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Pediatric versus adult magnetic resonance imaging patterns in acute high ankle sprains

Walter, William R; Alaia, Erin F; Samim, Mohammad; Rosenberg, Zehava S
BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of literature describing MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in pediatric patients. Radiologists should understand MRI patterns of these injuries in both adults and children. OBJECTIVE:To describe normal MRI appearance of pediatric syndesmotic ligaments and compare MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in children versus adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We reviewed consecutive ankle MRIs performed over 3 years and divided them into three cohorts: a normal pediatric (≤16 years) cohort, and pediatric and adult cohorts with acute/subacute ankle syndesmosis injuries. Our retrospective review assessed interobserver agreement (Cohen kappa coefficient) and normal pediatric syndesmotic anatomy. We compared patterns of high ankle sprains (Fisher exact test) including ligament tears, periosteal stripping, avulsions and fractures. RESULTS:Of the 582 ankle MRIs, we included 25 in the normal pediatric cohort, 20 in the pediatric injury cohort and 23 in the adult injury cohort. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments all attached to cortex or cartilaginous precursor, while the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attached to the fibrous periosteum in 22/25 (88%) normal pediatric cases. Tibial periosteal stripping at the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attachment occurred in 7/20 (35%) pediatric and 1/23 (4%) adult injury cases (P=0.02). No other statistically significant differences were found. Interobserver agreement ranged from kappa=0.46 to kappa=0.82 (ligament tears), 0.38 to 0.45 (avulsions) and 0.69 to 0.77 (periosteal stripping). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The normal interosseous ligament/membrane complex typically attaches to fibrous periosteum rather than bony cortex. Tibial periosteal stripping, usually without tibial fracture, is significantly more common among pediatric high ankle sprains. MRI patterns of high ankle sprains are otherwise not significantly different between children and adults.
PMID: 34009406
ISSN: 1432-1998
CID: 4888742

Fibular Tip Periostitis: New Radiographic Sign Predictive of Chronic Peroneal Tendon Subluxation-Dislocation in Pes Planovalgus

Abballe, Valentino D; Samim, Mohammad; Gavilá, Elisa Ramos; Walter, William R; Alaia, Erin F; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka
PMID: 32936017
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 5003542

Does image-guided biopsy of discitis-osteomyelitis provide meaningful information to impact clinical management?

Lim, Elisha; Walter, William; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Samim, Mohammad
OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study are to assess the diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy for discitis-osteomyelitis (DO), identify factors associated with biopsy yield (laboratory, pre-defined MRI findings, and biopsy technique), and impact of biopsy on management of patients appropriately selected according to the Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines (IDSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent biopsy for suspected DO from 2011 to 2019. Reference standards to establish diagnosis of DO in order were histopathology/microbiology from biopsy or subsequent surgical sampling, positive blood culture or serology, and imaging/clinical follow-up. Laboratory markers, pre-biopsy antibiotics and MRI features, procedural-related variables, and impact of biopsy on management were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was also performed. RESULTS:Out of 97 included patients, 78 were diagnosed with DO. Overall sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0% (32/78), including 10 patients with positive histopathology only, 14 with positive biopsy culture only, and 8 with both. Elevated ESR (p < 0.001) and epidural collection on MRI (p = 0.008) were associated with higher biopsy yield (63.6% and 68.6%, respectively) in a multivariable model. Procedural variables were not associated with yield. Biopsy results impacted the management in 19/77 (24.7%) patients, of whom 15/19 (78.9%) had treatment de-escalation and 4/19 (21.0%) had treatment escalation including starting new anti-tuberculous and anti-fungal regimens. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sensitivity of biopsy for detecting DO was 41.0%. When IDSA guidelines are followed, biopsy provided impactful information that changed the management in 24.7% of patients. Evaluation for elevated ESR and epidural collection can help improve yield and patient selection for biopsy.
PMID: 33230728
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 4680502

Anterior shoulder instability in the aging population: MRI injury pattern and management

