Braking Reaction Time After Right-Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Comparison of 3 Grafts
PURPOSE: To determine when patients recover the ability to safely operate the brakes of an automobile after a right-knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). METHODS: A computerized driving simulator was used to determine braking ability after an isolated right-knee ACLR. Thirty healthy volunteers were tested at 1 visit to determine normal mean values, and 27 treatment subjects were tested at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks after ACLR. Nine study subjects were treated with a patella tendon (BPTB) autograft, 9 were treated with a hamstring (HS) autograft, and 9 were treated with a tibialis anterior (TA) allograft. The driving simulator collected data on brake reaction time (BRT), brake travel time (BTT), and total brake time (TBT) at each visit. RESULTS: The control group generated a BRT of 725 milliseconds, BTT of 2.87 seconds, and TBT of 3.59 seconds. At week 1, all treatment patients had significant differences compared with controls for BRT, BTT, and TBT, except the BTT of the HS group. At week 3, all measures for the allograft group and the BRT for both autograft groups were no longer significantly different compared with controls, but significant differences were found for TBT in the HS and BPTB groups (P = .03, P = .01). At week 6, BRT, BTT, and TBT were no longer significantly different for either the HS group or BPTB group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent a right-knee ACLR with a TA allograft regained normal braking times by week 3 postoperatively. In contrast, those treated with a BPTB or HS autograft demonstrated significantly delayed braking times at 3 weeks but returned to normal braking ability by week 6. Those treated with an autograft had an earlier return of normalized BRT than BTT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, case-control series.
Accuracy of acromioclavicular joint injections: letter to the editor [Letter]
Authors' response [Letter]
Accuracy of acromioclavicular joint injections
BACKGROUND: Injection to the acromioclavicular (AC) joint can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of in vivo AC joint injections. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Thirty patients with pain localized to the AC joint were injected with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine and 0.5 mL of radiographic contrast material (Isovue). Radiographs of the AC joint were taken after the injection. Each radiograph was reviewed by a musculoskeletal radiologist and graded as intra-articular, extra-articular, or partially intra-articular. RESULTS: Of the 30 injections performed, 13 (43.3%) were intra-articular, 7 (23.3%) were partially articular, and 10 (33.3%) were extra-articular. When the intra-articular and the partially articular groups were combined, 20 patients (66.7%) had some contrast dye in the AC joint. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that despite the relatively superficial location of the AC joint, the clinical accuracy of AC joint injections remains relatively low.
Avulsion injuries of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon
Avulsions of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon may involve tendon retraction into the palm and fractures of the distal phalanx. Although various repair techniques have been described, none has emerged as superior to others. Review of the literature does provide evidence-based premises for treatment: multi-strand repairs perform better, gapping may be seen with pullout suture-dorsal button repairs, and failure because of bone pullout remains a concern with suture anchor methods. Clinical prognostic factors include the extent of proximal tendon retraction, chronicity of the avulsion, and the presence and size of associated osseous fragments. Patients must be counseled appropriately regarding anticipated outcomes, the importance of postoperative rehabilitation, and potential complications. Treatment alternatives for the chronic avulsion injury remain patient-specific and include nonsurgical management, distal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis, and staged reconstruction
Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine - clinical considerations
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic infammatory disorder affecting multiple organ systems, joints, ligaments, and bones and commonly involves the cervical spine. Chronic synovitis may result in bony erosion and ligamentous laxity that result in instability and sublux-ation. Anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) is the most frequently occurring deformity, due to laxity of the primary and secondary ligamentous restraints. Additional manifestations of RA include cranial settling, subaxial subluxation, or a combination of these. Although clinical fndings can be confounded by the severity of multifocal joint and systemic involvement, a careful history is critical to identify symptoms of cervical disease; serial physical examination is the best noninvasive diagnostic tool. Thorough physical and neurologic examinations should be performed in all patients and serial functional assessments charted. Radiographs of the cervical spine with lateral fexion-extension dynamic views should be obtained periodically and used to 'clear' the cervical spine before elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Advanced imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography and computed tomography (CT), may be necessary to evaluate the neuraxis. Early initiation of pharmacotherapy may slow progression of rheumatoid cervical disease. Operative intervention before the onset of advanced myelopathy results in improved outcomes compared to the surgical stabilization of patients whose conditions are more advanced. A multidisciplinary approach involving rheumatology, surgery, and rehabilitation is benefcial to optimize outcomes
