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Utility of a 2D kinematic HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance imaging assessment of adjacent segment degeneration following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

Burke, Christopher J; Samim, Mohammad; Babb, James S; Walter, William R
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate a dynamic half-Fourier acquired single turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) at the junctional level for adjacent segment degeneration comparing dynamic listhesis to radiographs and assessing dynamic cord contact and deformity during flexion-extension METHODS: Patients with ACDF referred for cervical spine MRI underwent a kinematic flexion-extension sagittal 2D HASTE sequence in addition to routine sequences. Images were independently reviewed by three radiologists for static/dynamic listhesis, and compared to flexion-extension radiographs. Blinded assessment of the HASTE sequence was performed for cord contact/deformity between neutral, flexion, and extension, to evaluate concordance between readers and inter-modality agreement. Inter-reader agreement for dynamic listhesis and impingement grade and inter-modality agreement for dynamic listhesis on MRI and radiographs was assessed using the kappa coefficient and percentage concordance. RESULTS:A total of 28 patients, mean age 60.2 years, were included. Mean HASTE acquisition time was 42 s. 14.3% demonstrated high grade dynamic stenosis (> grade 4) at the adjacent segment. There was substantial agreement for dynamic cord impingement with 70.2% concordance (kappa = 0.62). Concordance across readers for dynamic listhesis using HASTE was 81.0% (68/84) (kappa = 0.16) compared with 71.4% (60/84) (kappa = 0.40) for radiographs. Inter-modality agreement between flexion-extension radiographs and MRI assessment for dynamic listhesis across the readers was moderate (kappa = 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.67). CONCLUSIONS:A sagittal flexion-extension HASTE cine sequence provides substantial agreement between readers for dynamic cord deformity and moderate agreement between radiographs and MRI for dynamic listhesis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT/CONCLUSIONS:Degeneration of the adjacent segment with instability and myelopathy is one of the most common causes of pain and neurological deterioration requiring re-operation following cervical fusion surgery. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• A real-time kinematic 2D sagittal HASTE flexion-extension sequence can be used to assess for dynamic listhesis, cervical cord, contact and deformity. • The additional kinematic cine sequence was well tolerated and the mean acquisition time for the 2D HASTE sequence was 42 s (range 31-44 s). • A sagittal flexion-extension HASTE cine sequence provides substantial agreement between readers for dynamic cord deformity and moderate agreement between radiographs and MRI for dynamic listhesis.
PMID: 37594524
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 5619202

Tips and tricks in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures

Walter, William R; Burke, Christopher J; Adler, Ronald S
Ultrasound visualization affords proceduralists versatile and accurate guidance for a variety of percutaneous, minimally invasive procedures in the musculoskeletal system including joint (intra-articular) injections or aspirations, intra-bursal injections, peritendinous, and perineural injections. A variety of percutaneous procedures are traditionally performed blindly, but may be more easily or more accurately performed with the real-time assistance of ultrasound guidance. Other procedures are only possible utilizing image-guidance, due to the required precision of the injection because of delicate local anatomy or depth of the injection; ultrasound is a safe, portable, and widespread modality that can be used to assist the proceduralist in localizing the needle tip in such cases, to ensure safe and accurate delivery of the medication, most frequently a solution of steroid and anesthetic. This review aims to provide a foundational approach to ultrasound-guided procedures in the musculoskeletal system, offering tips and tricks that can be employed in many different procedures including intra-articular, juxta-articular, and perineural injections for a multitude of clinical scenarios. Technical considerations regarding ultrasound transducer selection, sonographic technique, as well as common indications, contraindications, and complications of these procedures, are presented. Additionally, a variety of pharmacologic considerations for proceduralists contemplating ultrasound-guided injections are discussed.
PMID: 38020507
ISSN: 2084-8404
CID: 5617452

Computed Tomography-Guided Biopsy and Aspiration of Scapulothoracic Bursitis

Kessler, Jason; Lee, Max; Plaha, Navi; Walter, William R
PMID: 36762790
ISSN: 1537-7385
CID: 5594842

