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Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing chronic red cell exchange [Case Report]

Costa, Victoria; Mercure-Corriveau, Nicolas; Gourneau, Jeremy; Tobian, Aaron A R; Jones, Jennifer M; Lauriello, Ashley; Lanzkron, Sophie; Crowe, Elizabeth P; Bloch, Evan M
BACKGROUND:Prior to laboratory-based blood donor screening for Babesia, transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) was a leading infectious risk to the blood supply in the United States. CASE REPORT:A 30-year-old man with sickle cell disease (SCD) who had been on a chronic automated red cell exchange (RCE) regimen since childhood, presented approximately 2 months after an RCE, with fever, neck pain, and photophobia. Meningitis was excluded, and he was discharged. He presented again 2 days later with persistent fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and loss of appetite. RESULTS:On examination, the patient was febrile but hemodynamically stable. Intra-erythrocytic inclusions were identified on a peripheral blood smear (<0.5%). B. microti IgM and IgG titers were >1:320 (Reference <1:20) >1:1024 (Reference <1:64), respectively. B. microti was confirmed by nucleic acid testing. The patient lived in a Babesia endemic state but had no risk factors for tick-borne acquisition. Of the 65 units he received in the preceding 6 months, 58 had been screened for Babesia. One of the donors of the 7 untested units was B. microti seropositive (titer 1:128; Reference 1: 64). The donor was asymptomatic and resided in a state in which Babesia screening was not required. He reported traveling in the year before his donation. CONCLUSION:Although rare, TTB is still possible despite regional screening, underscoring the need for provider vigilance and education, especially in non-endemic areas. Patients with SCD are particularly vulnerable given their high frequency of transfusion and complex needs requiring blood procurement from states where Babesia screening is not mandatory.
PMID: 36637364
ISSN: 1537-2995
CID: 5486372

Association of Age With SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response

Yang, He S; Costa, Victoria; Racine-Brzostek, Sabrina E; Acker, Karen P; Yee, Jim; Chen, Zhengming; Karbaschi, Mohsen; Zuk, Robert; Rand, Sophie; Sukhu, Ashley; Klasse, P J; Cushing, Melissa M; Chadburn, Amy; Zhao, Zhen
IMPORTANCE:Accumulating evidence suggests that children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are more likely to manifest mild symptoms and are at a lower risk of developing severe respiratory disease compared with adults. It remains unknown how the immune response in children differs from that of adolescents and adults. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of age with the quantity and quality of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This cross-sectional study used 31 426 SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results from pediatric and adult patients. Data were collected from a New York City hospital from April 9 to August 31, 2020. The semiquantitative immunoglobin (Ig) G levels were compared between 85 pediatric and 3648 adult patients. Further analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles was performed on sera from 126 patients aged 1 to 24 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rates and IgG levels were evaluated in patients from a wide range of age groups (1-102 years). SARS-CoV-2 IgG level, total antibody (TAb) level, surrogate neutralizing antibody (SNAb) activity, and antibody binding avidity were compared between children (aged 1-10 years), adolescents (aged 11-18 years), and young adults (aged 19-24 years). RESULTS:Among 31 426 antibody test results (19 797 [63.0%] female patients), with 1194 pediatric patients (mean [SD] age, 11.0 [5.3] years) and 30 232 adult patients (mean [SD] age, 49.2 [17.1] years), the seroprevalence in the pediatric (197 [16.5%; 95% CI, 14.4%-18.7%]) and adult (5630 [18.6%; 95% CI, 18.2%-19.1%]) patient populations was similar. The SARS-CoV-2 IgG level showed a negative correlation with age in the pediatric population (r = -0.45, P < .001) and a moderate but positive correlation with age in adults (r = 0.24, P < .001). Patients aged 19 to 30 years exhibited the lowest IgG levels (eg, aged 25-30 years vs 1-10 years: 99 [44-180] relative fluorescence units [RFU] vs 443 [188-851] RFU). In the subset cohort aged 1 to 24 years, IgG, TAb, SNAb and avidity were negatively correlated with age (eg, IgG: r = -0.51; P < .001). Children exhibited higher median (IQR) IgG levels, TAb levels, and SNAb activity compared with adolescents (eg, IgG levels: 473 [233-656] RFU vs 191 [82-349] RFU; P < .001) and young adults (eg, IgG levels: 473 [233-656] RFU vs 85 [38-150] RFU; P < .001). Adolescents also exhibited higher median (IQR) TAb levels, IgG levels, and SNAb activity than young adults (eg, TAb levels: 961 [290-2074] RFU vs 370 [125-697]; P = .006). In addition, children had higher antibody binding avidity compared with young adults, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:The results of this study suggest that SARS-CoV-2 viral specific antibody response profiles are distinct in different age groups. Age-targeted strategies for disease screening and management as well as vaccine development may be warranted.
PMID: 33749770
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5486382

