ICRS scores worsen between 2-year short term and 5-year mid-term follow-up after transtibial medial meniscus root repair despite maintained functional outcomes
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term results of posterior medial meniscal root tear (PMMRT) repair through assessment of functional outcome scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:This was a single-center, retrospective study evaluating patients that had undergone a PMMRT. This was a follow-up to a previously published 2-year outcome study (all original patients were invited to participate). Clinical outcomes included pre- and postoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores. Root healing, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage degeneration via International Cartilage Repair Society Scale (ICRS) grades were assessed on MRI by two musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologists. RESULTS:10 of the original study's 18 patients were able to participate. Mean age and BMI was 48.4â€‰Â±â€‰12.0Â years and 29.5â€‰Â±â€‰4.5, respectively, with mean follow-up 65.5â€‰Â±â€‰8.3Â months (range 52.0-75.8) (60% female). The IKDC significantly increased from 43â€‰Â±â€‰13 preoperatively to 75â€‰Â±â€‰16 at 5-year follow-up (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). There was no significant change in IKDC score between 2-year and 5-year follow-up [75â€‰Â±â€‰16 vs 73â€‰Â±â€‰20, (n.s)]. TheÂ Lysholm also significantly increased between preoperative and 5-year follow-up (49â€‰Â±â€‰7 vs 84â€‰Â±â€‰11, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). There was no significant change between Lysholm score at 2-year and 5-year follow-up [84.0â€‰Â±â€‰11 vs 82â€‰Â±â€‰13, (n.s)]. Mean extrusion did not significantly change from the preoperative state to 5-year follow-up [4.80Â mmâ€‰Â±â€‰1.9 vs 5.0Â mmâ€‰Â±â€‰2.5, (n.s.)]. Extrusion also did not significantly change between 2-and 5-year follow-up [6.1â€‰Â±â€‰3.2Â mm vs 5.0Â mmâ€‰Â±â€‰2.5, (n.s.)]. No patients withâ€‰>â€‰3Â mm of extrusion on preoperative MRI hadâ€‰<â€‰3Â mm of extrusion on postoperative MRI. Both medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades significantly increased from preoperative to 2-year follow-up (pâ€‰=â€‰0.038, pâ€‰=â€‰0.023, respectively). Medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades again significantly increased between 2-year and 5-year follow-up (pâ€‰=â€‰0.014, pâ€‰=â€‰0.034). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients treated with the transtibial suture pullout technique with two locking cinch sutures had maintenance of clinical outcome improvements at 5-year follow-up. However, extrusion was widely prevalent,Â with worsening progression of femoral and tibial chondral disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level 4.
Analysis of Factors Potentially Influencing Diagnostic Yield Among Computed Tomography-Guided Biopsies for Bone Lesions
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate patient-specific, lesion-related, and technical factors that potentially influence diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies of bone lesions. METHODS:Computed tomography-guided bone lesion biopsies performed over a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed, including image review and electronic medical records for pathology reports and clinical follow-up. Lesions were tabulated by prebiopsy CT and magnetic resonance imaging features. Patients with nondiagnostic biopsies were assessed for presumptive clinical diagnosis and management. RESULTS:Nondiagnostic pathology results were obtained in 31 of 156 cases (19.87%), among which diagnoses were confirmed by other tissue sampling in 9; clinical follow-up of up to 2 years yielded no diagnosis in 10 and presumptive diagnoses in 12. The nondiagnostic biopsy rate of long bone lesions was higher than that of other bone lesions (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.09). There were no significant differences in patient American Society of Anesthesiologists class, mean body mass index, sedation method, number of cores, or needle gauge between diagnostic and nondiagnostic biopsy cohorts. Diagnostic yield was not significantly different between occult, lytic, or sclerotic lesions. There was no difference in diagnostic yield regarding presence of cortical break, gadolinium enhancement, or lesion depth. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained before biopsy in significantly more nondiagnostic cases compared with diagnostic cases (P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:Computed tomography-guided biopsies had a nondiagnostic rate of 19.87%, and lesions in the long bones of the extremities were disproportionately common among this group. There was no significant association between biopsy results and several patient-specific, lesion-related, and technical factors.
Incidence of infectious complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions with the use of an uncovered transducer footprint
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of infectious complications following ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions performed with a disinfected uncovered ultrasound transducer footprint. METHODS:Electronic medical records of all patients who underwent an ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedure (including injection, calcific lavage, or ganglion cyst aspiration) performed by any of the 14 interventional musculoskeletal radiologists at our institution between January 2013 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed to identify procedure site infections. Biopsies and joint aspirations were excluded. The procedures were performed using a disinfected uncovered transducer footprint. First, an automated chart review identified cases with (1) positive answers to the nurse's post-procedure call, (2) an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic code related to a musculoskeletal infection, or (3) an antibiotic prescription within 30 days post-procedure. Then, these cases were manually reviewed for evidence of procedure site infection. RESULTS:In total, 6511 procedures were included. The automated chart review identified 3 procedures (2 patients) in which post-procedural fever was reported during the nurse's post-procedure call, 33 procedures (28 patients) with an ICD code for a musculoskeletal infection, and 220 procedures (216 patients) with an antibiotic prescription within 30 post-procedural days. The manual chart review of these patients revealed no cases of confirmed infection and 1 case (0.015%) of possible site infection. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of infectious complications after an ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedure performed with an uncovered transducer footprint is extremely low. This information allows radiologists to counsel their patients more precisely when obtaining informed consent. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:â€¢ Infectious complications after ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures performed with a disinfected uncovered transducer footprint are extremely rare.
