Do the effects of high intensity 40Â km cycling upon left ventricular function and cardiac biomarker during recovery vary with time of day?
Twelve healthy participants performed two identical high-intensity 40 km cycling trials (morning and evening) under controlled laboratory conditions. Echocardiograms and venous blood samples were collected before and after each exercise bout. Cardiac electro-mechanical-delay (cEMD) was measured as QRS-complex onset to peak systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') tissue velocities. Myocardial strain and strain rates were assessed in longitudinal, circumferential and radial planes at the left ventricular apex and base. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) were assessed as biomarkers of cardiomyocyte damage and wall stress. cEMD was lengthened after both morning (S': 160 Â± 30 vs. 193 Â± 27; E': 478 Â± 60 vs. 620 Â± 87, P < 0.05) and evening (S': 155 Â± 29 vs. 195 Â± 31; E': 488 Â± 42 vs. 614 Â± 61, P < 0.05) trials. A reduction in peak S' (morning: 6.96 Â± 1.12 vs. 6.66 Â± 0.89; evening: 7.09 Â± 0.94 vs. 7.02 Â± 0.76) was correlated with cEMD (r = -0.335, P < 0.05). Peak longitudinal strain was reduced, atrial strain rates were sporadically increased in both trials post-cycling. cTnI was elevated in only two participants (0.04 Âµg Â· L(-1), 0.03 Âµg Â· L(-1)), whilst NT-proBNP was below the clinical cut-off point in all participants. Prolonged-cycling resulted in a lengthening of cEMD, small changes in aspects of left ventricular deformation and sporadic increases in cardiac biomarkers. None of these effects were moderated by time-of-day.