Abballe, Valentino D; Walter, William R; Lin, Dana J; Alaia, Michael J; Alaia, Erin F
Background: Literature on glenohumeral dislocations has focused on younger patient populations due to high recurrence rates. However, the spectrum of injuries sustained in younger versus older patient populations is reported to be quite different. Objective: To describe MRI findings and management of anterior shoulder instability in the aging (≥60 years) population. Methods: Shoulder MRIs of anterior glenohumeral dislocators aged ≥40 were subdivided into <60 or ≥60 age groups, and reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists for: Hill-Sachs lesion, other fracture, glenoid injury, capsulolabral injury, rotator cuff tear, muscle atrophy, and axillary nerve injury. Fischer exact and logistic regression evaluated for significant differences between cohorts, and inter-reader agreement was assessed. Surgical management was recorded, if available. Results: 104 shoulder MRIs (40-79 years, mean=58.3, 52 females, 52 males) were reviewed (N=54 age <60, N=50 age ≥60). Acute high-grade or full-thickness supraspinatus (64.0% vs. 37.0%, p=0.001), infraspinatus (28.0% vs. 14.8%, p=0.028), and subscapularis tears (22.0% vs. 3.7%, p=0.003) were more common in the ≥60 group. Hill-Sachs lesions were more common in the <60 group (81.5% vs. 62.0%, p=0.046). Greater tuberosity fractures were seen in 15.3% of the overall cohort, coracoid fractures in 4.8%, and axillary nerve injuries in 16.3%. Inter-reader concordance was 88.5-89.4% for rotator cuff tears, and 89.4-97.1% for osseous injury. The <60 group had rotator cuff repair in 11/37 subjects (29.7%), and labral repair in 11/37 (29.7%), while the ≥60 group underwent rotator cuff repair in 17/36 (47.2%), reverse shoulder arthroplasty in 6/36 (16.7%), and labral repair in 6/36 (16.7%). Conclusion: Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for acute rotator cuff tears in anterior shoulder instability, especially in aging populations. Greater tuberosity or coracoid fractures and axillary nerve injury occur across all ages, while Hill-Sachs injuries are more common in younger patients. Clinical Impact: Acute, high-grade or full-thickness rotator cuff tears are seen with higher frequency in older populations after anterior glenohumeral dislocation in the elderly. Osseous and nerve injuries are important causes of patient morbidity that, if not carefully sought out, may be overlooked by the interpreting radiologist on routine imaging.
PMID: 32783552
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 4557212

Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography of the Extremities: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Correlation

Azad, Ali; De Tolla, Jadie; Walter, William; Paksima, Nader; Melamed, Eitan
Ultrasonography as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool has become a resource for musculoskeletal injuries. It can be a useful imaging modality for clinical correlation of physical examination findings as well as an aid for image-guided procedures. Understanding the settings in which it is a helpful adjunct will have implications on efficiency and cost utility. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a background of ultrasonography as a musculoskeletal imaging modality, provide clinical correlation for ultrasonographic findings for common upper extremity pathology, review the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography for image-guided procedures, and provide insight into the cost utility of ultrasonography guidance for therapeutic injections.
PMID: 33438941
ISSN: 0065-6895
CID: 4746862

Preoperative Ultrasound-guided Wire Localization of Soft Tissue Masses Within the Musculoskeletal System

Burke, Christopher John; Walter, William R; Gao, Yiming; Hoda, Syed T; Adler, Ronald S
Ultrasound-guided hookwire localization was initially introduced to facilitate the excision of nonpalpable breast lesions by guiding surgical exploration, thereby reducing operative time and morbidity. The same technique has since found utility in a range of other applications outside breast and can be useful within the musculoskeletal system. Despite this, there remains limited literature with respect to its technical aspects and practical utility. We describe our technique and a series of preoperative ultrasound-guided wire localizations in the musculoskeletal system to assist surgical excision of 4 soft tissue masses.
PMID: 33298773
ISSN: 1536-0253
CID: 4721882

