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Body weight and prandial variation of plasma metabolites in subjects undergoing gastric band-induced weight loss

Bruno, Joanne; Verano, Michael; Vanegas, Sally M.; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Fielding, Christine Ren; Lofton, Holly; Fielding, George; Schwack, Bradley; Chua, Deborah L.; Wang, Chan; Li, Huilin; Alemán, José O.
Background: Bariatric procedures are safe and effective treatments for obesity, inducing rapid and sustained loss of excess body weight. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is unique among bariatric interventions in that it is a reversible procedure in which normal gastrointestinal anatomy is maintained. Knowledge regarding how LAGB effects change at the metabolite level is limited. Objectives: To delineate the impact of LAGB on fasting and postprandial metabolite responses using targeted metabolomics. Setting: Individuals undergoing LAGB at NYU Langone Medical Center were recruited for a prospective cohort study. Methods: We prospectively analyzed serum samples from 18 subjects at baseline and 2 months after LAGB under fasting conditions and after a 1-h mixed meal challenge. Plasma samples were analyzed on a reverse-phase liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform. The main outcome measure was their serum metabolite profile. Results: We quantitatively detected over 4,000 metabolites and lipids. Metabolite levels were altered in response to surgical and prandial stimuli, and metabolites within the same biochemical class tended to behave similarly in response to either stimulus. Plasma levels of lipid species and ketone bodies were statistically decreased after surgery whereas amino acid levels were affected more by prandial status than surgical condition. Conclusions: Changes in lipid species and ketone bodies postoperatively suggest improvements in the rate and efficiency of fatty acid oxidation and glucose handling after LAGB. Further investigation is necessary to understand how these findings relate to surgical response, including long term weight maintenance, and obesity-related comorbidities such as dysglycemia and cardiovascular disease.
ISSN: 2451-8476
CID: 5408152

Using objective structured clinical examinations to assess trainee telehealth performance measures in ibd: A pilot program [Meeting Abstract]

Lee, B; Zabar, S; Weinshel, E; Malter, L
Introduction: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a common educational strategy to assess interpersonal skills and knowledge gaps, and we have previously shown its benefits in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) education. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been explosive growth in telehealth. Currently, we lack methods to teach and evaluate trainees' related skillset and no telehealth-specific milestones exist. We assessed the telehealth proficiency of gastroenterology (GI) fellows as part of an annual IBD OSCE over Zoom (Z-OSCE).
Method(s): Seven GI fellows from four programs participated in Z-OSCE featuring four clinical scenarios. We used previously validated OSCE checklists to assess the fellows' performance in IBDspecific cases. Telehealth communication skills were also assessed. One of the scenarios required the trainees to conduct a televisit focusing on preventative care for a Crohn's disease patient based on the ACG guideline. Checklists were scored on a 3-point Likert scale by the Standardized Patient (SP).
Result(s): The telehealth behavioral anchored checklist items included: maintaining proper computer etiquette, use of non-verbal communication and positioning to optimize the encounter, optimized technical aspects, and exhibiting comfort and confidence with the virtual platform. In these domains 5 or 6 (out of 7) fellows received 3 points. In contrast less than half of the fellows asked questions of the SP to make sure they understood or acknowledged emotion, and 3 out 7 fellows did not make appropriate eye contact. Despite high performance in the telehealth aspects of the encounter, the SP did not fully recommend fellows for their communication skills without reservations to friends/ family, with all fellows receiving 2 points.
Conclusion(s): Telehealth has quickly become a fixture of our profession, and merits educational opportunities and assessment to improve clinicians' competency, as it will likely outlast the COVID- 19 pandemic. To our knowledge, this is the first OSCE designed to assess telehealth performance in the delivery of IBD care. Z-OSCEs can play a unique role in simulating realistic telehealth visits and this pilot program helps us identify future educational needs. Assessment of fellows' performance during this virtual program can provide an opportunity for learning, growth and reflection as well as prepare trainees for future patient encounters
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5083982

Virtual pivot: gastroenterology fellows' perception of a teleconferencing platform to conduct objective structured clinical examinations [Meeting Abstract]