Kinematics of the stiff total knee arthroplasty
The kinematics of 10 total knee replacements with poor flexion (<90 degrees ) were compared with 11 replacements with good flexion (>110 degrees ) at a mean of 3 years from surgery using optical calibration with implant shape-matching techniques from radiographs taken in standing, early-lunge, and late-lunge positions. There were no significant differences between groups in anteroposterior translation of the medial and lateral femoral condyles or tibial rotation during standing and early lunge. Groups differed in amount of posterior translation of the femoral condyles during late lunge because of the poor-flexion group's inability to achieve the same amount of flexion as the good-flexion group. Poor flexion after total knee arthroplasty, we conclude, is not associated with abnormal kinematics in the setting of well-aligned, well-fixed implants
Clinical outcome of total hip arthroplasty using the normalized and proportionalized femoral stem with a minimum 20-year follow-up
Currently, there are several femoral stem designs available for use, but few have an extended track record. We have previously reported on 10- and 15-year outcome studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a cemented normalized and proportionalized femoral stem from a single surgeon series. This is a follow-up study reporting the minimum 20-year outcome of this femoral stem design. The study began with THA performed in a consecutive series of 184 patients; stem fixation was achieved using first-generation cementing techniques. The overall early complication rate was 10%. There were 23 patients (31 hips) who had been followed-up for a minimum 20-year period (average 21.3 years). Mean d'Aubigne and Postel scores improved from 5.9 to 11.3; mean Harris hip scores improved from 43.8 to 92.8. Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 93% at 20 years (95% confidence interval); there were no stem failures. The use of a cemented normalized and proportionalized femoral stem in primary THA provides satisfactory long-term clinical and radiological outcomes in patients.
Midterm results of primary total knee arthroplasty using a dished polyethylene insert with a recessed or resected posterior cruciate ligament
Use of a dished polyethylene insert in 114 total knee arthroplasties, all with the posterior cruciate ligament resected or recessed, was retrospectively studied. Patients were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 8.3 years. Mean range of motion increased from 92 degrees to 111 degrees . Mean Knee Society pain and function scores increased from 35.2 and 39.7 to 91.3 and 74.7, respectively. WOMAC scores improved significantly in each category evaluated, including pain, stiffness, and physical function. Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 95% at 10 years (95% confidence interval, 82%-99%). The use of a dished polyethylene insert in primary total knee arthroplasty provides good to excellent midterm results regardless of whether the posterior cruciate ligament is recessed or sacrificed
Operative treatment of tibial fractures in children: are elastic stable intramedullary nails an improvement over external fixation?
BACKGROUND: Operative treatment of tibial fractures in children requires implants that do not violate open physes while maintaining tibial length and alignment. Both elastic stable intramedullary nails and external fixation can be utilized. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with these two techniques to determine if one is superior to the other. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the operative records and trauma registries of three institutions within our hospital system and identified thirty-five consecutive patients with open physes who had undergone operative treatment of a tibial fracture between April 1997 and June 2004. Four patients were excluded because they had been managed with locked intramedullary nails or with pins and plaster. Of the thirty-one remaining patients, sixteen had been managed with elastic stable intramedullary nails and fifteen had been managed with unilateral external fixation. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were compared. The functional outcomes were compared with use of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. Complications related to treatment, such as malunion, delayed union, nonunion, infection, and the need for subsequent surgical treatment also were compared. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients with thirty-one operatively treated tibial fractures were available for evaluation. Fifteen patients had been managed with external fixation. Seven of these patients had a closed fracture, and eight had an open fracture. There were seven healing complications in this group, including two delayed unions, three nonunions, and two malunions. Sixteen patients had been managed with elastic stable intramedullary nailing. Eleven patients had a closed fracture, and five had an open fracture. The mean time to union for the intramedullary nailing group (seven weeks) was significantly shorter than that for the external fixation group (eighteen weeks) (p < 0.01). The functional outcomes for the intramedullary nailing group were significantly better than those for the external fixation group in the categories of pain, happiness, sports, and global function (the mean of the mean scores of the first four categories) (p < 0.01 for these comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: When surgical stabilization of tibial fractures in children is indicated, we believe that the preferred method of fixation is with elastic stable intramedullary nailing