Cross-Sectional Characteristics of Pediatric-Onset Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: Results of a Multicenter, Retrospective Cohort Study
â€¢ Discoid lupus may be associated with SLE. In this study, most children with discoid lupus did not have systemic disease. Concurrent SLE was highest in female adolescents (>10 years of age) with generalized discoid lupus, who had clinically aggressive disease. â€¢ Discoid lupus in adolescence should prompt thorough evaluation for SLE.
Molluscum Contagiosum Therapeutics-New Options May Be Around the Corner
Morbilliform Eruptions in the Hospitalized Child
Morbilliform eruptions inspire a broad and varied differential spanning across inflammatory and infectious categories. The goal of this article is to help the clinician develop an approach toward the pediatric patient with a morbilliform eruption in the emergency room or hospital setting. The authors review several high-yield clinical scenarios with a focus on recently emerging and reemerging childhood diagnoses.
Cutaneous mosaic RASopathies associated with rhabdomyosarcoma
Variants in RAS are known drivers of certain pediatric blood and solid cancers, including brain tumors. Though most RAS-driven cancers are thought to occur sporadically, genetic syndromes caused by germline RAS variants portend a slightly higher risk of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) development. Three new cases and a review of the literature demonstrate that in rare cases, certain somatic RAS variants are associated with an increased risk of RMS and that RMS development may be heralded by the presence of concomitant RAS-driven birthmarks. Further prospective studies are needed to establish incidence and recommend appropriate monitoring guidelines for patients at risk.
Management of pediatric atopic dermatitis by primary care providers: A systematic review
BACKGROUND:Primary care providers (PCPs), including pediatricians and general practitioners, are often the first to see children with eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD). Little is known about management of pediatric AD by PCPs and adherence to national guidelines. OBJECTIVE:To review existing literature examining management components of pediatric AD (topical corticosteroids [TCS], topical calcineurin inhibitors [TCIs], antihistamines, bathing, emollients, and diet) by PCPs. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:PubMed/Medline and Embase. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA/METHODS:English-language articles dated 2015-2020 reporting outcomes addressing management of pediatric AD by PCPs. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS/METHODS:Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, extracted relevant data, and evaluated study quality. Disagreements were resolved by a third author. RESULTS:20 articles were included. Surveys and national database analyses were the most common methodologies (n=7 each). PCPs commonly prescribed TCS but had a preference for low-potency agents, overprescribed non-sedating antihistamines, and avoided TCIs. PCPs commonly recommended emollients, although this was not universal. Data characterizing non-medication management were limited. LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Most studies did not examine individual patient encounters, but rather relied on providers reporting their general behaviors. Provider behavior may vary based on country of practice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS/UNASSIGNED:Knowledge and management gaps exist among PCPs in treating pediatric AD in key areas including knowledge of TCS safety profiles and prescribing of TCIs. The current literature is largely limited to small studies that evaluate prescribing behaviors with limited data characterizing non-medication management, highlighting the need for future research in this area.
Chronic tongue pain and alopecia
Topical corticosteroid use for atopic dermatitis in the pediatric emergency department
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To investigate the evaluation and management of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the pediatric emergency department (PED). METHODS:This retrospective chart review was performed at the PED of a single institution and examined data from 2012 to 2017. Of 335 visits from patients 18Â years and younger coded for AD, 167 visits with documented findings that supported a diagnosis of AD according to guidelines from the American Academy of Dermatology were included. RESULTS:The mean age of presentation was 6.3Â years (standard deviation [SD]: 5.9). Of 11 patients with multiple visits, the mean between-visit interval was 31Â days (SD: 41). Topical corticosteroids (TCSs) were not prescribed or recommended in 63/167 visits. In an additional 46/167 visits, over-the-counter topical hydrocortisone was recommended. Of prescribed TCS, the mean TCS class was 5.5 (SD: 1.9). 61/104 recommended or prescribed TCSs were weak (Class 7), the most likely used class (PÂ <Â .001). Dermatology consultation was requested in 14/167 visits and was associated with higher rates of TCS prescriptions (13/14 vs 91/153, PÂ =Â .018), a higher mean class of TCS prescribed (3.1 vs 5.9, PÂ <Â .001), higher prescription rates of systemic antibiotics (8/14 vs 10/153, PÂ <Â .001), and higher recommendation rates for emollient usage (10/14 vs 46/153, PÂ =Â .005). CONCLUSIONS:Most patients presenting to the PED for AD were either not prescribed a TCS or were prescribed a weak TCS, often one that is over-the-counter. While there may be a variety of explanations for these findings, it is possible they reveal a practice gap regarding AD management in the PED.