Editorial Commentary: Real-Time Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Patellofemoral Joint: Ready for Prime Time? [Editorial]
Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the musculoskeletal system touts the ability to perceive inÂ vivo joint kinematics, which is particularly attractive for diagnosing dynamic pathologies such as joint instability or impingement syndromes.The clinical utility of dynamic MRI in the musculoskeletal system is wide ranging, from patellofemoral kinematics to imaging of the hip in femoroacetabular impingement and also dynamic spine imaging. Patellofemoral instability is an ideal diagnostic target, as knee flexion and extension are easily performed in an MRI scanner, and dynamic measurements have been correlated to clinical and static radiologic parameters of instability. Proving the clinical utility of this MRI technique requires rigorous technical standardization and definition of normal patellofemoral motion parameters. Validated imaging methods and rigorously defined normal range data are required to light the path forward, and the video format of dynamic MRI is also ideal for advancing patient-centered care, improving patient literacy on their condition, and offering a potential catalyst for shared decision-making between surgeons and their patients.
Ultrasound of the symptomatic shoulder arthroplasty: Spectrum and prevalence of periarticular soft tissue pathology
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe our experience using ultrasound (US) to evaluate postoperative complications in the presence of in situ shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS:Review of patients who underwent US evaluation following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) or hemiarthroplasty from 2007 to 2020. All studies were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists to assess for joint effusion, periarticular collection, and characterization of associated rotator cuff tears. Tendon tears were assessed with respect to (1) thickness: low grade (<50% thickness), high grade (>50% thickness), full thickness; (2) morphology (focal vs. diffuse) and location (insertion vs. critical zone). Inter-reader agreements were determined using Cohen's kappa test. RESULTS:Ninety-seven studies were performed in 72 patients following TSA, RTSA, or hemiarthroplasty. Thirty-seven exams were solely for diagnostic purposes, and 59 were for guiding joint or periarticular collection aspiration. Twenty-eight studies assessed the cuff tendons post TSA. The mean time between surgery and US examination was 29.2â€‰months. Complete or high-grade tears were identified in 8/28 (28.6%) diagnostic exams. The most commonly torn tendon among TSA patients was the subscapularis, with 13/28 (46.4%) demonstrating at least partial tearing. Inter-reader agreement was excellent for presence of effusion (kÂ =Â 0.79, pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and periarticular collection (kÂ =Â 0.87, pâ€‰<â€‰.001), and excellent agreement for presence of subscapularis tear (kÂ =Â 0.78, pâ€‰<â€‰.001), with fair agreement for assessment of supraspinatus (kÂ =Â 0.66, pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and infraspinatus (kÂ =Â 0.60, pâ€‰<â€‰.001) tears. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The most commonly torn tendon following anatomic TSA identified by US was the subscapularis, which was torn or deficient in 46.4% of cases. The majority of studies were performed for the guidance of percutaneous aspiration.
Pediatric versus adult magnetic resonance imaging patterns in acute high ankle sprains
BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of literature describing MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in pediatric patients. Radiologists should understand MRI patterns of these injuries in both adults and children. OBJECTIVE:To describe normal MRI appearance of pediatric syndesmotic ligaments and compare MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in children versus adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We reviewed consecutive ankle MRIs performed over 3Â years and divided them into three cohorts: a normal pediatric (â‰¤16Â years) cohort, and pediatric and adult cohorts with acute/subacute ankle syndesmosis injuries. Our retrospective review assessed interobserver agreement (Cohen kappa coefficient) and normal pediatric syndesmotic anatomy. We compared patterns of high ankle sprains (Fisher exact test) including ligament tears, periosteal stripping, avulsions and fractures. RESULTS:Of the 582 ankle MRIs, we included 25 in the normal pediatric cohort, 20 in the pediatric injury cohort and 23 in the adult injury cohort. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments all attached to cortex or cartilaginous precursor, while the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attached to the fibrous periosteum in 22/25 (88%) normal pediatric cases. Tibial periosteal stripping at the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attachment occurred in 7/20 (35%) pediatric and 1/23 (4%) adult injury cases (P=0.02). No other statistically significant differences were found. Interobserver agreement ranged from kappa=0.46 to kappa=0.82 (ligament tears), 0.38 to 0.45 (avulsions) and 0.69 to 0.77 (periosteal stripping). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The normal interosseous ligament/membrane complex typically attaches to fibrous periosteum rather than bony cortex. Tibial periosteal stripping, usually without tibial fracture, is significantly more common among pediatric high ankle sprains. MRI patterns of high ankle sprains are otherwise not significantly different between children and adults.
