Imaging features and biopsy yield of soft tissue metastatic lesions: 10-year single tertiary center experience
Ilag, Marisa; Burke, Christopher; Walter, William R; Samim, Mohammad
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate imaging features of soft tissue metastases, technical factors associated with diagnostic yield of image-guided biopsy, and clinical impact of biopsy results on patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 1605 image-guided soft tissue biopsies were retrospectively identified from December 2010 to December 2020. Included lesions were histologically proven musculoskeletal soft tissue metastases. Lesions were excluded if intraabdominal, intrathoracic, retroperitoneal, associated with osseous lesions or surgical scar implants or arising from skin or lymph nodes. Image guidance modality, needle size, number of cores, and lesion location, size, and depth from skin were recorded. Patient demographics, malignancy history, biopsy-driven changes in management, and survival rate after biopsy were collected. RESULTS:Forty-six patients met the inclusion criteria with a biopsy diagnostic yield of 44/46 (95.7%). Metastases were most commonly located truncal (82.6%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) and intramuscular (78.3%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). A total of 37/46 (80.4%) biopsies were US-guided. And 9/46 (19.6%) were CT-guided. There was no significant difference in the number of cores or mean needle gauge between diagnostic and nondiagnostic biopsies. At time of review, 23 (50%) patients were deceased, with a mean survival of 13.5Â months after biopsy. The majority (71.7%) of patients had a known primary malignancy at time of biopsy, most commonly lung (24.2%) and breast (24.2%). Overall survival showed no association with anatomic location (pâ€‰>â€‰0.83) or tissue type (pâ€‰>â€‰0.34). The most common biopsy-driven outcome was initiation of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and/or radiotherapy (52.2%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Image-guided biopsy for soft tissue metastases has high diagnostic yield and commonly influences clinical management. Metastases were most commonly intramuscular in the trunk and are associated with poor prognosis.
Deep Learning Reconstruction Enables Prospectively Accelerated Clinical Knee MRI
Johnson, Patricia M; Lin, Dana J; Zbontar, Jure; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Sriram, Anuroop; Muckley, Matthew; Babb, James S; Kline, Mitchell; Ciavarra, Gina; Alaia, Erin; Samim, Mohammad; Walter, William R; Calderon, Liz; Pock, Thomas; Sodickson, Daniel K; Recht, Michael P; Knoll, Florian
Background MRI is a powerful diagnostic tool with a long acquisition time. Recently, deep learning (DL) methods have provided accelerated high-quality image reconstructions from undersampled data, but it is unclear if DL image reconstruction can be reliably translated to everyday clinical practice. Purpose To determine the diagnostic equivalence of prospectively accelerated DL-reconstructed knee MRI compared with conventional accelerated MRI for evaluating internal derangement of the knee in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods A DL reconstruction model was trained with images from 298 clinical 3-T knee examinations. In a prospective analysis, patients clinically referred for knee MRI underwent a conventional accelerated knee MRI protocol at 3 T followed by an accelerated DL protocol between January 2020 and February 2021. The equivalence of the DL reconstruction of the images relative to the conventional images for the detection of an abnormality was assessed in terms of interchangeability. Each examination was reviewed by six musculoskeletal radiologists. Analyses pertaining to the detection of meniscal or ligament tears and bone marrow or cartilage abnormalities were based on four-point ordinal scores for the likelihood of an abnormality. Additionally, the protocols were compared with use of four-point ordinal scores for each aspect of image quality: overall image quality, presence of artifacts, sharpness, and signal-to-noise ratio. Results A total of 170 participants (mean age ± SD, 45 years ± 16; 76 men) were evaluated. The DL-reconstructed images were determined to be of diagnostic equivalence with the conventional images for detection of abnormalities. The overall image quality score, averaged over six readers, was significantly better (P < .001) for the DL than for the conventional images. Conclusion In a clinical setting, deep learning reconstruction enabled a nearly twofold reduction in scan time for a knee MRI and was diagnostically equivalent with the conventional protocol. © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Roemer in this issue.