Digital dermatoses: skin disorders engendered by social media in tweens and teens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Photograph-based social media use among children and adolescents has skyrocketed over the past decade, raising concerns about the implications for self-confidence and behavior in this population. Social media 'challenges' encourage participants to complete potentially dangerous tasks while sharing their completion of the tasks on social media. Many of these challenges affect the skin and lead to recognizable findings on physical examination. This review discusses the history of prominent social media challenges and their effects on the skin. Attention is also given to the effects of social media trends on self-confidence and body image in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Over the past several years, there have been several notable social media trends that can harm the skin. These include the Kylie Jenner lip challenge, salt and ice challenge, deodorant challenge, eraser challenge, fire challenge, and hot water challenge. Participation in these challenges can cause morbidity in children and adolescent that should be recognized by clinicians. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Social media has become an important platform for communication and self-expression among children and adolescents. Pediatricians should remain aware of social trends in this age group and look out for cutaneous findings that may signal dangerous behavior on social media.
How we approach hemangiomas in infants
Pediatric oncologists are increasingly involved in the management of benign vascular tumors and their associated life-threatening complications. Hemangiomas are the most common referring diagnosis to multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinics. However, as contemporary research has revealed, hemangiomas are not a single, easily defined entity but rather a diverse set of related vascular tumors, each having a unique natural history, growth pattern, and response to therapy. This manuscript seeks to illustrate how we evaluate and manage these complex tumors, their complications, and associated syndromes, while remaining ever vigilant for malignant hemangioma mimickers such as soft tissue sarcomas and congenital leukemia.
Mucocutaneous Manifestations of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Importance/UNASSIGNED:To date, no study has characterized the mucocutaneous features seen in hospitalized children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or the temporal association of these findings with the onset of systemic symptoms. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To describe the mucocutaneous findings seen in children with MIS-C during the height of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in New York City in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective case series was conducted of 35 children admitted to 2 hospitals in New York City between April 1 and July 14, 2020, who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and/or epidemiologic criteria for MIS-C. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Laboratory and clinical characteristics, with emphasis on mucocutaneous findings, of children who met criteria for MIS-C. The characterization of mucocutaneous features was verified by 2 board-certified pediatric dermatologists. Results/UNASSIGNED:Twenty-five children (11 girls [44%]; median age, 3 years [range, 0.7-17 years]) were identified who met definitional criteria for MIS-C; an additional 10 children (5 girls [50%]; median age, 1.7 years [range, 0.2-15 years]) were included as probable MIS-C cases (patients met all criteria with the exception of laboratory test evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection or known exposure). The results of polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2 were positive for 10 patients (29%), and the results of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G tests were positive for 19 patients (54%). Of the 35 patients, 29 (83%) exhibited mucocutaneous changes, with conjunctival injection (nâ€‰=â€‰21), palmoplantar erythema (nâ€‰=â€‰18), lip hyperemia (nâ€‰=â€‰17), periorbital erythema and edema (nâ€‰=â€‰7), strawberry tongue (nâ€‰=â€‰8), and malar erythema (nâ€‰=â€‰6) being the most common findings. Recognition of mucocutaneous findings occurred a mean of 2.7 days (range, 1-7 days) after the onset of fever. The duration of mucocutaneous findings varied from hours to days (median duration, 5 days [range, 0-11 days]). Neither the presence nor absence of mucocutaneous findings was significantly associated with overall disease severity. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this case series of hospitalized children with suspected MIS-C during the COVID-19 pandemic, a wide spectrum of mucocutaneous findings was identified. Despite their protean and transient nature, these mucocutaneous features serve as important clues in the recognition of MIS-C.