International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) survey: Efforts to avoid complications in home tracheostomy care
OBJECTIVE:To provide guidance for home care tracheostomy management in the pediatric population. The mission of the IPOG is to develop expertise-based recommendations for the management of pediatric otolaryngologic disorders with the goal of improving patient care. METHODS:Survey of expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). RESULTS:Survey results provide guidance for caregiver teaching, the reuse of tracheostomies and suction catheters while inpatient and following discharge, acceptable sterilization practices for tracheostomies, tracheitis workup and management, and outpatient follow-up practices. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This presentation of common home tracheostomy care practices are aimed at improving patient-centered care in the pediatric population.
Proton pump inhibitor administration in neonates and infants. Lack of consensus - An ASPO survey
OBJECTIVE:Laryngopharyngeal and Gastroesophageal reflux (LPR and GER) are distinct clinical entities that present with a range of non-specific symptoms. The exact prevalence in the pediatric population is unknown. While there has been an increase in the use of PPIs, lack of clear guidelines, conflicting evidence regarding efficacy and safety concerns with long-term use require physicians to use their own anecdotal experience and clinical judgement when treating patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate practice patterns among pediatric otolaryngologists regarding the use of proton-pump inhibitors for reflux-related conditions. METHODS:A survey was submitted to American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) members to determine practice patterns regarding use of PPIs for reflux-related conditions in the newborn and infant population. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test was performed. RESULTS:37% of respondents would not prescribe PO PPIs in neonates, with 50% not prescribing IV PPIs. 60% would prescribe a PPI as second or third-line treatment for infants (10 weeks to 1-year). Only 10% would prescribe as first-line in this age group. 48% would prescribe PPIs once daily and 19% as BID. No significant practice differences exist based on years of experience, number of relevant patients seen, and setting of practice. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There was no agreement regarding dosage, frequency and duration of PPI treatment for reflux disease in neonates and infants. There was also no correlation with experience or practice setting. This emphasizes the need for a multidisciplinary approach and consensus statement to guide management of GER and LPR in this population.
International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations: Diagnosis, pre-operative, operative and post-operative pediatric choanal atresia care
OBJECTIVE:To provide recommendations to otolaryngologists and allied physicians for the comprehensive management of young infants who present with signs or symptoms of choanal atresia. METHODS:A two-iterative delphi method questionnaire was used to establish expert recommendations by the members of the International Otolaryngology Group (IPOG), on the diagnostic, intra-operative, post-operative and revision surgery considerations. RESULTS:Twenty-eight members completed the survey, in 22 tertiary-care center departments representing 8 countries. The main consensual recommendations were: nasal endoscopy or fiberscopy and CT imaging are recommended for diagnosis; unilateral choanal atresia repair should be delayed after at least age 6 months whenever possible; transnasal endoscopic repair is the preferred technique; long term follow-up is recommended (minimum one year) using nasal nasofiberscopy or rigid endoscopy, without systematic imaging. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Choanal atresia care consensus recommendations are aimed at improving patient-centered care in neonates, infants and children with choanal atresia.
Intracapsular tonsillectomy: My surgical approach (ROBERT F. WARD, MD, FACS)
[S.l.] : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2017
Evaluation and management of pediatric nasal obstruction: A survey of practice patterns
BACKGROUND: Inferior turbinate (IT) hypertrophy and adenoid hypertrophy are both causes of pediatric nasal obstruction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this survey was to study nasal obstruction evaluation and management among pediatric otolaryngologists with respect to IT and adenoid hypertrophy. METHODS: A questionnaire with embedded clinical videos was sent electronically to American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology members. RESULTS: A total of 435 questionnaires were sent, and 75 were completed. Respondents were presented with scenarios that involved a 7-year-old child with nasal obstruction unresponsive to medical therapy, and the respondents were asked to choose a surgical plan, either IT reduction, adenoidectomy, or combined IT reduction and adenoidectomy. Three questions described the extent of IT and adenoid obstruction in text form, although three questions included a video of the child's nasal endoscopy. In questions with perceived or stated IT hypertrophy, the respondents chose to perform IT reduction significantly more frequently when the perceived or stated adenoid hypertrophy was less severe (p < 0.0001 for video and p = 0.039 for written questions). CONCLUSION: The decision to perform IT reduction in children is inversely related to the extent of adenoid hypertrophy. Future studies on pediatric IT surgery should include objective descriptions of the IT and adenoid in study subjects.
International Pediatric ORL Group (IPOG) laryngomalacia consensus recommendations
OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the comprehensive management of young infants who present with signs or symptoms concerning for laryngomalacia. METHODS: Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). RESULTS: Consensus recommendations include initial care and triage recommendations for health care providers who commonly evaluate young infants with noisy breathing. The consensus statement also provides comprehensive care recommendations for otolaryngologists who manage young infants with laryngomalacia including: evaluation and treatment considerations for commonly debated issues in laryngomalacia, initial work-up of infants presenting with inspiratory stridor, treatment recommendations based on disease severity, management of the infant with feeding difficulties, post-surgical treatment management recommendations, and suggestions for acid suppression therapy. CONCLUSION: Laryngomalacia care consensus recommendations are aimed at improving patient-centered care in infants with laryngomalacia.
International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) consensus recommendations: Routine peri-operative pediatric tracheotomy care
OBJECTIVES: To develop consensus recommendations for peri-operative tracheotomy care in pediatric patients. METHODS: Expert opinion by the members of the International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG). The mission of the IPOG is to develop expertise-based consensus recommendations for the management of pediatric otolaryngologic disorders with the goal of improving patient care. The consensus recommendations herein represent the first publication by the group. RESULTS: Consensus recommendations including pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative considerations, as well as sedation and nutrition management are described. These recommendations are based on the collective opinion of the IPOG members and are targeted to (i) otolaryngologists who perform tracheotomies on pediatric patients, (ii) intensivists who are involved in the shared-care of these patients, and (iii) allied health professionals. CONCLUSION: Pediatric peri-operative tracheotomy care consensus recommendations are aimed at improving patient-centered care in this patient population.
Histopathological effect of balloon dilation in a live rabbit: Implications for the pediatric airway
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To examine the short- and long-term histopathologic changes that occur in the subglottis in response to airway balloon dilation (ABD) with different balloon diameters and inflation pressures. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective animal study using forty-two 8-month old New Zealand white rabbits at an academic animal research facility. METHODS: Thirty-nine live New Zealand rabbits underwent a single ABD with diameters ranging from 6.0 mm to 10.0 mm and with pressures between 5.0 atmospheres (atm) to 15.0 atm. Animals were euthanized on postoperative days (POD) 1, 7, and 30, and the histopathological changes of the subglottis were examined. Three rabbits served as controls and underwent no ABD. RESULTS: The subglottic airway diameter of all specimens measured 5.4 mm. When examining the fracture rate by balloon diameter, we found the following: 0 of 6 (0%) at 6 mm, 0 of 9 (0%) at 7 mm, 6 of 9 (67%) at 8 mm, 8 of 9 (89%) at 9 mm, and 6 of 6 (100%) at 10 mm. There was a statistically significant relationship with the rate of cricoid fracture as balloon diameter increased (P < .0001). All fractures occurred at the anterior cricoid lamina. On POD 1, we found mild ulceration in 5 of 6 (83%) using a 6-mm or 7-mm balloon and in 0 of 6 (0%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon; and moderate/severe ulceration in 1 of 6 (16.67%) using a 6-mm or 7-mm balloon and in 11 of 11 (100%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon (P < .0001). Also on POD 1, we found mild edema in 6 of 6 (100%) using a 6-mm or 7-mm balloon and in 5 of 11 (45%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon; and moderate/severe edema in 0 of 6 (0%) using a 6-mm/7-mm balloon and in 6 of 11 (55%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon (P =.048). On POD 7, we found fibroplasia in 5 of 6 (83%) using a 6-mm or 7-mm balloon and in 1 of 7 (14%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon; and moderate/severe fibroplasia in 1 of 6 (17%) using a 6-mm or 7-mm balloon and in 6 of 7 (86%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon (P =.029). Also on POD7, we found granulation tissue in 0 of 6 (0%) using a 6-mm or 7-mm balloon and in 5 of 7 (71%) using an 8-mm, 9-mm, or 10-mm balloon (P = .021). On POD 30, we found no fibrosis in 0 of 3 (0%) using a 7-mm balloon, mild fibrosis in 1 of 6 (16.67%), and moderate/severe fibrosis in 5 of 6 (83%) using an 8-mm or 9-mm balloon (P = .048). Also on POD 30, we found the mean subglottic cross-sectional luminal area was 23.79 mm2 with a 7-mm balloon and 29.28 mm2 with an 8-mm or 9-mm balloon (P = .019). Inflation pressure alone had no correlation with mucosal injury or probability of cricoid fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Airway balloon dilation with balloon diameters that exceeded the airway diameter by 2.6 mm was associated with cricoid fractures. All cricoid fractures localized to the anterior cricoid lamina. Balloon diameters larger than the airway diameter by 2.6 mm resulted in a larger subglottic cross-sectional luminal area on POD 30. Airway balloon dilation with balloon diameters that could generate a cricoid fracture created more mucosal injury on POD 0, 1, and 7 than smaller balloon diameters. The histopathological effects of airway balloon dilation observed on POD 0, 1, and 7 resolved by POD 30. When balloon diameter is kept constant, inflation pressure alone had no correlation with mucosal injury or probability of cricoid fracture. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA (animal study). Laryngoscope, 2015.
Iatrogenic velopharyngeal insufficiency caused by neonatal nasogastric feeding tube
Complications from a prolonged nasogastric tube intubation, though seldom reported, are well described. Herein we describe the first two reported cases of velopharyngeal insufficiency secondary to velopharyngeal scarring and immobility from repetitive nasogastric tube insertions and prolonged use. Differing only in location, the proposed pathophysiologic mechanism of injury is identical to that of the nasogastric tube syndrome, a rare and serious, well described entity consisting of bilateral vocal fold paralysis due to pressure-induced ulceration of the posterior cricoarytenoid musculature.
Factors contributing to cost in partial versus total tonsillectomy
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To examine differences between total tonsillectomy and partial intracapsular tonsillectomy techniques that may lead to differences in overall cost and resource utilization between these procedures. Preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative management and outcome factors were examined. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review at two university-based tertiary care hospitals from January 2007 to June 2010. METHODS: Pediatric patients with obstructive symptoms were divided into those undergoing total tonsillectomy and those undergoing partial intracapsular tonsillectomy. The records of 289 patients who underwent total tonsillectomy and 289 patients who underwent partial intracapsular tonsillectomy were reviewed. RESULTS: The average age of patients undergoing total and partial tonsillectomies was 5.0 years for both groups. Significant differences for patients undergoing total versus partial tonsillectomies were as follows: operative time (32.4 vs. 26.4 minutes, P < .0001), postanesthesia care unit (PACU) time (174 vs. 91.6 minutes, P < .0001), percent admitted postoperatively (21.5% vs. 1.7%, P < .0001), number requiring pediatric intensive care unit stay (3.5% vs. 0.3%, P < .05), number of readmissions after discharge (3.5% vs. 0.3%, P < .05), and number of postoperative emergency room visits separate from those requiring readmission (4.8% vs. 0%, P < .05). Factors that were not found to be significantly different included number of patients with postoperative hemorrhage and number requiring second operations for tonsillar regrowth. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have shown equivalent effectiveness between these two procedures; our study suggests decreased cost and resource utilization with partial tonsillectomy through reduced operative and PACU times and number of postoperative admissions and emergency department visits. As in all retrospective reviews, the findings are potentially confounded by unmeasured variables, including patient and demographic factors. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 123:2868-2872, 2013.