Football injuries of the ankle: A review of injury mechanisms, diagnosis and management
Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature.
Reconstruction of the medial talonavicular joint in simulated flatfoot deformity
BACKGROUND:Reconstructing the ligamentous constraints of the medial arch associated with adult acquired flatfoot deformity remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of several reconstruction techniques of the medial arch. We hypothesized that an anatomic reconstruction of the spring ligament complex would correct the deformity better than other techniques tested. METHODS:Three reconstructions of the medial support structures were performed on each specimen to recreate the different lines of action and insertions of the medial ligamentous complex in 12 specimens with a simulated flatfoot deformity. Talonavicular and tibiocalcaneal (hindfoot) orientations were measured in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes in the intact, flatfoot, and reconstructed conditions. RESULTS:While each reconstruction technique corrected the deformity (P < .05), proximal fixation of the graft corrected the greatest amount of talonavicular deformity while also correcting hindfoot valgus (P < .05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The fixation points and lines of action of a medial arch reconstruction have important implications on deformity correction in a flatfoot model. Despite its fidelity to the native structure, the anatomic spring ligament reconstruction provided the least amount of correction. These findings suggest that other ligamentous structures of the medial arch are critical in supporting the midfoot. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Reconstruction of the ligamentous supports of the medial arch might be able to correct substantial amounts of deformity without osseous procedures like calcaneal osteotomies or midfoot fusions.
A case of acute tarsal tunnel syndrome following lateralizing calcaneal osteotomy [Case Report]
Surgical correction of hindfoot varus is frequently performed with a lateral displacement calcaneal osteotomy. It has rarely been associated with iatrogenic tarsal tunnel syndrome in patients with pre-existing neurological disease. We report the first case of acute postoperative tarsal tunnel syndrome in a neurologically intact patient with post-traumatic hindfoot varus. Early diagnosis and emergent operative release afforded an excellent clinical outcome. Imaging studies can help outrule a compressive hematoma and assess for possible nerve transection; however it is paramount that a high index of suspicion is utilized with judicious operative intervention to minimize long-term sequelae.
Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgeon Industry Compensation Reported by the Open Payments Database
Background. The current study aims to characterize and explore trends in Open Payments Database (OPD) payments reported to orthopaedic foot and ankle (F&A) surgeons. OPD payments are classified as General, Ownership, or Research. Methods. General, Ownership, and Research payments to orthopaedic F&A surgeons were characterized by total payment sum and number of transactions. The total payment was compared by category. Payments per surgeon were also assessed. Median payments for all orthopaedic F&A surgeons and the top 5% compensated were calculated and compared across the years. Medians were compared through Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. Over the period, industry paid over $39 million through 29,442 transactions to 802 orthopaedic F&A surgeons. The majority of this payment was General (64%), followed by Ownership (34%) and Research (2%). The median annual payments per orthopaedic F&A surgeon were compared to the 2014 median ($616): 2015 ($505; P = .191), 2016 ($868; P = .088), and 2017 ($336; P = .084). Over these years, the annual number of compensated orthopaedic F&A surgeons increased from 490 to 556. Averaged over 4 years, 91% of the total orthopaedic F&A payment was made to the top 5% of orthopaedic F&A surgeons. The median payment for this group increased from $177 000 (2014) to $192 000 (2017; P = .012). Conclusion. Though median payments to the top 5% of orthopaedic F&A surgeons increased, there was no overall change in median payment over four years for all compensated orthopaedic F&A surgeons. These findings shed insight into the orthopaedic F&A surgeon-industry relationship. Levels of Evidence:III, Retrospective Study.
Survey of Patient Insurance Status on Access to Specialty Foot and Ankle Care Under the Affordable Care Act
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of insurance type (Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance) on access to foot and ankle surgeons for total ankle arthroplasty. METHODS: We called 240 foot and ankle surgeons who performed total ankle arthroplasty in 8 representative states (California, Massachusetts, Ohio, New York, Florida, Georgia, Texas, and North Carolina). The caller requested an appointment for a fictitious patient to be evaluated for a total ankle arthroplasty. Each office was called 3 times to assess the responses for Medicaid, Medicare, and BlueCross. From each call, we recorded appointment success or failure and any barriers to an appointment, such as need for a referral. RESULTS: Patients with Medicaid were less likely to receive an appointment compared to patients with Medicare (19.8% vs 92.0%, P < .0001) or BlueCross (19.8% vs 90.4%, P < .0001) and experienced more requests for referrals compared to patients with Medicare (41.9% vs 1.6%, P < .0001) or BlueCross (41.9% vs 4%, P < .0001). Waiting periods were longer for patients with Medicaid compared to those with Medicare (22.6 days vs 11.7 days, P = .004) or BlueCross (22.6 days vs 10.7 days, P = .001). Reimbursement rates did not correlate with appointment success rate or waiting period. CONCLUSION: Despite the passage of the PPACA, patients with Medicaid continue to have difficulty finding a surgeon who will provide care, increased need for a primary care referral, and longer waiting periods for appointments. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prognostic study.