Lee, B; Williams, R; Weinshel, E; Zabar, S; Malter, L
Introduction: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been shown to not only assess but also improve the performance of trainees. Our group has previously demonstrated the benefits of OSCEs to assess gastroenterology (GI) fellows. We have successfully assessed performance across numerous milestones. Typically, OSCEs are held in person, however the COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated the need for virtual learning. We accordingly transitioned to a virtual zoom OSCE (Z-OSCE) and evaluated trainees' perception of this program.
Method(s): Fourteen first- and second-year GI fellows from five programs across multiple states participated in a four-station virtual OSCE on Zoom. Afterwards, participants answered a survey to share their perspectives and provide feedback. Learners were asked to rate the usefulness of the virtual OSCE and compare it to other in-person and virtual educational modalities. These questions were rated on a 10-point Likert scale (Figure 1). Additionally, free-text responses regarding any aspect of the OSCE were evaluated for comments on the virtual format.
Result(s): In comparing the usefulness of the virtual OSCE to other in-person modalities, trainees rated it a mean of 7.15 (range 5-10), and 31% of respondents rated it a 9 or 10. Trainees rated the virtual OSCE compared to other virtual learning modalities a mean of 8.15 (range 5-10), and 43% rated it 9 or 10. When asked whether they would recommend this OSCE as a training tool, the trainees gave a mean recommendation of 7.77 (range 5-10), and 38% gave a 9 or 10. General feedback regarding the nature of the OSCE noted the virtual format worked well, orientation to the format was important and could be improved by providing it in an email beforehand.
Conclusion(s): Virtual learning has been necessary during the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is crucial to evaluate the value of the novel Z-OSCE. Participants found the virtual OSCE may be more useful than in-person learning modalities and it compared favorably to other virtual learning modalities. One benefit of this modality was the easier inclusion of fellows from geographically disparate areas negating the need to travel for this program, a benefit given lack of universal access to simulation using standardized patients. To improve future exams, orientation prior to the day of the OSCE may improve trainees' experiences.
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5084122

Subtle skills: Using objective structured clinical examinations to assess gastroenterology fellow performance in system based practice milestones

Papademetriou, Marianna; Perrault, Gabriel; Pitman, Max; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Williams, Renee
BACKGROUND:System based practice (SBP) milestones require trainees to effectively navigate the larger health care system for optimal patient care. In gastroenterology training programs, the assessment of SBP is difficult due to high volume, high acuity inpatient care, as well as inconsistent direct supervision. Nevertheless, structured assessment is required for training programs. We hypothesized that objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) would be an effective tool for assessment of SBP. AIM/OBJECTIVE:To develop a novel method for SBP milestone assessment of gastroenterology fellows using the OSCE. METHODS:For this observational study, we created 4 OSCE stations: Counseling an impaired colleague, handoff after overnight call, a feeding tube placement discussion, and giving feedback to a medical student on a progress note. Twenty-six first year fellows from 7 programs participated. All fellows encountered identical case presentations. Checklists were completed by trained standardized patients who interacted with each fellow participant. A report with individual and composite scores was generated and forwarded to program directors to utilize in formative assessment. Fellows also received immediate feedback from a faculty observer and completed a post-session program evaluation survey. RESULTS:." One hundred percent of the fellows stated they would incorporate OSCE learning into their clinical practice. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:OSCEs may be used for standardized evaluation of SBP milestones. Trainees scored lower on SBP milestones than other more concrete milestones. Training programs should consider OSCEs for assessment of SBP.
PMID: 32231425
ISSN: 2219-2840
CID: 4371392

The use of an observed structured clinical examination to teach communication skills surrounding therapeutic drug monitoring [Meeting Abstract]