Blood component utilization in COVID-19 patients in New York City: Transfusions do not follow the curve

DeSimone, Robert A; Costa, Victoria A; Kane, Kathleen; Sepulveda, Jorge L; Ellsworth, Grant B; Gulick, Roy M; Zucker, Jason; Sobieszcyk, Magdalena E; Schwartz, Joseph; Cushing, Melissa M
BACKGROUND:Blood suppliers and transfusion services have worked diligently to maintain an adequate blood supply during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our experience has shown that some COVID-19 inpatients require transfusion support; understanding this need is critical to blood product inventory management. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Hospital-wide and COVID-19 specific inpatient blood product utilization data were collected retrospectively for our network's two tertiary academic medical centers over a 9-week period (March 1, 2020-May 2, 2020), when most inpatients had COVID-19. Utilization data were merged with a COVID-19 patient database to investigate clinical demographic characteristics of transfused COVID-19 inpatients relative to non-transfused ones. RESULTS:Overall, 11 041 COVID-19 patients were admitted and 364 received blood product transfusions for an overall transfusion rate of 3.3%. COVID-19 patients received 1746 blood components in total, the majority of which were red blood cells. COVID-19 patients' weekly transfusion rate increased as the pandemic progressed, possibly reflecting their increased severity of illness. Transfusion was significantly associated with several indicators of severe disease, including mortality, intubation, thrombosis, longer hospital admission, lower hemoglobin and platelet nadirs, and longer prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times. As the pandemic progressed, institutional adherence to transfusion guidelines improved for RBC transfusions compared to prior year trends but did not improve for platelets or plasma. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is a need to closely monitor the blood product inventory and demand throughout the COVID-19 pandemic as patients' transfusion needs may increase over time. Daily or weekly trending of patients' clinical status and laboratory values may assist blood banks in inventory management.
PMID: 33215718
ISSN: 1537-2995
CID: 4673102

An Interesting Case of Isolated False-Reactive Hepatitis B Surface Antigen [Case Report]

Costa, Victoria; Zhao, Zhen; Racine-Brzostek, Sabrina E; Lalazar, Gadi; Yang, He S
The standard serologic markers used to diagnose hepatitis B infection include hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), and IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc). Different markers or combinations of markers are used to identify different phases of HBV infection and determine whether a patient has acute or chronic infection or immunity due to prior infection or vaccination or is seronegative and susceptible to future infection. Isolated HBsAg seropositivity is a peculiar serological pattern that requires investigation. Herein, we present a case of an asymptomatic female without a history of liver disease or evident risk factors for hepatitis, who underwent screening for infectious disease prior to resection of basal cell carcinoma involving her eyelid. The patient's laboratory testing showed positivity for HBsAg and the HIV 1/2 screen. To investigate, we performed serial dilutions, utilized heterophilicantibody blocking tubes, and repeated analysis using a different commercial assay (Abbott Architect i2000), all in support of a false-positive result attributed to a heterophilic antibody. Hence, we demonstrate that heterophilic antibody interference can result in isolated HBsAg positivity and recommend considering this form of interference in the differential where there is low clinical suspicion for viral infection.
PMID: 34336313
ISSN: 2090-6587
CID: 5486392