Total knee replacement under tourniquet control: A prospective study of the peripheral arterial vasculature using colour-assisted duplex ultrasonography
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:A tourniquet may potentiate rare and devastating arterial complications after total knee replacement (TKR) in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Most prior studies that evaluated peripheral arterial blood flow primarily used the ankle-brachial index (ABI). METHODS:We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for PVD in a cohort undergoing TKR. Clinical and radiological evaluations, including duplex ultrasonography, were performed one week prior to, and six weeks post-TKR performed under tourniquet control. Forty patients were analysed (20 male, 20 female; mean age 67 yrs, range: 53-80 yrs). MAIN FINDINGS/RESULTS:Hypertension (50%) and hypercholesterolaemia (50%) were the most common co-morbidities. Distal pulses were present in all patients preoperatively. Six patients (15%) had arterial calcification on their preoperative knee X-rays. Three patients (7.5%) had moderate PVD. There was no change in blood flow postoperatively in patients with or without PVD (p > 0.05). Vascular stenosis was less than 50% in all patients preoperatively and postoperatively. No postoperative vascular complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS:Severe PVD is not common in patients undergoing TKR. Performing total knee replacement under tourniquet control does not adversely affect the vasculature in patients with less than 50% vascular occlusion.
Effects of home-based resistance training and neuromuscular electrical stimulation in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND:Quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) weakness is a feature of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and exercise programs that strengthen this muscle group can improve function, disability and pain. Traditional supervised resistance exercise is however resource intensive and dependent on good adherence which can be challenging to achieve in patients with significant knee OA. Because of the limitations of traditional exercise programs, interest has been shown in the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to strengthen the QFM. We conducted a single-blind, prospective randomized controlled study to compare the effects of home-based resistance training (RT) and NMES on patients with moderate to severe knee OA. METHODS:41 patients aged 55 to 75 years were randomised to 6 week programs of RT, NMES or a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was functional capacity measured using a walk test, stair climb test and chair rise test. Additional outcomes were self-reported disability, quadriceps strength and cross-sectional area. Outcomes were assessed pre- and post-intervention and at 6 weeks post-intervention (weeks 1, 8 and 14 respectively). RESULTS:There were similar, significant improvements in functional capacity for the RT and NMES groups at week 8 compared to week 1 (p â‰¤ 0.001) and compared to the control group (p < 0.005), and the improvements were maintained at week 14 (p â‰¤ 0.001). Cross sectional area of the QFM increased in both training groups (NMES: +5.4%; RT: +4.3%; p = 0.404). Adherence was 91% and 83% in the NMES and RT groups respectively (p = 0.324). CONCLUSIONS:Home-based NMES is an acceptable alternative to exercise therapy in the management of knee OA, producing similar improvements in functional capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN85231954.
The role of pre-operative assessment and ringfencing of services in the control of methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus infection in orthopaedic patients
BACKGROUND:MRSA is a major economic and health issue internationally and as such is of particular importance in the appropriate management of orthopaedic patients. Bone, joint and implant infection can lead to unfavourable outcomes with a long protracted in hospital stay inevitable. The cost for the patient, the hospital and society are substantial. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This study was a review of a prospectively maintained database from our unit over three time points from 2005 to 2007. At each time point a new infection control measure was implemented in an effort to reduce MRSA infections. Total rates of MRSA infection and colonisation in all orthopaedic patients were recorded, before and after separation of trauma and elective services, and after the introduction of a screening pre assessment clinic. RESULTS:12259 orthopaedic patients were reviewed over the three years. The mean age of MRSA infected patients was 71. A higher proportion of female patients were infected than male patients. The mean length of stay for infected patients was 23.4 days. The rate of infection dropped from 0.49% in 2005 to 0.24%in 2007. After the introduction of these measures there was a substantial reduction in organ space and deep tissue infections. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The separation of emergency and elective orthopaedic services coupled with effective pre-operative screening has resulted in a significant reduction in MRSA infection despite an ever increasing prevalance.
Increasing financial burden of revision total knee arthroplasty
We reviewed the peri-operative and financial data of patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty in our institution between 1997 and 2006. The aims were to compare difference in cost between aseptic and septic cases and to identify the sources of preventable cost increase in revision knee procedure. The study group comprised 117 women (65%) and 62 men (35%). The median age of patients decreased from 73 years (37-83 years) in 1997-2001 to 70 years (15-91 years) in 2002-2006, a decline of 4% (P < 0.05). The mean ASA scores also dropped from 3 to 2 between the two periods. Despite this, the mean total cost of revision knee procedure continued to increase. Patients undergoing revision arthroplasty because of infection had much higher (P = 0.0001) cost compared to their aseptic counterpart. Increase in the costs of investigations (P < 0.05) and implant (P < 0.05) was the major contributing factors. The cost of implants increased by 32-35% (P < 0.05) depending on implant selection. Changing demographics will increase the requirement for this surgery and thus increase its overall cost to society. Cost increases associated with unnecessary investigations, prolonged hospital stay and use of expensive implants should be avoided.
Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study
BACKGROUND:Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. METHODS:This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). RESULTS:Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided.