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Mitigating Risks for Racial Bias in Pulse Oximetry on Children

Verma, Sourabh; Bailey, Sean M
PMID: 37459120
ISSN: 2168-6211
CID: 5535442

Developing a new pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program

Cicalese, Erin; Meisler, Sarah; Kitchin, Michael; Zhang, Margaret; Verma, Sourabh; Dapul, Heda; McKinstry, Jaclyn; Toy, Bridget; Chopra, Arun; Fisher, Jason C
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We aimed to critically evaluate the effectiveness of a designated ECMO team in our ECMO selection process and patient outcomes in the first 3 years of our low-volume pediatric ECMO program. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who received an ECMO consultation between the start of our program in March 2015 and May 2018. We gathered clinical and demographic information on patients who did and did not receive ECMO, and described our selection process. We reflected on the processes used to initiate our program and our outcomes in the first 3 years. RESULTS:, lactate, and pH between the patients who went on ECMO and who did not. We improved our outcomes from 0% survival to discharge in 2015, to 60% in 2018, with an average of 63% survival to discharge over the first 3 years of our program. CONCLUSIONS:In a low-volume pediatric ECMO center, having a designated team to assist in the patient selection process and management can help provide safe and efficient care to these patients, and improve patient outcomes. Having a strict management protocol and simulation sessions involving all members of the medical team yields comfort for the providers and optimal care for patients. This study describes our novel structure, processes, and outcomes, which we hope will be helpful to others seeking to develop a new pediatric ECMO program.
PMID: 36508606
ISSN: 1619-3997
CID: 5381932

Visitor restriction during the COVID-19 pandemic did not impact rates of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the NICU patients

Evans, Hailey Zie; Bailey, Sean; Verma, Sourabh; Cicalese, Erin
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:colonization rates before and after the visitor policy change, which coincided with the exponential rise of COVID-19 cases in New York City (NYC). METHODS:colonization. RESULTS:=0.02). CONCLUSIONS:colonization rate. Hospital unit leaders may need to focus on other strategies in order to reduce colonization.
PMID: 36190160
ISSN: 1619-3997
CID: 5351352

Impact on neonatal morbidities after a change in policy to administer antenatal corticosteroids to mothers at risk for late preterm delivery

Mally, Pradeep; Katz, Julia; Verma, Sourabh; Purrier, Sheryl; Wachtel, Elena V; Trillo, Rebecca; Bhutada, Kiran; Bailey, Sean M
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) administered to mothers at risk for preterm delivery before 34 weeks has been standard care to improve neonatal outcomes. After introducing a new obstetric policy based on updated recommendations advising the administration of ACS to pregnant women at risk for late preterm (LPT) delivery (34-36 6/7 weeks), we set out to determine the short-term clinical impact on those LPT neonates. METHODS:Retrospective chart review of LPT neonates delivered at NYU Langone Medical Center both one year before and after the policy went into place. We excluded subjects born to mothers with pre-gestational diabetes, multiple gestations, and those with congenital/genetic abnormalities. We also excluded subjects whose mothers already received ACS previously in pregnancy. Subjects were divided into pre-policy and post-policy groups. Neonatal and maternal data were compared for both groups. RESULTS:388 subjects; 180 in the pre-policy and 208 in the post-policy group. This policy change resulted in a significant increase in ACS administration to mothers who delivered LPT neonates (67.3 vs. 20.6%, p<0.001). In turn, there was a significant reduction in LPT neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions (44.2 vs. 54.4%, p=0.04) and need for respiratory support (27.9 vs. 42.8%, p<0.01). However, we also found an increased incidence of hypoglycemia (49.5 vs. 28.3%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This LPT ACS policy appears effective in reducing the need for LPT NICU level care overall. However, clinicians must be attentive to monitor for adverse effects like hypoglycemia, and there remains a need for better understanding of potential long-term impacts.
PMID: 36318716
ISSN: 1619-3997
CID: 5358552

Developmental screening of full-term infants at 16 to 18 months of age after in-utero exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection

Shah, Aashish V; Howell, Heather B; Kazmi, Sadaf H; Zaccario, Michele; Sklamberg, Felice E; Groth, Taylor; Martindale, Pia; Dreyer, Benard; Verma, Sourabh
OBJECTIVE:To screen for neurodevelopmental delays in a cohort of full-term infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:-3) at 16 to 18 months age. RESULTS:Of 51 subjects, twelve (24%) were below cutoff, and twenty-seven (53%) were either below or close to the cutoff in at least one developmental domain. Communication (29%), fine motor (31%), and problem-solving (24%) were the most affected domains. There were no differences in outcomes between infants born to asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic mothers. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We observed increased risk of neurodevelopmental delays during screening of infants born at full-term to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 at 16 to 18 months age. These results highlight the urgent need for follow-up studies of infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2.
PMID: 36932135
ISSN: 1476-5543
CID: 5509012

Characteristics of Cardiac Abnormalities in Pediatric Patients With Acute COVID-19

