Effect of Steroid-Soaked Gelatin Sponge on Soft Tissue Swelling Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: A Radiographic Analysis
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective radiological review and analysis of 79 patients who underwent primary anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) of 2 or 3 levels between 2011 and 2013. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to determine the effect of the local placement of a steroid-soaked gelatin sponge after ACDF on prevertebral soft tissue swelling. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE/BACKGROUND:Although ACDF has become a popular choice for cervical fusion, the surgical involvement of the delicate anatomy of the neck frequently results in tissue irritation and edema. Swelling of the prevertebral soft tissue may consequently lead to mild-to-severe complications, ranging from dysphonia to dyspnea. METHODS:Out of the 79 patients who underwent primary ACDF, 52 received a gelatin sponge soaked with 40 mg of Depo-Medrol placed adjacent to the operated cervical levels. Prevertebral soft tissue swelling was detected using postoperative lateral X-ray. The radiographic values were compared to those of 27 patients who did not receive the treatment. RESULTS:Soft tissue swelling was markedly decreased in patients who received the placement of the steroid-soaked gelatin sponge next to their fused levels after surgery compared with that in patients who did not receive it. No complications were documented with the use of steroids. CONCLUSIONS:The placement of a steroid-soaked gelatin sponge markedly reduces postoperative soft tissue swelling following 2- or 3-level primary ACDF.
The use of local vancomycin powder in degenerative spine surgery
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Wound infection after spine surgery is a debilitating complication. Local placement of vancomycin powder into the surgical wounds prior to closing of the fascia has been introduced as a method to reduce deep infection rates. METHODS:The infection rates of all the patients who were treated with intra-operative local vancomycin between June 2012 and June 2013 were compared to all cases that were not treated with vancomycin between January 2009 and December 2010. Patients for both groups were operated by four senior, fellowship-trained spine surgeons with a combined experience of 55 years of practice at a referral orthopedic center. Patients' charts and microbiology reports were reviewed. RESULTS:1224 cases were performed with the use of vancomycin. The average age was 56.3 years (SD -13.2; NS). The male to female ratio was 1:1.12 (NS). 2253 cases were performed without the use of vancomycin. The average patient age was 57.1 years (SD 14.5). The male to female ratio was 1:1.14. There were 30 cases of deep infections needing a surgical irrigation and debridement without vancomycin versus 5 when vancomycin was used (P = 0.04). Infections in patients treated with vancomycin were not vancomycin-resistant bacteria. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, the use of vancomycin reduces the rate of deep wound infections and irrigation and debridement procedures after spine surgery in a referral center among surgeons with a high surgical volume.
Lumbar Spine Surgery in Patients with Parkinson Disease
BACKGROUND:Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. The literature on patients with Parkinson disease and spine surgery is limited, but increased complications have been reported. METHODS:All patients with Parkinson disease undergoing lumbar spine surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Patients' charts, radiographs, and outcome questionnaires were reviewed. Parkinson disease severity was assessed with use of the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. Complications and subsequent surgeries were analyzed. Risk for reoperation was assessed. RESULTS:Ninety-six patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. The mean patient age was 63.0 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.1 months. The Parkinson disease severity stage was <2 in thirteen patients, 2 in thirty patients, 2.5 in twenty-three patients, and â‰¥3 in thirty patients. The primary indication for surgery was spinal stenosis in seventy-two patients, spondylolisthesis in seventeen patients, and coronal and/or sagittal deformity in seven patients. There were nineteen early complications, including postoperative infections requiring surgical irrigation and debridement and long-term antibiotics in ten patients. The visual analog scale for back pain improved from 7.4 cm preoperatively to 1.8 cm postoperatively (p < 0.001). The visual analog scale for lower-limb pain improved from 7.7 cm preoperatively to 2.3 cm postoperatively (p < 0.001). The Oswestry Disability Index score dropped from 54.1 points to 17.7 points at the time of the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary score improved from 26.6 points preoperatively to 30.5 points postoperatively (p < 0.05). Twenty patients required revision surgery. Risks for further surgery included a Parkinson disease severity stage of â‰¥3 (p < 0.05), a history of diabetes mellitus, treatment for osteoporosis, and a combined anterior and posterior approach. CONCLUSIONS:Despite a higher rate of complications than in the general population, the overall outcome of spine surgery in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson disease is good, with improvement of spine-related pain. A larger prospective study is warranted.
Low velocity gunshot wounds result in significant contamination regardless of ballistic characteristics
Controversy exists among the orthopedic community regarding the treatment of gunshot injuries. No consistent treatment algorithm exists for treatment of low energy gunshot wound (GSW) trauma. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the wound contamination following low velocity GSW based upon bullet caliber and clothing fiber type found within the injury track. Four types of handguns were fired at ballistic gel from a 10-foot distance. Various clothing materials were applied (denim, cotton, polyester, and wool) circumferentially around the tissue agar in a loose manor. A total of 32 specimens were examined. Each caliber handgun was fired a minimum of 5 times into a gel. Regardless of bullet caliber there was gross contamination of the entire bullet track in 100% of specimens in all scenarios and for all fiber types. Furthermore, as would be expected, the degree of contamination appeared to increase as the size of the bullet increased. Low velocity GSWs result in significant contamination regardless of bullet caliber and jacket type. Based upon our results further investigation of low velocity GSW tracks is warranted. Further clinical investigation should focus on the degree to which debridement should be undertaken.