Clinical feasibility of 2D dynamic sagittal HASTE flexion-extension imaging of the cervical spine for the assessment of spondylolisthesis and cervical cord impingement

Burke, Christopher J; Samim, Mohammad; Alizai, Hamza; Sanchez, Julien; Kingsbury, Dallas; Babb, James S; Walter, William R
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To assess the utility of a 2D dynamic HASTE sequence in assessment of cervical spine flexion-extension, specifically (1) comparing dynamic spondylolisthesis to radiographs and (2) assessing dynamic contact upon or deformity of the cord. METHODS:Patients with a dynamic flexion-extension sagittal 2D HASTE sequence in addition to routine cervical spine sequences were identified. Static and dynamic listhesis was first determined on flexion-extension radiographs reviewed in consensus. Blinded assessment of the dynamic HASTE sequence was independently performed by 2 radiologists for (1) listhesis and translation during flexion-extension and (2) dynamic spinal cord impingement (cord contact or deformity between neutral, flexion and extension). RESULTS:32 scans in 32 patients (9 males, 23 females) met inclusion criteria acquired on 1.5 T (n = 15) and 3 T (n = 17) scanners. The mean acquisition time was 51.8 s (range 20-95 seconds). Dynamic translation was seen in 14 patients on flexion-extension radiographs compared to 12 (reader 1) and 13 (reader 2) patients on HASTE, with 90.6 % agreement (K = 0.83; p = 0.789). In all cases dynamic listhesis was ≤3 mm translation with one patient showing dynamic listhesis in the range 4-6 mm. Four cases (13 %) demonstrated deformity of the cord between flexion-extension, not present in the neutral position. For cord impingement there was strong inter-reader agreement (K = 0.93) and the paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test found no significant difference between the impingement scores of the two readers (p = 0.787). CONCLUSIONS:A sagittal dynamic flexion-extension HASTE sequence provides a rapid addition to standard MRI cervical spine protocols, which may useful for assessment of dynamic spondylolisthesis and cord deformity.
PMID: 33307460
ISSN: 1872-7727
CID: 4709532

Pitfalls in MRI of the Developing Pediatric Ankle

Walter, William R; Goldman, Lauren H; Rosenberg, Zehava S
Normal skeletal development in the pediatric ankle is dynamic and often produces variable imaging appearances that are subject to misinterpretation. Radiologists must understand the underlying developmental phenomena, such as endochondral and membranous ossification and physeal fusion, and be familiar with their common and uncommon imaging manifestations unique to the pediatric ankle. This is especially true as the use of MRI in the evaluation of musculoskeletal trauma expands among younger populations. The authors focus on MRI evaluation of the skeletally maturing pediatric ankle and present pearls for accurately distinguishing normal findings and imaging pitfalls from true pathologic findings. The normal but often variable imaging findings of preossification, secondary ossification, and multiple ossification centers, as well as the range of bone marrow signal intensities that can be visualized within ossification centers, are described, along with tips to help differentiate these from true pathologic findings such as contusion, fracture, or tumor. The authors also review dynamic periosteal and physeal contributions to bone growth to highlight helpful distinguishing features and avoid misdiagnosis of common subperiosteal and periphyseal abnormalities. For example, the normal trilaminar appearance of the immature cortex and periosteum should not be mistaken for periosteal reaction, traumatic stripping, or subperiosteal hematoma. In addition, the physis can have several confusing but normal appearances, including normal physeal undulations (eg, Kump bump) or focal periphyseal edema, which should not be mistaken for pathologic findings such as physeal fracture, infection, or bar. ©RSNA, 2020.
PMID: 33216674
ISSN: 1527-1323
CID: 4702252

Using Deep Learning to Accelerate Knee MRI at 3T: Results of an Interchangeability Study