Lopatin, S; Zabar, S; Weinshel, E; Gillespie, C; Malter, L
BACKGROUND: According to the 2017 American College of Gastroenterology (AGA) guidelines, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of drug trough concentrations and anti-drug antibodies is recommended to optimize treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents and thiopurines1. Specifically, the AGA conditionally recommends reactive TDM in patients with active symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) while on anti-TNF agents, as such testing is crucial for differentiating between mechanistic, non-immune mediated pharmacokinetic and immune-mediated pharmacokinetic drug failure, and allows providers to appropriately tailor treatment regimens. As such algorithms for monitoring therapies in IBD have evolved, it has become incumbent on physicians caring for these patients to develop techniques to engage in patient-centered care using the technique of shared decision making. Gastroenterology (GI) trainees may not be well versed in navigating these complex interpersonal skills. The Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a well-validated method of assessing core competencies of communication and professionalism. While it is traditionally used at the undergraduate medical education level, it has been used at the graduate level to address disease-specific competencies. Here, we discuss the use of an OSCE to assess the performance of GI fellows in engaging in shared decision-making on the topic of TDM for a patient with complex IBD refractory to treatment.
METHOD(S): Eleven second-year gastroenterology fellows from 4 GI fellowship programs participated in a 4 station OSCE. Previously validated OSCE checklists were used to assess the fellows' performance in IBD-specific cases, one of which will be discussed here. In the "Therapeutic Drug Monitoring" case, the objective for the fellows was to discuss the indications for infliximab trough and antibody testing and how results of this testing would impact treatment based on the AGA guidelines. Checklists were scored on a 3 and 5-point Likert Scale by the Standardized Patient (SP), mapped to the appropriate ACGME milestones by a GI medical educator and normalized on a scale from 0 to 9. Post-OSCE, the fellows were surveyed to assess their perspective on their performance as well as the exam's educational value.
RESULT(S): 6 ACGME milestones were assessed in this OSCE. Scores ranged from mean of 5.85 to 7.88. Fellows scored lowest on gathering and synthesizing essential and accurate information to define each patient's clinical problem(s) (PC1, mean score 5.85) with an average score of 5.85. They scored highest for overall clinical knowledge (MK1, mean score 7.88). Overall, 9/10 (90%) of fellows would be recommended for their interpersonal skills, but only 4/10 (40%) were deemed effective in their communication skills. The majority of fellows noted improvement in their understanding of when to use and how to interpret TDM after the exercise. CONCLUSION(S): This OSCE was designed to assess clinical and communication skills for gastroenterology surrounding the complex clinical arena of therapeutic drug monitoring utilizing crucial communication skills. The results suggest weaker performance linked to gathering and synthesizing clinical information, with stronger performance in clinical knowledge, developing management plans and various communication skills. This OSCE feedback and assessment can be used to develop targeted educational interventions to strengthen clinical and communication skills for providers
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 4152842

Preparing trainees for telemedicine: a virtual OSCE pilot

Sartori, Daniel J; Olsen, Sonja; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Zabar, Sondra R
PMID: 30859605
ISSN: 1365-2923
CID: 3747842

Using an inflammatory bowel disease objective structured clinical examination to assess acgme milestones in gastroenterology fellows [Meeting Abstract]

Zalkin, D; Malter, L; Balzora, S; Weinshel, E; Zabar, S; Gillespie, C
Background: Te Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has identifed six core competencies in which trainees are expected to demonstrate profciency. Milestones have been developed to provide a framework for evaluating trainee performance within these competencies. We used an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) focused on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to assess the milestones in gastroenterology (GI) fellows. METHODS: Ten second-year fellows from six GI fellowship programs participated in a four case OSCE. In the "Transition of CareTM case the fellow was to assess a patient's readiness on the planned transition from child-centered to adult-centered care. In the "Shared Decision MakingTM case the fellow was to evaluate a patient with Crohn's disease who would beneft from combination therapy. In the "ER FlareTM case the fellow was to triage and suggest management of a flaring ulcerative colitis patient. In the "IBS in IBDTM case the fellow was asked to discuss irritable bowel syndrome in the context of quiescent IBD. Previously validated OSCE checklists were used to assess the GI fellows' performance using a 3-and 5-point behaviorally-anchored Likert Scale. Checklists were scored by the standardized patient. Checklist items were mapped to appropriate ACGME milestones by a GI medical educator. Scores within each milestone were normalized on a scale from 0-9 as utilized by the ACGME in the Next Accreditation System milestone initiative. Fellows were provided feedback on their performance. RESULTS: Te majority of fellows scored between 6 and 9 in the milestones assessing patient care (PC), medical knowledge (MK), interpersonal and communication skills (ICS), professionalism (Prof), and systems-based practice (SBP). Composite average scores for all participants were as follows: PC1 7. 7, PC2 6. 9, MK1 6. 9, MK2 7. 0, ICS1 7. 4, Prof1 7. 6, Prof3 6. 9, and SBP4 6. 4. Fellows scored highest in the "Shared Decision MakingTM case and scored lowest in the "Transitions of CareTM case. CONCLUSION(S): In this OSCE GI fellows performed well in the majority of milestones evaluated, however areas of less optimal performance were identifed, providing areas for future focus in fellow training. Te OSCE is a well-validated standardized tool for evaluating trainees, and with appropriate mapping of checklists to ACGME milestones, it can serve as an objective method to assess GI fellows' progress in the core competencies
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 3113162

Addressing physician burnout among practicing physicians [Letter]

