Bone Fractures in Children With Cholestatic Liver Disease May Mimic Those Seen in Child Abuse
Certain fractures in children are highly specific for child abuse. Metabolic bone disease frequently develops in patients with cholestatic liver disease (CLD); this can result in weakened bones and a predisposition to pathologic fractures. Fractures that occur in patients with rickets and osteopenia may mimic a bone response to inflicted injury, which in children raise the concern of child abuse. Here we report a series of 15 patients with CLD who developed pathologic fractures in the setting of metabolic bone disease. During initial evaluation, the caretakers of 5 of these 15 patients were reported to child protective services and investigated for child abuse. Pediatricians should be aware that children with CLD have an increased incidence of pathologic fractures, even after the cholestasis has resolved.
Embolization of a rare case of focal nodular hyperplasia in an adolescent boy
Substantial clinical benefits with odevixibat treatment across progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis genetic deficiencies: subgroup analysis of serum bile acids, pruritus, and safety using pooled data from the PEDFIC 1 and 2 studies [Meeting Abstract]
A HIGH DIAGNOSTIC RATE FOR MENDELIAN LIVER DISORDERS: LESSONS FROM EXOME SEQUENCING IN 10,804 INDIVIDUALS WITH OR WITHOUT LIVER DISEASES [Meeting Abstract]
CURRENT APPROACH TO HEALTH CARE TRANSITION FOR PEDIATRIC LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: A CALL FOR PARTNERSHIP [Meeting Abstract]
EFFECTS ON SERUM BILE ACIDS, PRURITUS, AND SAFETY WITH UP TO 72 WEEKS OF ODEVIXIBAT TREATMENT: POOLED DATA FROM THE PEDFIC 1 AND PEDFIC 2 STUDIES IN CHILDREN WITH PROGRESSIVE FAMILIAL INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS [Meeting Abstract]
A case of an Infant with SARS-CoV-2 hepatitis early after liver transplantation [Case Report]
We present a case of a pediatric liver transplant recipient diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection four days after receiving a living donor liver allograft from her mother. The recipient was a 6-month-old with end-stage liver disease due to biliary atresia and failed Kasai. The infant had an uncomplicated implantation, excellent graft function and down-trending liver enzymes until developing fevers, diarrhea, and moderate respiratory distress requiring non-invasive respiratory support. SARS-CoV-2 testing (nasal swab Polymerase Chain Reaction) was positive on post-operative day (POD) 4. Liver enzymes peaked ~1000Â U/L (5-fold higher than the previous day) on POD 6. Histology demonstrated a mixed picture of moderate acute hepatitis and classical elements of mild to moderate acute cellular rejection. Her hepatitis and respiratory symptoms improved coincident with completing treatment with hydroxychloroquine, reduced immunosuppression, and intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG).
Role of Budesonide for the Treatment of Rejection in Pediatric Liver Transplantation
INTRODUCTION:Corticosteroids are an integral part of liver transplant (LT) immunosuppression regimens but are often accompanied by many adverse effects. Budesonide is an oral corticosteroid with extensive (80%-90%) hepatic first-pass metabolism and minimal systemic absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of budesonide for management of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in pediatric LT recipients. METHODS:A retrospective descriptive analysis was performed for all pediatric patients who underwent LT at our center and were prescribed oral budesonide for the treatment of ACR. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values and documented adverse effects were reviewed. RESULTS:Twenty-nine patients were prescribed budesonide for the treatment of ACR; 65.5% with biopsy-proven acute rejection and 34.5% with presumed ACR. There was a significant decrease in ALT noted from the time of rejection when compared to values 1 month (P = 0.0011), 3 months (P = 0.0003), and 6 months (P = 0.0001) after treatment with budesonide. There was no difference noted between patient baseline ALT levels before rejection when compared to 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment values suggesting resolution of rejection. Three patients required conversion from budesonide to systemic steroids. There were no discontinuations of budesonide secondary to adverse effects. CONCLUSION:Oral budesonide may be a promising alternative to systemic corticosteroids for the management of mild/moderate ACR and for empiric treatment of ACR in select pediatric LT recipients. Data from this study may provide the foundation for larger, prospective, multicenter trials to assess the effectiveness of budesonide in the treatment of ACR.
Management of Wilson Disease Diagnosed in Infancy: An Appraisal of Available Experience to Generate Discussion [Case Report]
Increased access to molecular genetic testing is changing the demographics for diagnosing inherited disorders and imposing new challenges for medical management. Wilson disease (WD), typically diagnosed in older children and adults, can now be detected in utero and in infants (children younger than 24 months, including neonates) via genetic testing. An evidence-based approach to management of these neonates and extremely young children, who are typically asymptomatic, has been hampered by lack of clinical experience. We present a case of an infantile diagnosis of WD, review available experience, and discuss current trends in antenatal genetic testing of parents and fetus that may lead to a very early diagnosis of WD. Based on physiological and nutritional considerations, we propose an algorithmic approach to management of infantile WD as a starting point for further discussion. Future collaboration amongst specialists is essential to identify evidence-based approaches and best practice for managing treatment of infants with genetically diagnosed WD.
Role of Exercise in Mitigating Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease