Reevaluating the Utility of Maxillary Sinus Opacification as a Screening Tool for Facial Bone Fracture a Decade After Its Original Analysis
In 1997, Lambert and colleagues demonstrated that the absence of sinus fluid on head CT essentially excludes a fracture involving the sinus walls. Our purpose is to reevaluate this associationÂ utilizing the current standard of imaging technology. With improved image resolution, we aim to reassess whether the sensitivity and specificity of the "clear sinus sign" are improved or worsened. Furthermore, the current standard of care is to obtain a CT of the facial bones along with a head CT when facial trauma is suspected, so we also analyzed the association of the "clear sinus sign" with nasal bone and mandible fractures.Â We identified 629 facial bone CT scans performed on adult patients in the emergency department between July 2012 and May 2013. They were retrospectively analyzed by three reviewers for the presence of facial bone fracture and/or fluid opacification of at least one paranasal sinus (as defined by either complete sinus opacification or an air-fluid level - circumferential mucosal thickening was considered the absence of fluid). We found that sinus opacification was 98.8% specific for facial bone fracture but onlyÂ 44.7% sensitive. However, for complex facial fractures, such as zygomaticomaxillary complex, orbital, and sinus fractures, the lack of sinus fluid is significantly more sensitive at 91%. Therefore, our results for complex facial fractures are congruent with those of the previous studies conducted by Lambert, et al. and Lewandowski, et al. However, we also demonstrate that sinus opacification is not specific for nasal bone or mandibular fractures.
Cryoneurolysis in Patients with Refractory Chronic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the safety and efficacy of cryoneurolysis in patients with refractory peripheral neuropathic pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Twenty-two patients referred for cryoneurolysis of refractory peripheral neuropathy were recruited prospectively from July 2011 to July 2013. The mean patient age was 49.5 years, and 41% of patients were female. Ultrasound imaging of the involved nerves was used for guidance. Percutaneous ablations were performed with a PerCryo 17R device. Pain levels were recorded on a visual analog scale (scores 0-10) before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the procedure, and complications were documented. RESULTS:Mean pain levels were 8.3 Â± 1.9 before intervention and 2.3 Â± 2.5 at 1 month, 3.2 Â± 2.5 at 3 months, 4.7 Â± 2.7 at 6 months, and 5.1 Â± 3.7 at 12 months afterward. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed and showed a statically significant decrease between pre- and postprocedural pain scores. There were no complications from the procedures. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cryoneurolysis caused a significant decrease in self-reported pain scores in patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain, with moderately long-term relief. Cryoneurolysis is an additional therapy that can alleviate severe chronic neuropathic pain.
Characteristic CT Findings After Percutaneous Cryoablation Treatment of Malignant Lung Nodules
Assess computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics after percutaneous cryotherapy for lung cancer.A retrospective IRB-approved analysis of 40 patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment for primary stage 1 lung cancer performed from January 2007 to March 2011 was included in this study. All procedures were performed using general anesthesia and CT guidance. Follow-up imaging with CT of the chest was obtained at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postprocedure to evaluate the ablated lung nodule. Nodule surface area, density (in Hounsfield units), and presence or absence of cavitations were recorded. In addition, the degree of nodule enhancement was also recorded. Patients who were unable to obtain the aforementioned follow-up were excluded from the study.Thirty-six patients underwent percutaneous cryoablation with men to women ratio of 75% with mean age for men 74.6 and mean age for women 74.3 years of age. The average nodule surface area preablation and postcryoablation at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups were 2.99, 7.86, 3.89, 3.18 and 3.07[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]cm, respectively. The average precontrast nodule density before cryoablation was 8.9 and average precontrast nodule density postprocedure at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months follow-ups were 8.5, -5.9, -9.4, and -3.8 HU, respectively. There is increased attenuation of lung nodules over time with an average postcontrast enhancement of 11.4, 18.5, 16.1, and 25.7 HU at the aforementioned time intervals. Cavitations occurred in the cryoablation zone in 53% (19/36) of patients. 80.6% (29/36) of the cavitations in the cryoablation zone resolved within 12 months. Four patients (11%) had recurrence of tumor at the site of cryoablation and none of the patients had satellite or distant metastasis.Our study shows that patients who underwent cryotherapy for lung nodules treatment had characteristic changes on follow-up CT including. The surface area of the nodule increases at the 1-month follow-up with subsequent gradual decrease in the surface area. Decreased nodule density (Hounsfield units) at each interval follow-up is associated with complete ablation of the lung cancer whereas increasing nodule density was suggestive of recurrence. Cavity formation within the region of the ablated nodule, most of which typically resolved within the first 3 to 6 months. Nodule enhancement is difficult to assess because of the limited data sets that are available.
