"Same day" ex-vivo regional gene therapy: a novel strategy to enhance bone repair
Ex-vivo regional gene therapy with bone marrow cells (BMCs) overexpressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has demonstrated efficacy in healing critical sized bone defects in preclinical studies. The purpose of this preclinical study was to compare the osteoinductive potential of a novel "same day" ex-vivo regional gene therapy versus a traditional two-step approach, which involves culture expansion of the donor cells before implantation. In the "same day" strategy buffy coat cells were harvested from the rat bone marrow, transduced with a lentiviral vector-expressing BMP-2 for 1 hour and implanted into a rat femoral defect in the same sitting. There was no significant difference (P = 0.22) with respect to the radiographic healing rates between the femoral defects treated with the "same day" strategy (13/13; 100%) versus the traditional two-step approach (11/14; 78%). However, the femoral defects treated with the "same day" strategy induced earlier radiographic bone healing (P = 0.004) and higher bone volume (BV) [micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); P < 0.001]. The "same day" strategy represents a significant advance in the field of ex-vivo regional gene therapy because it offers a solution to limitations associated with the culture expansion process required in the traditional ex vivo approach. This strategy should be cost-effective when adapted for human use.
Superior labrum anterior to posterior tears and glenohumeral instability
Cadaver experiments and clinical studies suggest that the superior labrum-biceps complex plays a role in glenohumeral stability. Superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears can be present in acute and recurrent glenohumeral dislocations and contribute to glenohumeral instability. Isolated SLAP tears can cause instability, especially in throwing athletes. Diagnosing a SLAP tear on the basis of the clinical examination alone is difficult because of nonspecific history and physical examination findings and the presence of coexisting intra-articular lesions. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the imaging study of choice for diagnosing SLAP tears; however, arthroscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Arthroscopy is the preferred technique for the repair of a type II SLAP tear and its variant types (V through X) in acute glenohumeral dislocations and instability in younger populations. Clinical outcome studies report a low recurrence of glenohumeral instability after the arthroscopic repair of a SLAP tear in addition to a Bankart repair. Long-term follow-up studies and further advances in arthroscopic fixation techniques will allow a better understanding and improvement in outcomes in patients with SLAP tears associated with glenohumeral instability.
Systemic administration of sclerostin antibody enhances bone repair in a critical-sized femoral defect in a rat model
BACKGROUND: Systemic administration of sclerostin neutralizing antibody has led to increased bone formation in animal models of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if systemic administration of sclerostin neutralizing antibody could increase the healing response in a critical-sized femoral defect in rats. METHODS: Critical-sized femoral defects were created in Lewis rats, and the rats were randomized into four groups. The sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment groups included the continuous Scl-Ab group (twenty-one animals), the early Scl-Ab group (fifteen animals), and the delayed Scl-Ab group (fifteen animals), which received sclerostin antibody (25 mg/kg) twice weekly for weeks 0 through 12; weeks 0 through 2; and weeks 2 through 4; respectively. Twenty-one animals in the control group received vehicle from weeks 0 through 12. In a subsequent study, bone turnover markers were measured at zero, two, six, and twelve weeks after surgery in rats receiving vehicle or sclerostin neutralizing antibody for twelve weeks (fifteen rats per group). The quality of bone formed was evaluated with radiographs, microcomputed tomography, biomechanical testing, and histologic and histomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: In the primary study, four of fifteen defects in the continuous (zero to twelve-week) Scl-Ab group, three of fifteen defects in the early (zero to two-week) Scl-Ab group, and four of fifteen defects in the delayed (two to four-week) Scl-Ab group healed at twelve weeks, while none of the defects healed in the control group. In both studies, treatment with sclerostin antibody for twelve weeks demonstrated a significant increase in new bone formation (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. The three treatment groups did not differ significantly with respect to the healing rates and the quality of new bone formed in the defect. The serum markers of bone formation were significantly elevated in the animals in the continuous Scl-Ab group (p < 0.05) compared with the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of sclerostin neutralizing antibody led to increased bone formation, resulting in complete healing of femoral defects in a small subset of rats, with a majority of the animals not healing the defect by twelve weeks.
No difference in 90-day complication rate following open versus arthroscopic Latarjet procedure
The purpose of this study was to compare the 90-day complication rate between the open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. A retrospective review of patients who underwent an open or arthroscopic Latarjet procedure at NYU Langone Health between 2012 and 2019 was performed. The complications, readmissions, and reoperations within 90 days were assessed. Outcomes were compared between the two approaches, and a p value ofâ€‰<â€‰0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The study included 150 patients (open: 110; arthroscopic: 40), with no patients lost to follow-up within the first 90Â days. Both cohorts were similar in terms of patient demographics. No intra-operative complications were observed in either group. Overall, there were 4 post-operative complications with the open approach and 2 with the arthroscopic approach (3.6% and 5.0%, respectively; n.s.) during the study period. Three patients required a readmission within the 90-day period; one patient in both groups required a revision Latarjet for graft fracture, and one patient in the open Latarjet required irrigation and debridement for deep infection (n.s.). With the open approach, there were 2 (2.3%) wound complications, 1 graft complication, and 1 (1.1%) nerve injury. With the arthroscopic approach, there was 1 (2.8%) wound complication and 1 (2.8%) hardware complication. The safety, and 90-day complication and readmission profile of arthroscopic Latarjet is similar to open Latarjet procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.
The future of healthcare service in orthopedic practice: Telemedicine or in-person visits?
BACKGROUND:The objective of this study is to assess patient satisfaction and preference for telemedicine- versus in-person visits for outpatient shoulder and elbow musculoskeletal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the future. METHODS:Patients who had telemedicine visits for shoulder and elbow musculoskeletal complaints at a single institution from March through June, 2020, were invited to respond to a post-visit survey. The survey included a standardized questionnaire that focused on the patient's satisfaction with the telemedicine visit(s) during the pandemic and preference for using the telemedicine platform in the future following the pandemic. Additional details regarding their virtual visits (severity of their medical condition, previous virtual- or ER visits) were also obtained. Data regarding patient demographics and visit details (primary diagnosis, type of visit, length of visit, treating physician) were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS:In total, 153 patients participated in the study. Overall, high satisfaction scores regarding the telemedicine visit were noted: 91% of patients reported that their concerns were adequately addressed, 89% would recommend telemedicine to a friend and 94% stated that they would use this platform again in the presence of a situation like the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the majority of patients (76%) reported a preference for in-person visits for the same musculoskeletal complaint if it were not for COVID-19. A telemedicine visit duration of more than 10 minutes and a first-time telemedicine visit correlated with higher satisfaction rates (P=0.037 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:COVID-19 has provided a boost to the use of our telemedicine platform, with a high satisfaction rate among patients with shoulder and elbow musculoskeletal complaints, largely due to safety reasons and limited access to in-person doctor visits. However, a considerable number of patients would have preferred in-person visits for similar health complaints if there were no pandemic. Further research on optimizing the selection of patients for telemedicine visits and addressing their expectations and concerns regarding their visits will improve patients' preference for future telemedicine visits.
Locked Anterior-Inferior Sternoclavicular Joint Dislocation: A Case Report
CASE:We report a rare variant of sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation, namely locked anterior-inferior dislocation, with unique clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative findings. In this variant, the medial clavicle was displaced anteriorly and inferiorly and locked in the manubrial-intercostal space, with corresponding mechanical dysfunction of the ipsilateral shoulder girdle joints. Symptoms unique to this variant included painful neck spasms and limited glenohumeral elevation. Nonsurgical treatment was not successful, and open reduction and ligament reconstruction resulted in correction of the fixed deformity with resolution of the clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION:Locked anterior-inferior SCJ dislocation is indicated for early open reduction and ligament reconstruction.
Institutional Reductions in Opioid Prescribing Do Not Change Patient Satisfaction on Press-Ganey Surveys After Total Shoulder Arthroplasty
BACKGROUND:With an ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States, it is important to examine if decreased opioid prescribing can affect patient experience, namely satisfaction with pain control. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect, if any, decreased opioid prescribing after total shoulder arthroplasty had on Press-Ganey satisfaction surveys. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted on patients who underwent primary anatomic or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty between October 2014 and October 2019. Patients with complete Press-Ganey survey information, no history of trauma, fracture, connective tissue disease, or prior shoulder arthroplasty surgery were included in the analysis. Patients were segregated into two groups, pre-protocol and post-protocol, based on the date of surgery relative to implementation of an institutional opioid reduction protocol, which occurred in October 2018. Prescriptions were converted to milligram morphine equivalents (MME) for direct comparison between different opioid medications. RESULTS:201 patients met inclusion criteria, and there were 110 reverse total shoulder arthroplasties and 91 anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties. Average opioids prescribed on discharge for the pre-protocol group was 426.3 Â± 295 MME (equivalent to 56.8 tablets of oxycodone 5mg), while after initiation of the protocol it was 193.8 Â± 199 MME (equivalent to 25.8 tablets of oxycodone 5mg); P<0.0001. Average satisfaction with pain control did not change significantly between pre-and-post protocol (4.71 Â± 0.65 pre-protocol and 4.74 Â± 0.44 post-protocol, P=0.82). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A reduction in opioids prescribed after a total shoulder replacement is not associated with any negative effects on patient satisfaction, as measured by the Press-Ganey survey. LOE: Level III; Retrospective Cohort Comparison; Treatment Study.
