Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City Metropolitan Area
A Quality Improvement Intervention to Decrease Hypothermia in the Delivery Room Using a Checklist
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Premature babies are at increased risk of hypothermia, core body temperature <97Â°F. Delivery room environment may contribute and lead to complications. The objective was to reduce hypothermia in babies <32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room to <40% using a checklist and sustain it for 6 months. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We created a delivery room checklist in 2012. Chart review established a baseline rate of hypothermia (<97Â°F). The team analyzed the checklist's effect on hypothermia from 2012 to 2018 and utilized numerous interventions to maintain compliance. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test analyzed hypothermia and hyperthermia as a balancing measure. All calculations performed in SAS 9.3. Results/UNASSIGNED:The checklist reduced hypothermia from a baseline of 50% in 2011 (n = 104) to 33% in 2012 (n = 106). In 2013, the proportion of hypothermia slightly increased to 36% (n = 81). The year 2014 brought larger drift, and proportion of hypothermia increased to 44% (n = 117). In 2015, we reinforced the use of the checklist and proportion of hypothermia improved to 36% (n = 99). Further interventions through 2018 decreased hypothermia further to 14% to achieve statistical significance. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:A checklist is a simple tool that may yield beneficial changes in practice and helped to decrease the proportion of neonatal hypothermia.
Impact of Maternal SARS-CoV-2 Detection on Breastfeeding Due to Infant Separation at Birth
OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of separation of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive mother-newborn dyads on breastfeeding outcomes. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This is an observational longitudinal cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive mothers and their infants at three NYU Langone Health hospitals from March 25, 2020 through May 30, 2020. Mothers were surveyed by telephone regarding pre-delivery feeding plans, in-hospital feeding, and home feeding of their neonates. Any change prompted an additional question to determine whether this change was due to COVID-19. RESULTS:Of the 160 mother-newborn dyads, 103 mothers were reached by telephone, and 85 consented to participate. No significant difference was observed in pre-delivery feeding plan between the separated and unseparated dyads (P = .268). Higher rates of breastfeeding were observed in the unseparated dyads compared with the separated dyads in the hospital (p<0.001), and at home (p=0.012). Only two mothers in each group reported expressed breast milk as the hospital feeding source (5.6% of unseparated vs 4.1% of separated). COVID-19 was more commonly cited as the reason for change among the separated compared with the unseparated group (49.0% vs 16.7%, p<0.001). When dyads were further stratified by symptom status into four groups (asymptomatic separated, asymptomatic unseparated, symptomatic separated, and symptomatic unseparated), results remained unchanged. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the setting of COVID-19, separation of mother-newborn dyads impacts breastfeeding outcomes, with lower rates of breastfeeding both during hospitalization and at home following discharge compared with unseparated mothers and infants. No evidence of vertical transmission was observed; one case of postnatal transmission occurred from an unmasked symptomatic mother who held her infant at birth.
Neonatal Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) Infection: A Case Report and Review of Literature [Case Report]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a global pandemic affecting 213 countries as of April 26, 2020.Â Although this disease is affecting all age groups, infants and children seem to be at a lower risk of severe infection, for reasons unknown at this time. We report a case of neonatal infection in New York, United States, and provide a review of the published cases. A 22-day-old, previously healthy, full-term neonate was hospitalized after presenting with a one-day history of fever and poor feeding. Routine neonatal sepsis evaluation was negative. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was obtained, given rampant community transmission, which returned positive. There were no other laboratory or radiographic abnormalities. The infant recovered completely and was discharged home in two days once his feeding improved. The family was advised to self-quarantine to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. We believe that the mode of transmission was horizontal spread from his caregivers. This case highlights the milder presentation of COVID-19 in otherwise healthy, full-term neonates. COVID-19 must be considered in the evaluation of a febrile infant. Infants and children may play an important role in the transmission of COVID-19 in the community. Hence, with an understanding of the transmission patterns, parents and caregivers would be better equipped to limit the spread of the virus and protect the more vulnerable population.
Human Metapneumovirus Infection [Editorial]