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Can We Predict the Need for Unplanned Reoperation After Nonunion Repair?
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To identify factors associated with the need for reoperations in patients treated surgically for fracture nonunion. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:One urban Level 1 trauma center and an orthopaedic specialty hospital. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:This study included 365 patients who did not and 95 patients who did undergo a reoperation after nonunion repair. INTERVENTION/METHODS:All patients who underwent fracture nonunion repair were identified. Baseline demographic, injury, and surgical information were collected. These factors were compared between patients who did and did not require an unplanned reoperation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:An unplanned reoperation after index fracture nonunion surgery. RESULTS:When compared with patients who did not undergo a reoperation after their index fracture nonunion surgery, patients who underwent at least 1 reoperation had a greater proportion of those who sustained an open fracture, a high-energy injury, initial neurologic or vascular injuries, the need for a flap or soft tissue graft at initial treatment, and lower extremity injuries with univariate analysis. Unplanned reoperation was also associated with diagnosis of "infected" nonunion at initial nonunion surgery. Multivariate analysis confirmed initial nerve or vascular injuries and positive infection status were statistically significant predictors of a reoperation. CONCLUSIONS:Initial injury characteristics such as nerve or vascular injury at initial injury and positive infection status at the index nonunion surgery were associated with the need for a secondary surgery after nonunion repair. Appropriate care of these patients should be aimed at adjusting expectations of unplanned reoperation in the future and potentially enhanced treatment strategies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Posterior Glenoid Bone-Block Transfer for Posterior Shoulder Instability - A Systematic Review
PUPROSE/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature and evaluate patient-reported outcomes and complication/revision rates of bone-block augmentation in the treatment of posterior shoulder instability (PSI). METHODS:PUBMED was searched according to PRIMSA guidelines to find clinical studies evaluating patient-report outcomes, revision and complication rates in posterior bone block for posterior shoulder instability. A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies reporting on the complications following posterior bone block were included. RESULTS:Overall, 11 (LOE III: 2, LOE IV: 9) studies met inclusion criteria, with 225 shoulders. Recurrent instability after the posterior bone block was found to be 9.8%. The overall complication rate was 13.8%, with 0.89% having graft complications, 11.1% having hardware complications, 0.4% having wound complications, 0.4% having nerve complications, and 0.89% having other complications. Residual pain was found in 11.6% of shoulders operated on. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated most commonly by Rowe (81.4), Constant (84.6), and Walch - Duplay (81.6). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is a moderate rate of recurrence following posterior bone block for PSI. However, the patient-reported outcomes are high despite there being commonly reported persistent shoulder pain postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV; Systematic Review.
Telemedicine during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Hand Surgery Perspective
The future of healthcare service in orthopedic practice: Telemedicine or in-person visits?
BACKGROUND:The objective of this study is to assess patient satisfaction and preference for telemedicine- versus in-person visits for outpatient shoulder and elbow musculoskeletal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the future. METHODS:Patients who had telemedicine visits for shoulder and elbow musculoskeletal complaints at a single institution from March through June, 2020, were invited to respond to a post-visit survey. The survey included a standardized questionnaire that focused on the patient's satisfaction with the telemedicine visit(s) during the pandemic and preference for using the telemedicine platform in the future following the pandemic. Additional details regarding their virtual visits (severity of their medical condition, previous virtual- or ER visits) were also obtained. Data regarding patient demographics and visit details (primary diagnosis, type of visit, length of visit, treating physician) were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS:In total, 153 patients participated in the study. Overall, high satisfaction scores regarding the telemedicine visit were noted: 91% of patients reported that their concerns were adequately addressed, 89% would recommend telemedicine to a friend and 94% stated that they would use this platform again in the presence of a situation like the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the majority of patients (76%) reported a preference for in-person visits for the same musculoskeletal complaint if it were not for COVID-19. A telemedicine visit duration of more than 10 minutes and a first-time telemedicine visit correlated with higher satisfaction rates (P=0.037 and P=0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:COVID-19 has provided a boost to the use of our telemedicine platform, with a high satisfaction rate among patients with shoulder and elbow musculoskeletal complaints, largely due to safety reasons and limited access to in-person doctor visits. However, a considerable number of patients would have preferred in-person visits for similar health complaints if there were no pandemic. Further research on optimizing the selection of patients for telemedicine visits and addressing their expectations and concerns regarding their visits will improve patients' preference for future telemedicine visits.
The Fifth Metatarsal Shaft Fracture Is Well Treated With Benign Neglect
Anesthesia in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
»:For shoulder arthroplasty, regional anesthesia is safer when compared with general anesthesia. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate the superiority of regional anesthesia with respect to pulmonary complications and hospital length of stay. »:Infiltration of the shoulder with local anesthetics offers no additional benefits compared with single-shot or continuous brachial plexus blocks for shoulder arthroplasty. »:There is high-quality evidence (Level I) demonstrating lower pain scores and lower perioperative opioid requirements after a continuous peripheral nerve block compared with a single-shot nerve block. However, catheter dislodgment and logistical issues with catheter insertion are impediments to the widespread usage of a continuous nerve block with an indwelling catheter. »:Liposomal bupivacaine is comparable with non-liposomal local anesthetic agents with respect to pain relief, the opioid-sparing effect, and adverse effects in the first 48 hours after total shoulder arthroplasty. »:Perioperative dexamethasone administration improves postoperative pain control, decreases perioperative opioid requirements, and reduces postoperative nausea.
Patients unable to return to play following medial patellofemoral ligament reconstructions demonstrate poor psychological readiness
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR) is often indicated in athletes with lateral patellar instability to prevent recurrence and allow for a successful return to play. In this patient population, the ability to return to play is one of the most important clinical outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the characteristics of patients who were unable return to play following MPFL reconstruction. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction and subsequently did not return to play after a minimum of 12-months of follow-up was performed. Patients were evaluated for their psychological readiness to return to sport using the MPFL-Return to Sport after Injury (MPFL-RSI) score, which is a modification of the ACL-RSI score. A MPFL-RSI scoreâ€‰>â€‰56 is considered a passing score for being psychologically ready to return to play. Additionally, reasons for not returning to play including Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS), Kujala score, satisfaction, and recurrent instability (including dislocations and subluxations) were evaluated. RESULTS:The study included a total of 35 patients who were unable to return to play out of a total cohort of 131 patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction as treatment for patellar instability. Overall, 60% were female with a mean age of 24.5, and a mean follow-up of 38Â months. Nine patients (25.7%) passed the MPFL-RSI benchmark of 56 with a mean overall score of 44.2â€‰Â±â€‰21.8. The most common primary reasons for not returning to play were 14 were afraid of re-injury, 9 cited other lifestyle factors, 5 did not return due to continued knee pain, 5 were not confident in their ability to perform, and 2 did not return due to a feeling of instability. The mean VAS score was 1.9â€‰Â±â€‰2.3, the mean Kujala score was 82.5â€‰Â±â€‰14.6, and the mean satisfaction was 76.9%. Three patients (8.7%) reported experiencing a patellar subluxation event post-operatively. No patient sustained a post-operative patellar dislocation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Following MPFL reconstruction, patients that do not return to play exhibit poor psychological readiness with the most common reason being fear of re-injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:IV.
Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia Localized and Excised After Pregnancy [Case Report]
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare osteomalacia characterized by paraneoplastic secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23. Concomitant occurrence of TIO during pregnancy is rarer still. Our objective was to report a young patient with debilitating fractures diagnosed with TIO who became pregnant and subsequently had her tumor localized by gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTATATE positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Case Report/UNASSIGNED:A 28 year-old woman with a 2-year history of stress fractures was found to have the following: (1) alkaline phosphatase level, 220 (reference range, 30-95) U/L; (2) phosphorus level, 2.1 (2.5-5.0) mg/dL; (3) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level, <8 (18-72) pg/mL; (4) 24-hour urine phosphorus level, 0.5 (0.3-1.3) g; and (5) fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, 1241 (reference range, <180) RU/mL. The patient became pregnant, and at term, a cesarean delivery was performed. Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/MRI showed a 9-mm intracortical mass in the right fibular head and right femoral and bilateral calcaneal stress fractures. The fibular lesion was resected; pathology showed a 1.5-cm lesion with positive fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 staining. Discussion/UNASSIGNED:This patient with TIO had an uneventful pregnancy and delivery. TIO is typically caused by benign mesenchymal tumors. Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/computed tomography has been used for localizing tumors causing TIO, yet MRI has superior contrast resolution over computed tomography. Therefore, it is not surprising that Ga-68 PET/MRI successfully localized this patient's tumor to the intracortical space of the fibular head and distinguished it from insufficiency fractures. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:To our knowledge, this is the first report of phosphate treatment in a pregnant patient with TIO and the first report of a tumor-inducing TIO being localized by Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/MRI.
Radiographic and clinical characterization of coracoid fractures: a retrospective cohort analysis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Coracoid fracture is a rare injury. The aim of this study is to present the demographics, clinical and radiologic characteristics, and outcomes of coracoid fracture in a cohort of 32 patients. METHODS:We queried our institutional electronic medical record database (years 2012-2020) to identify patients with coracoid fractures using specific International Classification of Disease-10 codes. Demographic data, injury details including mechanism of injury and associated injuries, imaging performed, and treatment outcomes were obtained from retrospective chart review. A radiologist reviewed all available imaging studies (radiographs/CT/MRI) and classified the fractures according to Ogawa and Eyres classifications. Missed diagnoses were determined by comparing initial imaging reports with the follow-up imaging obtained in the office. RESULTS:Thirty-two patients with coracoid fractures were identified during the study period. Sixteen fractures (50%) occurred in the setting of low-energy trauma. Twelve fractures were missed on initial radiographs, and diagnosis with three-view radiographs (AP, scapular-Y and axillary) was 88% compared to 33% (pâ€‰<â€‰0.03) with two views (AP, scapular-Y). The majority of fractures were non-displaced (94%), and 56% were Ogawa Type-II fractures. Associated injuries were seen in 81% of patients. Most fractures (94%) were treated without surgery with excellent outcomes. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Coracoid fractures continue to be a rare injury. In contrast to previous studies, in this case series of 32 patients, half of the fractures were associated with low-energy trauma, which correlated with higher percentage of non-displaced fractures and Ogawa Type-II fractures. Addition of the axillary view in the trauma radiographic series significantly improved the initial fracture detection rate. LEVEL IV/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective study.
Preoperative Opioid Education has No Effect on Opioid Use in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine whether a preoperative video-based opioid education reduced narcotics consumption after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in opioid-naive patients. METHODS:This was a single-center randomized controlled trial. Preoperatively, the control group received our institution's standard of care for pain management education, whereas the experimental group watched an educational video on the use of opioids. Patients were discharged with 30 Ã— 5 mg/325 mg oxycodone-acetaminophen prescribed: 1 to 2 tablets every 4 to 6 hours. They were contacted daily and asked to report opioid use and visual analog scale pain. A chart review at 3 months post-op was used to analyze for opioid refills. RESULTS:A total of 130 patients completed the study (65 control and 65 experimental). No statistically significant differences were noted in patient demographics between groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the education group did not use a statistically significant different number of narcotics than the control group throughout the first postoperative week (14.0 pills experimental versus 13.7 pills control, P = 0.60). No statistically significant differences were noted between groups at follow-regarding the rate of prescription refills (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that preoperative video-based opioid education may have no effect on reducing the number of narcotic pills consumed after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Data exist to suggest that preoperative video-based opioid education has an effect on postoperative consumption; however, the effect of this education in the setting of already-limited opioid-prescribing is not known. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER/UNASSIGNED:NCT04018768.