Fibular Tip Periostitis: New Radiographic Sign Predictive of Chronic Peroneal Tendon Subluxation-Dislocation in Pes Planovalgus
Does image-guided biopsy of discitis-osteomyelitis provide meaningful information to impact clinical management?
OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study are to assess the diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy for discitis-osteomyelitis (DO), identify factors associated with biopsy yield (laboratory, pre-defined MRI findings, and biopsy technique), and impact of biopsy on management of patients appropriately selected according to the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines (IDSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent biopsy for suspected DO from 2011 to 2019. Reference standards to establish diagnosis of DO in order were histopathology/microbiology from biopsy or subsequent surgical sampling, positive blood culture or serology, and imaging/clinical follow-up. Laboratory markers, pre-biopsy antibiotics and MRI features, procedural-related variables, and impact of biopsy on management were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was also performed. RESULTS:Out of 97 included patients, 78 were diagnosed with DO. Overall sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0% (32/78), including 10 patients with positive histopathology only, 14 with positive biopsy culture only, and 8 with both. Elevated ESR (p < 0.001) and epidural collection on MRI (p = 0.008) were associated with higher biopsy yield (63.6% and 68.6%, respectively) in a multivariable model. Procedural variables were not associated with yield. Biopsy results impacted the management in 19/77 (24.7%) patients, of whom 15/19 (78.9%) had treatment de-escalation and 4/19 (21.0%) had treatment escalation including starting new anti-tuberculous and anti-fungal regimens. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0%. When IDSA guidelines are followed, biopsy provided impactful information that changed the management in 24.7% of patients. Evaluation for elevated ESR and epidural collection can help improve yield and patient selection for biopsy.
Anterior shoulder instability in the aging population: MRI injury pattern and management
Background: Literature on glenohumeral dislocations has focused on younger patient populations due to high recurrence rates. However, the spectrum of injuries sustained in younger versus older patient populations is reported to be quite different. Objective: To describe MRI findings and management of anterior shoulder instability in the aging (â‰¥60 years) population. Methods: Shoulder MRIs of anterior glenohumeral dislocators aged â‰¥40 were subdivided into <60 or â‰¥60 age groups, and reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists for: Hill-Sachs lesion, other fracture, glenoid injury, capsulolabral injury, rotator cuff tear, muscle atrophy, and axillary nerve injury. Fischer exact and logistic regression evaluated for significant differences between cohorts, and inter-reader agreement was assessed. Surgical management was recorded, if available. Results: 104 shoulder MRIs (40-79 years, mean=58.3, 52 females, 52 males) were reviewed (N=54 age <60, N=50 age â‰¥60). Acute high-grade or full-thickness supraspinatus (64.0% vs. 37.0%, p=0.001), infraspinatus (28.0% vs. 14.8%, p=0.028), and subscapularis tears (22.0% vs. 3.7%, p=0.003) were more common in the â‰¥60 group. Hill-Sachs lesions were more common in the <60 group (81.5% vs. 62.0%, p=0.046). Greater tuberosity fractures were seen in 15.3% of the overall cohort, coracoid fractures in 4.8%, and axillary nerve injuries in 16.3%. Inter-reader concordance was 88.5-89.4% for rotator cuff tears, and 89.4-97.1% for osseous injury. The <60 group had rotator cuff repair in 11/37 subjects (29.7%), and labral repair in 11/37 (29.7%), while the â‰¥60 group underwent rotator cuff repair in 17/36 (47.2%), reverse shoulder arthroplasty in 6/36 (16.7%), and labral repair in 6/36 (16.7%). Conclusion: Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for acute rotator cuff tears in anterior shoulder instability, especially in aging populations. Greater tuberosity or coracoid fractures and axillary nerve injury occur across all ages, while Hill-Sachs injuries are more common in younger patients. Clinical Impact: Acute, high-grade or full-thickness rotator cuff tears are seen with higher frequency in older populations after anterior glenohumeral dislocation in the elderly. Osseous and nerve injuries are important causes of patient morbidity that, if not carefully sought out, may be overlooked by the interpreting radiologist on routine imaging.
Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography of the Extremities: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Correlation
Ultrasonography as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool has become a resource for musculoskeletal injuries. It can be a useful imaging modality for clinical correlation of physical examination findings as well as an aid for image-guided procedures. Understanding the settings in which it is a helpful adjunct will have implications on efficiency and cost utility. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a background of ultrasonography as a musculoskeletal imaging modality, provide clinical correlation for ultrasonographic findings for common upper extremity pathology, review the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography for image-guided procedures, and provide insight into the cost utility of ultrasonography guidance for therapeutic injections.