Balzora, Sophie; Weinshel, Elizabeth
PMID: 28733259
ISSN: 1542-7714
CID: 2648292

Assessment of Abilities of Gastroenterology Fellows to Provide Information to Patients With Liver Disease

Chaudhary, Noami; Lucero, Catherine; Villanueva, Gerald; Poles, Michael; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth
PURPOSE: Patient education is critical in ensuring patient compliance and good health outcomes. Fellows must be able to effectively communicate with their patients, delivering enough information for the patient to understand their medical problem and maximize patient compliance. We created an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with four liver disease cases to assess fellows' knowledge and ability to inform standardized patients about their clinical condition. METHODS: We developed four cases highlighting different aspects of liver disease and created a four station OSCE: hepatitis B, acute hepatitis C, new diagnosis of cirrhosis, and an end-stage cirrhotic non transplant candidate. The standardized patient (SP) with hepatitis B was minimizing the fact that she could not read English. The acute hepatitis C SP was a nursing student who is afraid that having hepatitis C might jeopardize her career. The SP with the new diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis needed to stop drinking, and the end-stage liver disease patient had to grapple with his advanced directives. Twelve fellows from four GI training programs participated. Our focus was to assess the fellows' knowledge about liver diseases and the ACGME competencies of health literacy, shared decision making, advanced directives and goals of care. The goal for the fellows was to communicate effectively with the SPs, and acknowledge that each patient had an emotionally charged issue to overcome. The SPs used a checklist to rate fellow's performance. Faculty and the SPs observed the cases and provided feedback. The fellows were surveyed on their performance regarding the case. RESULTS: The majority of fellows were able to successfully summarize findings and discuss a plan with the patient in the new diagnosis of cirrhosis (76.92%) and hepatitis C case (100%), but were less successful in the hepatitis B (30.77%) and end-of-life case (41.67%). Overall, a small percentage of fellows reflected that they did a good job (22-33%), except at the end-of-life case (67%). The fellows' greatest challenge was trying to cover a lot of information in a single outpatient visit. CONCLUSION: Caring for patients with liver diseases can be complex and time consuming. The patients and fellows' observations were discordant in several areas: for example. the fellows believed they excelled in the end-of-life case, but the SP thought only a small percentage of fellows were able to successfully summarize and discuss the plan. This discrepancy and others highlight important areas of focus in training programs. OSCEs are important to help the fellows facilitate striking the right balance of information delivery and empathy, and this will lead to better patient education, compliance, rapport, and satisfaction.
PMID: 28111335
ISSN: 1542-7714
CID: 2418252

Disruptive behavior in the workplace: Challenges for gastroenterology fellows

Srisarajivakul, Nalinee; Lucero, Catherine; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Poles, Michael; Gillespie, Colleen; Zabar, Sondra; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Malter, Lisa
AIM: To assess first-year gastroenterology fellows' ability to address difficult interpersonal situations in the workplace using objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). METHODS: Two OSCEs ("distracted care team" and "frazzled intern") were created to assess response to disruptive behavior. In case 1, a fellow used a colonoscopy simulator while interacting with a standardized patient (SP), nurse, and attending physician all played by actors. The nurse and attending were instructed to display specific disruptive behavior and disregard the fellow unless requested to stop the disruptive behavior and focus on the patient and procedure. In case 2, the fellow was to calm an intern managing a patient with massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The objective in both scenarios was to assess the fellows' ability to perform their duties while managing the disruptive behavior displayed by the actor. The SPs used checklists to rate fellows' performances. The fellows completed a self-assessment survey. RESULTS: Twelve fellows from four gastrointestinal fellowship training programs participated in the OSCE. In the "distracted care team" case, one-third of the fellows interrupted the conflict and refocused attention to the patient. Half of the fellows were able to display professionalism despite the heated discussion nearby. Fellows scored lowest in the interprofessionalism portion of post-OSCE surveys, measuring their ability to handle the conflict. In the "frazzled intern" case, 68% of fellows were able to establish a calm and professional relationship with the SP. Despite this success, only half of the fellows were successfully communicate a plan to the SP and only a third scored "well done" in a domain that focused on allowing the intern to think through the case with the fellow's guidance. CONCLUSION: Fellows must receive training on how to approach disruptive behavior. OSCEs are a tool that can assess fellow skills and set a culture for open discussion.
PMID: 28566892
ISSN: 2219-2840
CID: 2581432