Knotted versus Knotless Anchors for Labral Repair in the Shoulder - A Systematic Review
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study is to compare biomechanical and clinical outcomes between knotless and knotted anchors in arthroscopic labral repair, specifically in 1) Bankart repair, 2) superior labrum, anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair, 3) posterior labral repair, and 4) remplissage augmentation of Bankart repair. METHODS:MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched according to the PRISMA guidelines to find biomechanical and clinical studies comparing knotted and knotless anchors using the search term "knotless anchor". RESULTS:Overall, 17 studies met inclusion criteria. There were 7 studies evaluating the biomechanical outcomes, of which 5 found mixed results between knotted and knotless anchors for arthroscopic Bankart repair, 1 demonstrated a difference for SLAP repair favoring knotless anchors, and 2 showed no significant difference for Remplissage in terms of ultimate load-to-failure. Four studies evaluated knotless labral anchors compared to knotted anchors in patients undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair with no significant differences in outcomes reported between the two anchor types, except in one study that found an improved VAS score and a lower recurrence and revision rate with knotted anchors. Five studies evaluated knotless anchors compared to knotted anchors in patients undergoing SLAP repair, and none of the included studies found any significant differences in the patient reported outcome measures or revision rates. Of the 5 studies comparing operative time, 4 found a reduced time with knotless anchors. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The clinical results show no significant differences in outcomes between knotless and knotted anchors for labral repair in the shoulder, including Bankart repair, SLAP repair, and posterior labral repair. However, there was conflicting evidence supporting knotless or knotted anchors in the biomechanical studies. However, operative times may be reduced with the use of knotless anchors.
Correlation of Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon (ASES), and Constant (CS) scores in Idiopathic Adhesive Capsulitis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To correlate the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Upper Extremity (PROMIS UE) score with preexisting validated outcomes scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (ASES), and Constant score (CS) in patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (AC). METHODS:Patients with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic AC ("freezing" or "frozen" phases) who agreed to complete the ASES, CS, and PROMIS UE scores during their office visit were included in this study. Trained researchers performed the objective clinical assessments on the included patients. Responses to the 3 outcomes scores were statistically analyzed and compared utilizing Pearson correlation coefficients. Floor and ceiling effects were calculated. RESULTS:The final cohort included 100 patients with AC of which there were 72% female and 87% right hand dominant, with a mean age of 55 years. The PROMIS UE required fewer question responses (5.02 Â±1.84) compared to the fixed questions burden with ASES (12) and CS (9). The mean outcome scores were 34.6 Â± 2.5 (PROMIS UE), 55 Â± 22 (ASES), and 51 Â± 16 (CS). The PROMIS UE displayed excellent correlation with both the ASES (r = 0.80, 95% [CI: 0.72, 0.86], p < 0.001) and CS (r = 0.76, 95% CI [0.67, 0.83], p < 0.001). Neither ceiling nor floor effects were present. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The PROMIS UE displayed comparable efficacy to commonly used legacy outcome scores (ASES and CS) in adhesive capsulitis. A lower question burden with the PROMIS UE carries a potential for wider acceptibility with the researchers and patients with shoulder pathology.
Return to Play After Arthroscopic Stabilization for Posterior Shoulder Instability-A Systematic Review
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To ascertain the rate and timing of return to play (RTP) and the availability of specific criteria for safe RTP after arthroscopic posterior shoulder stabilization. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to find studies on arthroscopic posterior shoulder stabilization. Studies were included if they reported RTP data or rehabilitation protocols and excluded if concomitant procedures influenced the rehabilitation protocol. Rate and timing of RTP, along with rehabilitation protocols, were assessed. Results/UNASSIGNED:This review found 25 studies, including 895 cases, meeting the study's inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were male (82.7%), with an age range of 14 to 66 years and a follow-up range of 4 to 148.8 months. The overall RTP rate ranged from 62.7% to 100.0%, and 50.0% to 100.0% returned to the same level of play. Among collision athletes, the overall rate of RTP was 80.0% to 100.0%, with 69.2%-100.0% returning to the same level of play. In overhead athletes, the overall rate of RTP was 85.2% to 100.0%, with 55.6% to 100.0% returning to the same level of play. Four studies (128 patients) specifically addressed the timing of RTP, and the range to RTP was 4.3 to 8.6 months. Specific RTP criteria were reported in a majority of studies (60%), with the most reported item being restoration of strength (44%). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:There is a high rate of return to sport after arthroscopic posterior shoulder stabilization, ranging from 4.3 to 8.6 months after surgery. Return to preinjury level is higher for collision athletes compared with overhead athletes. However, there is inadequate reporting of RTP criteria in the current literature, with no clear timeline for when it is safe to return to sport. Level of Evidence/UNASSIGNED:IV, systematic review of level II to IV studies.