risk population. These patients may benefit from multidisciplinary intervention to ensure that pain is controlled while mitigating the risk of continuation to long-term opioid use.
Increased Rates of Tibial Aseptic Loosening in Primary Cemented Total Knee Arthroplasty With a Short Native Tibial Stem Design
BACKGROUND:Emerging evidence has suggested that both obesity and a short, native tibial stem (TS) design may be associated with early aseptic loosening in total knee arthroplasty. The use of short, fully cemented stem extensions may mitigate this risk. As such, we devised a multicenter study to confirm or negate these claims. METHODS:A search of our institutional research databases was done. A minimum 2-year time from index procedure was selected. Cohorts were created according to patient body mass index and the presence (stemmed tibia [ST]) or absence (nonstemmed tibia [NST]) of a short TS extension. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses for aseptic loosening and log-rank tests were done. RESULTS:A total of 1,350 patients were identified (ST = 500, NST = 850). The mean time to the final follow-up in cases without aseptic loosening for the ST cohort was 3.5 years (2.8-6.3) and 5.0 years (2.9-6.3) for the NST cohort (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis at 6 years was superior for the ST cohort (100%, 98.5%; P = 0.025), and a trend toward superior 5-year survival was observed for body mass index <40 kg/m2 (99.1%, 93.2%; P = 0.066). The mean time to aseptic loosening was 2.4 years (0.9-4.5), with approximately 40% occurring within the first 2 years. CONCLUSIONS:Short, native TS design is associated with early aseptic loosening in primary cemented total knee arthroplasty. This can be mitigated through the use of an ST. More cost-effective solutions include (1) use of implants with longer native stem designs or (2) redesign of short TS implants.
The Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Venous Thromboembolism Risk in Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty
INTRODUCTION:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT); however, little is known about its effect on VTE rates after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study sought to determine whether patients with OSA who undergo TJA are at greater risk for developing VTE versus those without OSA. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted on 12,963 consecutive primary TJA patients at a single institution from 2016 to 2019. Patient demographic data were collected through query of the electronic medical record, and patients with a previous history of OSA and VTE within a 90-day postoperative period were captured using the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision diagnosis and procedure codes. RESULTS:Nine hundred thirty-five patients with OSA were identified. PE (0.6% versus 0.24%, P = 0.023) and DVT (0.1% versus 0.04%, P = 0.37) rates were greater for patients with OSA. A multivariate logistic regression revealed that patients with OSA had a higher odds of PE (odds ratio [OR] 3.821, P = 0.023), but not DVT (OR 1.971, P = 0.563) when accounting for significant demographic differences. Female sex and total knee arthroplasty were also associated with a higher odds of PE (OR 3.453 for sex, P = 0.05; OR 3.243 for surgery type, P = 0.041), but not DVT (OR 2.042 for sex, P = 0.534; OR 1.941 for surgery type, P = 0.565). CONCLUSION:Female patients with OSA may be at greater risk for VTE, specifically PE, after total knee arthroplasty. More attention toward screening procedures, perioperative monitoring protocols, and VTE prophylaxis may be warranted in populations at risk.
Increased Rate of Early Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Total Hip Arthroplasty With the Use of Alternatives to Cefazolin Despite Additional Gram-Negative Coverage
Background/UNASSIGNED:Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains one of the most devastating complications following total joint arthroplasty. Appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial administration and antibiotic stewardship are major factors impacting the risk of PJI in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether cefazolin administration was superior to noncefazolin antibiotics in prevention of PJI after primary THA. Material and methods/UNASSIGNED:A review of 9910 patients undergoing primary THA from 2013 to 2019 at a single institution was conducted. The primary outcome was PJI within 90 days of surgery. The Musculoskeletal Infection Society definition of PJI was used for this analysis. Groups were those receiving cefazolinÂ + expanded gram-negative antimicrobial prophylaxis (EGNAP) and those receiving an alternative to cefazolinÂ + EGNAP. Chi-square tests were conducted to determine statistical significance. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to eliminate confounders. Results/UNASSIGNED:Â = .007). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Our data demonstrate that in the presence of EGNAP in THA, there was a higher PJI rate when clindamycin was given as an alternative to cefazolin. The number of THA patients receiving alternatives to cefazolin must be minimized. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:III, Retrospective Cohort Study.
Dual Mobility in Total Hip Arthroplasty
Dual mobility designs in total arthroplasty allow for increased range of motion prior to impingement and dislocation. While valuable for reducing dislocation, dual mobility has its own unique complication profile that includes intraprosthetic dislocation, corrosion, and femoral notching. Despite these relatively rare complications, dual mobility articulations are valuable options for patients at higher risk of dislocation-both early and contemporary reports on dual mobility in total hip arthroplasty suggest that it can reduce the risk of dislocation without leading to unacceptable rates of complication or early revision. Cost analyses and longer follow-up studies on newer dual mobility designs will help determine the future of dual mobility in total hip arthroplasty.
Payments, Policy, Patients, and Practice Evolution and Impact of Reimbursements in Total Joint Arthroplasty
Current trajectories are set to create a large gap between total joint arthroplasty (TJA) supply and demand. Economics dictates that when the demand of consumers (TJA patients) exceeds supply (surgeons performing TJA), a new equilibrium should ideally be established at a higher price point. However, in TJA, the price is set by the government and, therefore, not subject to traditional economic models. Thus, reimbursements for TJA have decreased steadily over time. Fee for service is no longer the dominant reimbursement model for most orthopedic care. Surgeons play a critical role in the evolution and success of Value-Based Care (VBC) models, but this work is not reflected in recent payment changes for TJA. The regulatory environment is notoriously complex and affects our patients, surgeons, and institutions. It is imperative for orthopedic surgeons to continue to advocate for themselves by engaging with leadership, responding to surveys, and balancing outside influences to preserve patient access to TJA. Future payment models for musculoskeletal care must risk-stratify patients, appropriately reimburse for the work of revision TJA, and consider non-modifiable socioeconomic factors. Perioperative orthopedic surgical home (POSH) tools can ensure early appropriate care and proper care coordination for discharge. All of these factors, despite being framed within payment policy, ultimately affect access to orthopedic care for our patients.
Total hip arthroplasty for hip fractures in patients older than 80 years of age: a retrospective matched cohort study
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Increasing age and hip fractures are considered risk factors for post-operative complications in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Consequently, older adults undergoing THA due to hip fracture may have different outcomes and require additional healthcare resources than younger patients. This study aimed to identify the influence of age on discharge disposition and 90-day outcomes of THA performed for hip fractures in patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰80Â years to those agedâ€‰<â€‰80. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective review of 344 patients who underwent primary THA for hip fracture from 2011 to 2021 was conducted. Patientsâ€‰â‰¥â€‰80Â years old were propensity-matched to a control groupâ€‰<â€‰80Â years old. Patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and 90-day post-operative outcomes were collected and assessed using Chi-square and independent sample t tests. RESULTS:A total of 110 patients remained for matched comparison after propensity matching, and the average age in the younger cohort (YC, nâ€‰=â€‰55) was 67.69â€‰Â±â€‰10.48, while the average age in the older cohort (OC, nâ€‰=â€‰55) was 85.12â€‰Â±â€‰4.77 (pâ€‰â‰¤â€‰0.001). Discharge disposition differed between the cohorts (pâ€‰=â€‰0.005), with the YC being more likely to be discharged home (52.7% vs. 27.3%) or to an acute rehabilitation center (23.6% vs. 16.4%) and less likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing facility (21.8% vs. 54.5%). 90-day revision (3.6% vs. 1.8%; pâ€‰=â€‰0.558), 90-day readmission (10.9% vs. 14.5%; pâ€‰=â€‰0.567), 90-day complications (pâ€‰=â€‰0.626), and 90-day mortality rates (1.8% vs 1.8%; pâ€‰=â€‰1.000) did not differ significantly between cohorts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While older patients were more likely to require a higher level of post-hospital care, outcomes and perioperative complication rates were not significantly different compared to a younger patient cohort. Payors need to consider patients' age in future payment models, as discharge disposition comprises a large percentage of post-discharge expenses. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, Retrospective Cohort Study.