Deep Learning Diagnosis and Classification of Rotator Cuff Tears on Shoulder MRI

Lin, Dana J; Schwier, Michael; Geiger, Bernhard; Raithel, Esther; von Busch, Heinrich; Fritz, Jan; Kline, Mitchell; Brooks, Michael; Dunham, Kevin; Shukla, Mehool; Alaia, Erin F; Samim, Mohammad; Joshi, Vivek; Walter, William R; Ellermann, Jutta M; Ilaslan, Hakan; Rubin, David; Winalski, Carl S; Recht, Michael P
BACKGROUND:Detection of rotator cuff tears, a common cause of shoulder disability, can be time-consuming and subject to reader variability. Deep learning (DL) has the potential to increase radiologist accuracy and consistency. PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to develop a prototype DL model for detection and classification of rotator cuff tears on shoulder magnetic resonance imaging into no tear, partial-thickness tear, or full-thickness tear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved study included a total of 11,925 noncontrast shoulder magnetic resonance imaging scans from 2 institutions, with 11,405 for development and 520 dedicated for final testing. A DL ensemble algorithm was developed that used 4 series as input from each examination: fluid-sensitive sequences in 3 planes and a sagittal oblique T1-weighted sequence. Radiology reports served as ground truth for training with categories of no tear, partial tear, or full-thickness tear. A multireader study was conducted for the test set ground truth, which was determined by the majority vote of 3 readers per case. The ensemble comprised 4 parallel 3D ResNet50 convolutional neural network architectures trained via transfer learning and then adapted to the targeted domain. The final tear-type prediction was determined as the class with the highest probability, after averaging the class probabilities of the 4 individual models. RESULTS:The AUC overall for supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendon tears was 0.93, 0.89, and 0.90, respectively. The model performed best for full-thickness supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears with AUCs of 0.98, 0.99, and 0.95, respectively. Multisequence input demonstrated higher AUCs than single-sequence input for infraspinatus and subscapularis tendon tears, whereas coronal oblique fluid-sensitive and multisequence input showed similar AUCs for supraspinatus tendon tears. Model accuracy for tear types and overall accuracy were similar to that of the clinical readers. CONCLUSIONS:Deep learning diagnosis of rotator cuff tears is feasible with excellent diagnostic performance, particularly for full-thickness tears, with model accuracy similar to subspecialty-trained musculoskeletal radiologists.
PMID: 36728041
ISSN: 1536-0210
CID: 5502202

Imaging features and biopsy yield of soft tissue metastatic lesions: 10-year single tertiary center experience

Ilag, Marisa; Burke, Christopher; Walter, William R; Samim, Mohammad
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate imaging features of soft tissue metastases, technical factors associated with diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy, and clinical impact of biopsy results on patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 1605 image-guided soft tissue biopsies were retrospectively identified from December 2010 to December 2020. Included lesions were histologically proven musculoskeletal soft tissue metastases. Lesions were excluded if intraabdominal, intrathoracic, retroperitoneal, associated with osseous lesions or surgical scar implants or arising from skin or lymph nodes. Image guidance modality, needle size, number of cores, and lesion location, size, and depth from skin were recorded. Patient demographics, malignancy history, biopsy-driven changes in management, and survival rate after biopsy were collected. RESULTS:Forty-six patients met the inclusion criteria with a biopsy diagnostic yield of 44/46 (95.7%). Metastases were most commonly located truncal (82.6%, p < 0.001) and intramuscular (78.3%, p < 0.001). A total of 37/46 (80.4%) biopsies were US-guided. And 9/46 (19.6%) were CT-guided. There was no significant difference in the number of cores or mean needle gauge between diagnostic and nondiagnostic biopsies. At time of review, 23 (50%) patients were deceased, with a mean survival of 13.5 months after biopsy. The majority (71.7%) of patients had a known primary malignancy at time of biopsy, most commonly lung (24.2%) and breast (24.2%). Overall survival showed no association with anatomic location (p > 0.83) or tissue type (p > 0.34). The most common biopsy-driven outcome was initiation of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy (52.2%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Image-guided biopsy for soft tissue metastases has high diagnostic yield and commonly influences clinical management. Metastases were most commonly intramuscular in the trunk and are associated with poor prognosis.
PMID: 36202920
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 5351682

