Statin Treatment for Older Adults: The Impact of the 2013 ACC/AHA Cholesterol Guidelines
The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) practice guidelines for the treatment of blood cholesterol significantly changed the paradigm of how providers should prescribe statin therapy, especially for older adults. While the evidence supports statin therapy for older adults with cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention and with high cardiovascular risk for primary prevention, the evidence is lacking for older adults without major cardiovascular risk aside from age. The unclear evidence base for older adults must be considered along with the potential harms of statin therapy when incorporating the 2013 ACC/AHA practice guidelines for considering statin treatment, particularly for primary prevention for older adults.
Statins are the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention. The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines represent a fundamental shift in how statins will be prescribed. The new guidelines recommend statins for nearly all older patients up to age 75 years, including healthy adults with low normal lipid levels and no atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors other than age. Under the 2013 guidelines, age becomes a main determinant for initiating statin therapy for primary prevention among older adults. Specifically, according to the new guidelines, white males aged 63-75, white females aged 71-75, African American males aged 66-75, and African American females aged 70-75 with optimal risk factors would be recommended for statin treatment for primary prevention. Based on the new guidelines, one could term these older adults as having "statin deficiency," a condition warranting statin treatment. We call this putative condition of age-related statin deficiency "statinopause." After careful examination of the trial evidence, we find very little support for the new recommendations for primary prevention. The lack of evidence underscores the need for clinical trials to determine the risks and benefits of statin therapy for primary prevention among older adults.
A New Syndrome "Statinopause" [Meeting Abstract]
A Quality Improvement Program Reduced Fall Rates among High Risk Veterans [Meeting Abstract]
Current updates in the medical management of obesity
Obesity is a chronic medical condition that is expected to become an indirect but leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Obesity results in type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease. These factors contribute to cardiovascular disease that is a leading cause of death. Therefore, the approach to obesity therapy should be designed to reduce cardiovascular disease risk and mortality. Diet and lifestyle changes remain the cornerstones of therapy for obesity, but the resultant weight loss is often small. For more effective weight loss, individuals have shown to benefit from anti-obesity medications. Anti-Obesity therapy is considered for individuals with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 or ranging from 25 to 30 kg/m2, or individuals with co-morbid conditions. Recent anti-obese medications affect biological mechanisms that suppress appetite and absorb nutrients to regulate body weight. In this review, we discuss the FDA approved anti-obesity drugs and recent patents which include phentermine/topiramate, pramlintide, lorcaserin, AOD9604, oleoyl-estrone, trk-beta antagonists and melanin concentrating hormone that can reduce adiposity at the molecular level.