Pasternack, Daniel; Singh, Rakesh K; Minocha, Prashant K; Farkas, Jon S; Ramaswamy, Prema; Better, Donna; Verma, Sourabh; Phoon, Colin K
Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause cardiac abnormalities in adults. Cardiac abnormalities are well-described in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, but effects in children with acute COVID-19 are less understood. In this multicenter study, we assessed the cardiac effects of acute COVID-19 among hospitalized children (<21 years) admitted to three large healthcare systems in New York City. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study. We examined electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, troponin, or B-type natriuretic peptides. Results Of 317 admitted patients, 131 (41%) underwent cardiac testing with 56 (43%) demonstrating cardiac abnormalities. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were the most common (46/117 patients (39%)), including repolarization abnormalities and QT prolongation. Elevated troponin occurred in 14/77 (18%) patients and B-type natriuretic peptide in 8/39 (21%) patients. Ventricular dysfunction was identified in 5/27 (19%) patients with an echocardiogram, all of whom had elevated troponin. Ventricular dysfunction resolved by first outpatient follow-up. Conclusion Electrocardiogram and troponin can assist clinicians in identifying children at risk for cardiac injury in acute COVID-19.
PMID: 37065296
ISSN: 2168-8184
CID: 5459202

Maternal and Newborn Hospital Outcomes of Perinatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A National Registry

Hudak, Mark L; Falnnery, Dustin D; Barnette, Kimberly; Getzlaff, Trace; Gautam, Shiva; Dhudasia, Miren B; Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Pfeifer, Madeline R; Ellington, Sascha R; Galang, Romeo R; Snead, Margaret C; Woodworth, Kate R; Zapata, Lauren B; Puopolo, Karen M; [Verma, Sourabh; Auyeung, NS Freda; Vaz, Michelle]
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5430022

Mother to Newborn Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Evolution of Evidence in 1.5 Years of COVID-19 Pandemic

Gupta, Arpit; Kamity, Ranjith; Sharma, Rishika; Caprio, Martha; Mally, Pradeep; Verma, Sourabh
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant mortality and morbidity in people of all age groups worldwide. Given the uncertainty regarding the mode of transmission and potential effects of COVID-19 on pregnant mothers and their newborns, guidelines for taking care of maternal-newborn dyads have evolved tremendously since the pandemic began. There has been an enormous influx of published materials regarding the outcomes of mothers and newborns. Still, multiple knowledge gaps regarding comprehensive information about risk to the mothers and newborns exist, which need to be addressed. Current evidence suggests that mothers with symptomatic COVID-19 infection are at increased risk of severe illness during pregnancy, with a higher need for respiratory support and premature deliveries. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 are at increased risk of needing intensive care; however, most newborns do well after birth. As new mutant variants arise, we need to be cautious while proactively understanding any new evolving patterns. All leading health authorities strongly recommend COVID-19 vaccination before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of maternal morbidities and benefit from passing antibodies to newborns prenatally and via breastmilk. Additionally, there are racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in outcomes and vaccination coverage for pregnant women. This article summarizes the rapidly evolving evidence for the last 1.5 years and aims to help health care professionals care for mothers with COVID-19 and their newborns. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 in pregnancy can cause perinatal morbidities.. · Breastfeeding and breast milk are safe for newborns.. · COVID-19 vaccination reduces the risk for morbidities..
PMID: 35738288
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 5282092

Near-infrared spectroscopy in the medical management of infants

Bailey, Sean M; Prakash, Shrawani Soorneela; Verma, Sourabh; Desai, Purnahamsi; Kazmi, Sadaf; Mally, Pradeep V
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a technology that is easy to use and can provide helpful information about organ oxygenation and perfusion by measuring regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) with near-infrared light. The sensors can be placed in different anatomical locations to monitor rSO2 levels in several organs. While NIRS is not without limitations, this equipment is now becoming increasingly integrated into modern healthcare practice with the goal of achieving better outcomes for patients. It can be particularly applicable in the monitoring of pediatric patients because of their size, and especially so in infant patients. Infants are ideal for NIRS monitoring as nearly all of their vital organs lie near the skin surface which near-infrared light penetrates through. In addition, infants are a difficult population to evaluate with traditional invasive monitoring techniques that normally rely on the use of larger catheters and maintaining vascular access. Pediatric clinicians can observe rSO2 values in order to gain insight about tissue perfusion, oxygenation, and the metabolic status of their patients. In this way, NIRS can be used in a non-invasive manner to either continuously or periodically check rSO2. Because of these attributes and capabilities, NIRS can be used in various pediatric inpatient settings and on a variety of patients who require monitoring. The primary objective of this review is to provide pediatric clinicians with a general understanding of how NIRS works, to discuss how it currently is being studied and employed, and how NIRS could be increasingly used in the near future, all with a focus on infant management.
PMID: 36404215
ISSN: 1538-3199
CID: 5371942

Effects of Inhaled Iloprost for the Management of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

Verma, Sourabh; Lumba, Rishi; Kazmi, Sadaf H; Vaz, Michelle J; Prakash, Shrawani Soorneela; Bailey, Sean M; Mally, Pradeep V; Randis, Tara M
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of inhaled iloprost on oxygenation indices in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:) were recorded. RESULTS: < 0.05), with no significant change in required mean airway pressure over that same period. There was no change in vasopressor use or clinically significant worsening of platelets count, liver, and kidney functions after initiating iloprost. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled iloprost is well tolerated and seems to have beneficial effects in improving oxygenation indices in neonates with PPHN who do not respond to iNO. There is a need of well-designed prospective trials to further ascertain the benefits of using inhaled iloprost as an adjunct treatment in neonates with PPHN who do not respond to iNO alone. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:· Inhaled iloprost seems to have beneficial effects in improving oxygenation indices in PPHN.. · Inhaled iloprost is generally well tolerated in newborns with PPHN.. · There is a need for prospective RCTs to further ascertain the benefits of using inhaled iloprost..
PMID: 33477175
ISSN: 1098-8785
CID: 4760862