Deep Learning Reconstruction Enables Prospectively Accelerated Clinical Knee MRI

Johnson, Patricia M; Lin, Dana J; Zbontar, Jure; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Sriram, Anuroop; Muckley, Matthew; Babb, James S; Kline, Mitchell; Ciavarra, Gina; Alaia, Erin; Samim, Mohammad; Walter, William R; Calderon, Liz; Pock, Thomas; Sodickson, Daniel K; Recht, Michael P; Knoll, Florian
Background MRI is a powerful diagnostic tool with a long acquisition time. Recently, deep learning (DL) methods have provided accelerated high-quality image reconstructions from undersampled data, but it is unclear if DL image reconstruction can be reliably translated to everyday clinical practice. Purpose To determine the diagnostic equivalence of prospectively accelerated DL-reconstructed knee MRI compared with conventional accelerated MRI for evaluating internal derangement of the knee in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods A DL reconstruction model was trained with images from 298 clinical 3-T knee examinations. In a prospective analysis, patients clinically referred for knee MRI underwent a conventional accelerated knee MRI protocol at 3 T followed by an accelerated DL protocol between January 2020 and February 2021. The equivalence of the DL reconstruction of the images relative to the conventional images for the detection of an abnormality was assessed in terms of interchangeability. Each examination was reviewed by six musculoskeletal radiologists. Analyses pertaining to the detection of meniscal or ligament tears and bone marrow or cartilage abnormalities were based on four-point ordinal scores for the likelihood of an abnormality. Additionally, the protocols were compared with use of four-point ordinal scores for each aspect of image quality: overall image quality, presence of artifacts, sharpness, and signal-to-noise ratio. Results A total of 170 participants (mean age ± SD, 45 years ± 16; 76 men) were evaluated. The DL-reconstructed images were determined to be of diagnostic equivalence with the conventional images for detection of abnormalities. The overall image quality score, averaged over six readers, was significantly better (P < .001) for the DL than for the conventional images. Conclusion In a clinical setting, deep learning reconstruction enabled a nearly twofold reduction in scan time for a knee MRI and was diagnostically equivalent with the conventional protocol. © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Roemer in this issue.
PMID: 36648347
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5462122

Interventional Imaging Techniques as Alternative to Surgery of the Foot and Ankle

Burke, Christopher J; Walter, William R; Adler, Ronald S
A variety of foot and ankle pathologies can impair patient's daily activities, ultimately requiring surgical management. However, with improvements in image-guided intervention, the joints, soft tissues, and osseous structures may be accessible using various percutaneous techniques as a potential alternative therapeutic tool, avoiding the need for surgery with its associated risks and morbidity. This article discusses the potential range of image-guided interventional treatments. Injections, aspiration, biopsies, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ablation are described. Newer novel treatments are also covered. Finally, the common pathologies of Morton's neuroma, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis are addressed.
PMID: 36791742
ISSN: 1098-898x
CID: 5427212

Incidence of infectious complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions with the use of an uncovered transducer footprint

Gorelik, Natalia; Darwish, Yousef; Walter, William R; Burke, Christopher J; Sarpel, Dost; Chong, Jaron; Adler, Ronald S
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of infectious complications following ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions performed with a disinfected uncovered ultrasound transducer footprint. METHODS:Electronic medical records of all patients who underwent an ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedure (including injection, calcific lavage, or ganglion cyst aspiration) performed by any of the 14 interventional musculoskeletal radiologists at our institution between January 2013 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed to identify procedure site infections. Biopsies and joint aspirations were excluded. The procedures were performed using a disinfected uncovered transducer footprint. First, an automated chart review identified cases with (1) positive answers to the nurse's post-procedure call, (2) an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic code related to a musculoskeletal infection, or (3) an antibiotic prescription within 30 days post-procedure. Then, these cases were manually reviewed for evidence of procedure site infection. RESULTS:In total, 6511 procedures were included. The automated chart review identified 3 procedures (2 patients) in which post-procedural fever was reported during the nurse's post-procedure call, 33 procedures (28 patients) with an ICD code for a musculoskeletal infection, and 220 procedures (216 patients) with an antibiotic prescription within 30 post-procedural days. The manual chart review of these patients revealed no cases of confirmed infection and 1 case (0.015%) of possible site infection. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of infectious complications after an ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedure performed with an uncovered transducer footprint is extremely low. This information allows radiologists to counsel their patients more precisely when obtaining informed consent. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• Infectious complications after ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures performed with a disinfected uncovered transducer footprint are extremely rare.
PMID: 35579710
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 5247632

Analysis of Factors Potentially Influencing Diagnostic Yield Among Computed Tomography-Guided Biopsies for Bone Lesions

Yoon, Garrett H; Gavilá, Elisa Ramos; Wei, Jason; Burke, Christopher J; Walter, William R
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate patient-specific, lesion-related, and technical factors that potentially influence diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies of bone lesions. METHODS:Computed tomography-guided bone lesion biopsies performed over a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed, including image review and electronic medical records for pathology reports and clinical follow-up. Lesions were tabulated by prebiopsy CT and magnetic resonance imaging features. Patients with nondiagnostic biopsies were assessed for presumptive clinical diagnosis and management. RESULTS:Nondiagnostic pathology results were obtained in 31 of 156 cases (19.87%), among which diagnoses were confirmed by other tissue sampling in 9; clinical follow-up of up to 2 years yielded no diagnosis in 10 and presumptive diagnoses in 12. The nondiagnostic biopsy rate of long bone lesions was higher than that of other bone lesions (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.09). There were no significant differences in patient American Society of Anesthesiologists class, mean body mass index, sedation method, number of cores, or needle gauge between diagnostic and nondiagnostic biopsy cohorts. Diagnostic yield was not significantly different between occult, lytic, or sclerotic lesions. There was no difference in diagnostic yield regarding presence of cortical break, gadolinium enhancement, or lesion depth. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained before biopsy in significantly more nondiagnostic cases compared with diagnostic cases (P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:Computed tomography-guided biopsies had a nondiagnostic rate of 19.87%, and lesions in the long bones of the extremities were disproportionately common among this group. There was no significant association between biopsy results and several patient-specific, lesion-related, and technical factors.
PMID: 35723638
ISSN: 1532-3145
CID: 5281832

ICRS scores worsen between 2-year short term and 5-year mid-term follow-up after transtibial medial meniscus root repair despite maintained functional outcomes

Kaplan, Daniel J; Bloom, David; Alaia, Erin F; Walter, William R; Meislin, Robert J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Alaia, Michael J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term results of posterior medial meniscal root tear (PMMRT) repair through assessment of functional outcome scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:This was a single-center, retrospective study evaluating patients that had undergone a PMMRT. This was a follow-up to a previously published 2-year outcome study (all original patients were invited to participate). Clinical outcomes included pre- and postoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores. Root healing, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage degeneration via International Cartilage Repair Society Scale (ICRS) grades were assessed on MRI by two musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologists. RESULTS:10 of the original study's 18 patients were able to participate. Mean age and BMI was 48.4 ± 12.0 years and 29.5 ± 4.5, respectively, with mean follow-up 65.5 ± 8.3 months (range 52.0-75.8) (60% female). The IKDC significantly increased from 43 ± 13 preoperatively to 75 ± 16 at 5-year follow-up (p < 0.001). There was no significant change in IKDC score between 2-year and 5-year follow-up [75 ± 16 vs 73 ± 20, (n.s)]. The Lysholm also significantly increased between preoperative and 5-year follow-up (49 ± 7 vs 84 ± 11, p < 0.001). There was no significant change between Lysholm score at 2-year and 5-year follow-up [84.0 ± 11 vs 82 ± 13, (n.s)]. Mean extrusion did not significantly change from the preoperative state to 5-year follow-up [4.80 mm ± 1.9 vs 5.0 mm ± 2.5, (n.s.)]. Extrusion also did not significantly change between 2-and 5-year follow-up [6.1 ± 3.2 mm vs 5.0 mm ± 2.5, (n.s.)]. No patients with > 3 mm of extrusion on preoperative MRI had < 3 mm of extrusion on postoperative MRI. Both medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades significantly increased from preoperative to 2-year follow-up (p = 0.038, p = 0.023, respectively). Medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades again significantly increased between 2-year and 5-year follow-up (p = 0.014, p = 0.034). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients treated with the transtibial suture pullout technique with two locking cinch sutures had maintenance of clinical outcome improvements at 5-year follow-up. However, extrusion was widely prevalent, with worsening progression of femoral and tibial chondral disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level 4.
PMID: 34652498
ISSN: 1433-7347
CID: 5068072