Comparing Articulating Spacers for Periprosthetic Joint Infection After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: All-Cement Versus Real-Component Articulating Spacers
BACKGROUND:There are a variety of methods available to treat periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), including 2-stage revision with the use of an antibiotic spacer. This study compares the outcomes of real-component (RC) and all-cement (AC) articulating spacers for total hip arthroplasty (THA) PJI treatment. METHODS:This multicenter retrospective study assessed all articulating spacers placed for THA PJI between April 2011 and August 2020. Patients were dichotomized based on spacer type (RC vs AC). RESULTS:One hundred four patients received articulating spacer constructs (RC groupÂ = 75, AC groupÂ = 29). Leg-length discrepancy was significantly greater in the AC group after the second stage (3.58 vs 12.00 mm, PÂ = .023). There were no significant differences in reoperation rates following first-stage spacer placement (PÂ = .752) and time to reimplantation (PÂ = .127) between the groups. There were no significant differences in reinfection rates (RC groupÂ = 10.0%, AC groupÂ = 7.1%, PÂ = 1.000) and reoperation rates following second-stage revision THA (RC groupÂ = 11.7%, AC groupÂ = 10.7%, PÂ = 1.000). Hospital length of stay (in days) had a trend toward being shorter following the first (7.35 vs 11.96, PÂ = .166) and second stage (3.95 vs 5.43, PÂ = .107) for patients in the RC group. Patients in the RC group were more likely to be discharged home following the first (PÂ = .020) and second (PÂ = .039) stages. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Given that there were no differences in reinfection and reoperation rates between the 2 spacer constructs, RC articulating spacers may provide a significant benefit for patient comfort during 2-stage exchange treatment of PJI while adding no increase in risk profile.
Antibiotic Therapy in 2-Stage Revision for Periprosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND:Patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) are at risk for developing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). To treat PJI, orthopaedic surgeons can perform 1-stage or 2-stage revision arthroplasty. Although 2-stage revision yields superior long-term outcomes, the optimal antibiotic therapy duration and route of administration between stages remain uncertain. In this systematic review, we aimed to identify if variations in antibiotic therapy, duration, and administration during 2-stage hip or knee revision arthroplasty affect PJI eradication rates and surgical outcome measures. METHODS:A literature search was performed using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases to identify all original reports from January 2000 to June 2021 involving 2-stage revision arthroplasty to treat PJI. Studies were included if they specified antibiotic duration, an intravenous (IV) route of antibiotic administration, type of antibiotic, and 2-stage revision PJI eradication rate and had a mean or median follow-up of at least 2 years after the second-stage operation. Included studies were classified into 3 groups based on the length of IV antibiotic therapy after prosthesis explantation: prolonged IV antibiotic therapy of 4 to 6 weeks, shortened IV antibiotic therapy of â‰¤2 weeks, and shortened course of IV antibiotic therapy followed by 6 to 12 weeks of oral antibiotics. RESULTS:Nine studies were included. Three studies utilizing a prolonged IV antibiotic therapy had PJI eradication rates of 79% to 96%. Four studies using a shortened IV antibiotic therapy showed PJI eradication rates of 88% to 100%. Finally, 2 studies utilizing a shortened course of IV antibiotic therapy with oral antibiotics had PJI eradication rates of 95% and 97%. There was no significant difference in eradication rates across IV antibiotic duration strategies, despite a diverse array of cultured microorganisms across the studies. CONCLUSIONS:Although the numbers are small, this systematic review suggests that prolonged IV antibiotic duration, shortened IV antibiotic duration, and shortened IV antibiotic duration supplemented with oral antibiotics confer similar PJI eradication rates after hip or knee arthroplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.