Interventional Imaging Techniques as Alternative to Surgery of the Foot and Ankle
Burke, Christopher J; Walter, William R; Adler, Ronald S
A variety of foot and ankle pathologies can impair patient's daily activities, ultimately requiring surgical management. However, with improvements in image-guided intervention, the joints, soft tissues, and osseous structures may be accessible using various percutaneous techniques as a potential alternative therapeutic tool, avoiding the need for surgery with its associated risks and morbidity. This article discusses the potential range of image-guided interventional treatments. Injections, aspiration, biopsies, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ablation are described. Newer novel treatments are also covered. Finally, the common pathologies of Morton's neuroma, Achilles tendinopathy, and plantar fasciitis are addressed.
Incidence of infectious complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions with the use of an uncovered transducer footprint
Gorelik, Natalia; Darwish, Yousef; Walter, William R; Burke, Christopher J; Sarpel, Dost; Chong, Jaron; Adler, Ronald S
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of infectious complications following ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions performed with a disinfected uncovered ultrasound transducer footprint. METHODS:Electronic medical records of all patients who underwent an ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedure (including injection, calcific lavage, or ganglion cyst aspiration) performed by any of the 14 interventional musculoskeletal radiologists at our institution between January 2013 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed to identify procedure site infections. Biopsies and joint aspirations were excluded. The procedures were performed using a disinfected uncovered transducer footprint. First, an automated chart review identified cases with (1) positive answers to the nurse's post-procedure call, (2) an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic code related to a musculoskeletal infection, or (3) an antibiotic prescription within 30 days post-procedure. Then, these cases were manually reviewed for evidence of procedure site infection. RESULTS:In total, 6511 procedures were included. The automated chart review identified 3 procedures (2 patients) in which post-procedural fever was reported during the nurse's post-procedure call, 33 procedures (28 patients) with an ICD code for a musculoskeletal infection, and 220 procedures (216 patients) with an antibiotic prescription within 30 post-procedural days. The manual chart review of these patients revealed no cases of confirmed infection and 1 case (0.015%) of possible site infection. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of infectious complications after an ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedure performed with an uncovered transducer footprint is extremely low. This information allows radiologists to counsel their patients more precisely when obtaining informed consent. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:â€¢ Infectious complications after ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures performed with a disinfected uncovered transducer footprint are extremely rare.
Analysis of Factors Potentially Influencing Diagnostic Yield Among Computed Tomography-Guided Biopsies for Bone Lesions
Yoon, Garrett H; GavilÃ¡, Elisa Ramos; Wei, Jason; Burke, Christopher J; Walter, William R
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate patient-specific, lesion-related, and technical factors that potentially influence diagnostic yield of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies of bone lesions. METHODS:Computed tomography-guided bone lesion biopsies performed over a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed, including image review and electronic medical records for pathology reports and clinical follow-up. Lesions were tabulated by prebiopsy CT and magnetic resonance imaging features. Patients with nondiagnostic biopsies were assessed for presumptive clinical diagnosis and management. RESULTS:Nondiagnostic pathology results were obtained in 31 of 156 cases (19.87%), among which diagnoses were confirmed by other tissue sampling in 9; clinical follow-up of up to 2 years yielded no diagnosis in 10 and presumptive diagnoses in 12. The nondiagnostic biopsy rate of long bone lesions was higher than that of other bone lesions (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.09). There were no significant differences in patient American Society of Anesthesiologists class, mean body mass index, sedation method, number of cores, or needle gauge between diagnostic and nondiagnostic biopsy cohorts. Diagnostic yield was not significantly different between occult, lytic, or sclerotic lesions. There was no difference in diagnostic yield regarding presence of cortical break, gadolinium enhancement, or lesion depth. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained before biopsy in significantly more nondiagnostic cases compared with diagnostic cases (P = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS:Computed tomography-guided biopsies had a nondiagnostic rate of 19.87%, and lesions in the long bones of the extremities were disproportionately common among this group. There was no significant association between biopsy results and several patient-specific, lesion-related, and technical factors.