Use and accuracy of computed tomography scan in diagnosing perforated appendicitis
Perforated appendicitis has major implications on patient care. The ability of computed tomography (CT) scan to distinguish perforation in the absence of phlegmon or abscess is unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess the use and accuracy of CT scans in diagnosing perforated appendicitis without phlegmon or abscess. A retrospective chart review of 102 patients who underwent appendectomy from 2011 to 2013 was performed. Patient demographics and operative and postoperative course were recorded. Two radiologists were then blinded to operative findings and CT scans reread and results correlated. Findings on CT scan were also analyzed for correlation with perforation. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis was performed. Of the 102 patients, 49 were perforated and 53 nonperforated. Analysis of patient populations demonstrated patients with perforation were significantly older (45 vs 34 years, P = 0.002), had longer operative times (132 vs 81 minutes, P = 0.001), and longer length of stay (8.2 vs 1.5 days, P < 0.001). Nineteen perforations (37%) were correctly diagnosed by CT scan. The sensitivity of CT scan to detect perforation was 38 per cent, specificity 96 per cent, and positive predictive value of 90 per cent. After multivariate analysis of significant variables, three were demonstrated to significantly correlate with presence of perforation: presence of extraluminal air (odds ratio [OR], 28.9; P = 0.02); presence of intraluminal fecalith (OR, 5.7; P = 0.03); and wall thickness greater than 3 mm (OR, 3.2; P = 0.02). CT scan has a low sensitivity for diagnosing perforated appendicitis without abscess or phlegmon. Presence of extraluminal air bubbles, increased wall thickness, and intraluminal fecalith should increase suspicion for perforation and are highly correlated with outcomes after appendectomy.
PET/CT vs. non-contrast CT alone for surveillance 1-year post lobectomy for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer
(18)F-FDG PET/CT was compared with non-contrast chest CT in monitoring for recurrence 1-year after lobectomy of stage 1 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For surveillance after treatment with curative intent, current (April 2012) National Comprehensive Cancer network guidelines recommend chest CT with or without contrast every 6-12 months for 2 years, then non-contrast chest CT annually. PET/CT is not currently indicated for routine follow-up. One hundred patients receiving surveillance PET/CT 1-year after lobectomy for the treatment of stage 1a or 1b NSCLC were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included the presence or interval diagnosis of a second malignancy, or surgical treatment more radical than single lobectomy. The non-contrast CT obtained from the 1-year PET/CT was interpreted by an experienced chest radiologist blinded to the PET/CT for evidence of recurrence using the following findings: pulmonary nodule, pleural effusion, pleural mass, adenopathy, and extrathoracic mass. The ecision about recurrence was made solely from the non-contrast CT without PET/CT findings. This was compared with the determination made with PET/CT. The reference standard for determination of recurrence was the multi-disciplinary tumor board who had access to all imaging and clinical data. Recurrence at 1 year was documented in 16 of 90 patients. All 16 recurrences were documented with PET/CT and 9 were found with non-contrast CT. Five of the 7 recurrences missed with non-contrast CT were extrathoracic metastases. Sensitivity of CT and PET/CT for recurrence was 56.3% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.015). Specificity of CT and PET/CT for recurrence was 95.9% and 93.2%, respectively (p = 0.62).