Recht, Michael P; Zbontar, Jure; Sodickson, Daniel K; Knoll, Florian; Yakubova, Nafissa; Sriram, Anuroop; Murrell, Tullie; Defazio, Aaron; Rabbat, Michael; Rybak, Leon; Kline, Mitchell; Ciavarra, Gina; Alaia, Erin F; Samim, Mohammad; Walter, William R; Lin, Dana; Lui, Yvonne W; Muckley, Matthew; Huang, Zhengnan; Johnson, Patricia; Stern, Ruben; Zitnick, C Lawrence
OBJECTIVE:Deep Learning (DL) image reconstruction has the potential to disrupt the current state of MR imaging by significantly decreasing the time required for MR exams. Our goal was to use DL to accelerate MR imaging in order to allow a 5-minute comprehensive examination of the knee, without compromising image quality or diagnostic accuracy. METHODS:A DL model for image reconstruction using a variational network was optimized. The model was trained using dedicated multi-sequence training, in which a single reconstruction model was trained with data from multiple sequences with different contrast and orientations. Following training, data from 108 patients were retrospectively undersampled in a manner that would correspond with a net 3.49-fold acceleration of fully-sampled data acquisition and 1.88-fold acceleration compared to our standard two-fold accelerated parallel acquisition. An interchangeability study was performed, in which the ability of 6 readers to detect internal derangement of the knee was compared for the clinical and DL-accelerated images. RESULTS:The study demonstrated a high degree of interchangeability between standard and DL-accelerated images. In particular, results showed that interchanging the sequences would result in discordant clinical opinions no more than 4% of the time for any feature evaluated. Moreover, the accelerated sequence was judged by all six readers to have better quality than the clinical sequence. CONCLUSIONS:An optimized DL model allowed for acceleration of knee images which performed interchangeably with standard images for the detection of internal derangement of the knee. Importantly, readers preferred the quality of accelerated images to that of standard clinical images.
PMID: 32755163
ISSN: 1546-3141
CID: 4557132

Ultrasound-guided Therapeutic Injection and Cryoablation of the Medial Plantar Proper Digital Nerve (Joplin's Nerve): Sonographic Findings, Technique, and Clinical Outcomes

Burke, Christopher J; Sanchez, Julien; Walter, William R; Beltran, Luis; Adler, Ronald
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The medial plantar proper digital nerve, also called Joplin's nerve, arises from the medial plantar nerve, courses along the medial hallux metatarsophalangeal joint, and can be a source of neuropathic pain due to various etiologies, following acute injury including bunion surgery and repetitive microtrauma. We describe our clinical experience with diagnostic ultrasound assessment of Joplin's neuropathy and technique for ultrasound-guided therapeutic intervention including both injection and cryoablation over a 6-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Retrospective review of all diagnostic studies performed for Joplin's neuropathy and therapeutic Joplin's nerve ultrasound-guided injections and cryoablations between 2012 and 2018 was performed. Indications for therapeutic injection and cryoablation, were recorded. Studies were assessed for sonographic abnormalities related to the nerve and perineural soft tissues. Post-treatment outcomes including immediate pain scores, clinical follow-up, and periprocedural complications were documented. RESULTS:Twenty-four ultrasound-guided procedures were performed, including 15 perineural injections and nine cryoablations. With respect to sonographic abnormalities, nerve thickening (33%) and perineural hypoechoic scar tissue (27%) were the most common findings. The mean pain severity score prior to the therapeutic injection was 6.4/10 (range 4-10) and 0.25/10 (range 0-2) following the procedure; mean follow-up was 26.2 months (range 3-63 months). All of the cryoablation patients experienced sustained pain relief with a mean length follow-up of 3.75 months (range 0.2-10 months). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Therapeutic injection of Joplin's nerve is a safe and easily performed procedure under ultrasound guidance, with high rates of immediate symptom improvement. For those experiencing a relapse or recurrent symptoms, cryoablation offers an effective secondary potential treatment option.
PMID: 31279644
ISSN: 1878-4046
CID: 3976292