ICRS scores worsen between 2-year short term and 5-year mid-term follow-up after transtibial medial meniscus root repair despite maintained functional outcomes
Kaplan, Daniel J; Bloom, David; Alaia, Erin F; Walter, William R; Meislin, Robert J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Alaia, Michael J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term results of posterior medial meniscal root tear (PMMRT) repair through assessment of functional outcome scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:This was a single-center, retrospective study evaluating patients that had undergone a PMMRT. This was a follow-up to a previously published 2-year outcome study (all original patients were invited to participate). Clinical outcomes included pre- and postoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm scores. Root healing, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage degeneration via International Cartilage Repair Society Scale (ICRS) grades were assessed on MRI by two musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologists. RESULTS:10 of the original study's 18 patients were able to participate. Mean age and BMI was 48.4â€‰Â±â€‰12.0Â years and 29.5â€‰Â±â€‰4.5, respectively, with mean follow-up 65.5â€‰Â±â€‰8.3Â months (range 52.0-75.8) (60% female). The IKDC significantly increased from 43â€‰Â±â€‰13 preoperatively to 75â€‰Â±â€‰16 at 5-year follow-up (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). There was no significant change in IKDC score between 2-year and 5-year follow-up [75â€‰Â±â€‰16 vs 73â€‰Â±â€‰20, (n.s)]. TheÂ Lysholm also significantly increased between preoperative and 5-year follow-up (49â€‰Â±â€‰7 vs 84â€‰Â±â€‰11, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). There was no significant change between Lysholm score at 2-year and 5-year follow-up [84.0â€‰Â±â€‰11 vs 82â€‰Â±â€‰13, (n.s)]. Mean extrusion did not significantly change from the preoperative state to 5-year follow-up [4.80Â mmâ€‰Â±â€‰1.9 vs 5.0Â mmâ€‰Â±â€‰2.5, (n.s.)]. Extrusion also did not significantly change between 2-and 5-year follow-up [6.1â€‰Â±â€‰3.2Â mm vs 5.0Â mmâ€‰Â±â€‰2.5, (n.s.)]. No patients withâ€‰>â€‰3Â mm of extrusion on preoperative MRI hadâ€‰<â€‰3Â mm of extrusion on postoperative MRI. Both medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades significantly increased from preoperative to 2-year follow-up (pâ€‰=â€‰0.038, pâ€‰=â€‰0.023, respectively). Medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades again significantly increased between 2-year and 5-year follow-up (pâ€‰=â€‰0.014, pâ€‰=â€‰0.034). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients treated with the transtibial suture pullout technique with two locking cinch sutures had maintenance of clinical outcome improvements at 5-year follow-up. However, extrusion was widely prevalent,Â with worsening progression of femoral and tibial chondral disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level 4.
Editorial Commentary: Real-Time Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Patellofemoral Joint: Ready for Prime Time? [Editorial]
Walter, William R; Burke, Christopher J
Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the musculoskeletal system touts the ability to perceive inÂ vivo joint kinematics, which is particularly attractive for diagnosing dynamic pathologies such as joint instability or impingement syndromes.The clinical utility of dynamic MRI in the musculoskeletal system is wide ranging, from patellofemoral kinematics to imaging of the hip in femoroacetabular impingement and also dynamic spine imaging. Patellofemoral instability is an ideal diagnostic target, as knee flexion and extension are easily performed in an MRI scanner, and dynamic measurements have been correlated to clinical and static radiologic parameters of instability. Proving the clinical utility of this MRI technique requires rigorous technical standardization and definition of normal patellofemoral motion parameters. Validated imaging methods and rigorously defined normal range data are required to light the path forward, and the video format of dynamic MRI is also ideal for advancing patient-centered care, improving patient literacy on their condition, and offering a potential catalyst for shared decision-making between surgeons and their patients.