Identification of a Microsatellite Stable, EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma Developing in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome

Hissong, Erika; Baek, Inji; Costa, Victoria; Beneck, Debra; Saxena, Ashish; Solomon, James P; Song, Wei
PMID: 35050755
ISSN: 2473-4284
CID: 5486412

Accelerated thrombin times are associated with thrombotic risk [Letter]

Costa, Victoria; Canver, Matthew C; Harris, Rebecca M; Rand, Jacob H; Greenblatt, Matthew B
PMID: 31990384
ISSN: 1096-8652
CID: 5486402

Acinetobacter radioresistens infection with bacteremia and pneumonia [Case Report]

Wang, Tina; Costa, Victoria; Jenkins, Stephen G; Hartman, Barry J; Westblade, Lars F
PMID: 30906692
ISSN: 2214-2509
CID: 5486422

Social Impact of Facial Infantile Hemangiomas in Preteen Children

Costa, Victoria A; Haimowitz, Rachel; Cheng, Yao I; Wang, Jichuan; Silverman, Robert A; Bauman, Nancy M
IMPORTANCE/OBJECTIVE:Involuted infantile facial hemangiomas (IHs) may adversely affect the social skills of children. OBJECTIVE:To assess the social impact of involuted facial IHs, with or without prior treatment, in preteen children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:An observational, cross-sectional study of social anxiety and skills in preteen children with facial IHs diagnosed during infancy. The study took place in an academic institution and a community dermatology practice between January 1, 2013, and July 30, 2014. Records on 236 children with IHs located in a cosmetically sensitive area were identified; of those, 144 potential participants (parents) were reached by telephone and mailed study packets. Thirty completed questionnaires were returned. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2014, to September 7, 2015. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:The questionnaires included the following psychiatric scales: (1) Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R), completed by parents and children, including the domains of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance/Distress in New Situations (SAD-New) (higher scores indicate greater social anxiety), and (2) Social Competency Inventory (SCI), completed by parents, including the domains of Prosocial Behavior and Social Initiative (lower scores indicate poorer social competency). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES/METHODS:Demographics, clinical details, and survey responses were collected. Analysis was conducted using t tests to compare scores for each survey domain with established normative data and between sex as well as between treatment vs nontreatment groups. RESULTS:Of the 144 potential participants, 30 (21%) responded. The mean age of the preteen subjects was 10.0 years (range, 5.4-12.9 years) with a 2:1 female to male ratio. Twenty-five children (83%) had a single IH, and the remaining 5 participants (17%) had multiple IHs, with at least 1 IH in a cosmetically sensitive area. The periocular region was the most common site of the IH (10 [33%]), followed by the nose (6 [20%]), cheek (5 [17%]), forehead (4 [13%]), lip or perioral region (4 [13%]), and ear (1 [3%]). Eighteen children (60%) had received treatment for their IH. With results reported as mean (SD), the SASC-R test showed that social anxiety of the children was not increased over normative data; however, those who did not receive IH treatment had significantly greater anxiety for new situations compared with those who received treatment (SAD-New: 15.5 [5.1] vs 11.5 [3.8]; P = .02). Results of the SCI scale indicated that the Prosocial Orientation domain score for the children was similar to normative data (3.96 [0.48] vs 3.89 [0.55], P = .50). Social Initiative domain scores were significantly poorer in children who did not receive treatment vs those who received treatment (3.45 [0.43] vs 4.03 [0.55]; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Preteen children with involuted, untreated facial IHs have higher Social Anxiety domain scores in new situations and decreased Social Initiative domain scores compared with children who receive treatment for facial IH. Although this study is limited by a small sample size, it raises important considerations for whether early treatment of facial IHs in cosmetically sensitive areas has a beneficial effect on social skills in preteens.
PMID: 26583696
ISSN: 2168-619x
CID: 5486432