Ultrasound of the symptomatic shoulder arthroplasty: Spectrum and prevalence of periarticular soft tissue pathology
Goldman, Lauren; Walter, William; Adler, Ronald S; Kaplan, Daniel; Burke, Christopher J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe our experience using ultrasound (US) to evaluate postoperative complications in the presence of in situ shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS:Review of patients who underwent US evaluation following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) or hemiarthroplasty from 2007 to 2020. All studies were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists to assess for joint effusion, periarticular collection, and characterization of associated rotator cuff tears. Tendon tears were assessed with respect to (1) thickness: low grade (<50% thickness), high grade (>50% thickness), full thickness; (2) morphology (focal vs. diffuse) and location (insertion vs. critical zone). Inter-reader agreements were determined using Cohen's kappa test. RESULTS:Ninety-seven studies were performed in 72 patients following TSA, RTSA, or hemiarthroplasty. Thirty-seven exams were solely for diagnostic purposes, and 59 were for guiding joint or periarticular collection aspiration. Twenty-eight studies assessed the cuff tendons post TSA. The mean time between surgery and US examination was 29.2â€‰months. Complete or high-grade tears were identified in 8/28 (28.6%) diagnostic exams. The most commonly torn tendon among TSA patients was the subscapularis, with 13/28 (46.4%) demonstrating at least partial tearing. Inter-reader agreement was excellent for presence of effusion (kÂ =Â 0.79, pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and periarticular collection (kÂ =Â 0.87, pâ€‰<â€‰.001), and excellent agreement for presence of subscapularis tear (kÂ =Â 0.78, pâ€‰<â€‰.001), with fair agreement for assessment of supraspinatus (kÂ =Â 0.66, pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and infraspinatus (kÂ =Â 0.60, pâ€‰<â€‰.001) tears. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The most commonly torn tendon following anatomic TSA identified by US was the subscapularis, which was torn or deficient in 46.4% of cases. The majority of studies were performed for the guidance of percutaneous aspiration.
Pediatric versus adult magnetic resonance imaging patterns in acute high ankle sprains
Walter, William R; Alaia, Erin F; Samim, Mohammad; Rosenberg, Zehava S
BACKGROUND:There is a paucity of literature describing MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in pediatric patients. Radiologists should understand MRI patterns of these injuries in both adults and children. OBJECTIVE:To describe normal MRI appearance of pediatric syndesmotic ligaments and compare MRI patterns of high ankle sprains in children versus adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We reviewed consecutive ankle MRIs performed over 3Â years and divided them into three cohorts: a normal pediatric (â‰¤16Â years) cohort, and pediatric and adult cohorts with acute/subacute ankle syndesmosis injuries. Our retrospective review assessed interobserver agreement (Cohen kappa coefficient) and normal pediatric syndesmotic anatomy. We compared patterns of high ankle sprains (Fisher exact test) including ligament tears, periosteal stripping, avulsions and fractures. RESULTS:Of the 582 ankle MRIs, we included 25 in the normal pediatric cohort, 20 in the pediatric injury cohort and 23 in the adult injury cohort. The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments all attached to cortex or cartilaginous precursor, while the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attached to the fibrous periosteum in 22/25 (88%) normal pediatric cases. Tibial periosteal stripping at the interosseous ligament/membrane complex attachment occurred in 7/20 (35%) pediatric and 1/23 (4%) adult injury cases (P=0.02). No other statistically significant differences were found. Interobserver agreement ranged from kappa=0.46 to kappa=0.82 (ligament tears), 0.38 to 0.45 (avulsions) and 0.69 to 0.77 (periosteal stripping). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The normal interosseous ligament/membrane complex typically attaches to fibrous periosteum rather than bony cortex. Tibial periosteal stripping, usually without tibial fracture, is significantly more common among pediatric high ankle sprains. MRI patterns of high ankle sprains are otherwise not significantly different between children and adults.
Fibular Tip Periostitis: New Radiographic Sign Predictive of Chronic Peroneal Tendon Subluxation-Dislocation in Pes Planovalgus
Abballe, Valentino D; Samim, Mohammad; GavilÃ¡, Elisa Ramos; Walter, William R; Alaia, Erin F; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka