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Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors for hypergycemia in phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibition

Weintraub, Michael A; Liu, Dazhi; DeMatteo, Raymond; Goncalves, Marcus DaSilva; Flory, James H
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition is used for the treatment of certain cancers, but can cause profound hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, for which sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been proposed as a preferred therapy. The objective of this research is to assess the effectiveness and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors for hyperglycemia in PI3K inhibition. METHODS:We conducted a single-center retrospective review of adults initiating the PI3K inhibitor alpelisib. Exposure to different antidiabetic drugs and adverse events including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were assessed through chart review. Plasma and point-of-care blood glucoses were extracted from the electronic medical record. Change in serum glucose and the rate of DKA on SGLT2 inhibitor versus other antidiabetic drugs were examined as co-primary outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 103 patients meeting eligibility criteria with median follow-up of 92 days after starting alpelisib. When SGLT2 inhibitors were used to treat hyperglycemia, they were associated with a decrease in mean random glucose by -46 mg/dL (95% CI - 77 to - 15) in adjusted linear modeling. Five cases of DKA were identified, two occurring in patients on alpelisib plus SGLT2 inhibitor. Estimated incidence of DKA was: alpelisib plus SGLT2 inhibitor, 48 DKA cases per 100 patient-years (95% CI 6, 171); alpelisib with non-SGLT2 inhibitor antidiabetic drugs, 15 (95% CI 2, 53); alpelisib only, 4 (95% CI 0.1, 22). CONCLUSIONS:SGLT2 inhibitors are effective treatments for hyperglycemia in the setting of PI3K inhibition.
PMID: 37704834
ISSN: 1573-7217
CID: 5588852

Five-year Weight Loss Maintenance With Obesity Pharmacotherapy

Weintraub, Michael A; D'Angelo, Debra; Tchang, Beverly G; Sahagun, Ageline D; Andre, Clarissa; Aronne, Louis J; Shukla, Alpana P
CONTEXT:Long-term treatment of obesity with lifestyle changes alone is unsustainable for most individuals because of several factors including adherence and metabolic adaptation. Medical management of obesity has proven efficacy for up to 3 years in randomized controlled trials. However, there is a dearth of information regarding real-world outcomes beyond 3 years. OBJECTIVE:This work aimed to assess long-term weight loss outcomes over a 2.5- to 5.5-year period with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and off-label antiobesity medications (AOMs). METHODS:A cohort of 428 patients with overweight or obesity were treated with AOMs at an academic weight management center with an initial visit between April 1, 2014, and April 1, 2016. Intervention included FDA-approved and off-label AOMs. The primary outcome was percentage weight loss from initial to final visit. Key secondary outcomes included weight reduction targets as well as demographic and clinical predictors of long-term weight loss. RESULTS:The average weight loss was 10.4% at a mean follow-up duration of 4.4 years. The proportions of patients who met the weight reduction targets of 5% or greater, 10% or greater, 15% or greater, and 20% or greater were 70.8%, 48.1%, 29.9%, and 17.1%, respectively. On average, 51% of maximum weight loss was regained, while 40.2% of patients maintained their weight loss. In a multivariable regression analysis, a higher number of clinic visits was associated with more weight loss. Metformin, topiramate, and bupropion were associated with increased odds of maintaining 10% or greater weight loss. CONCLUSION:Clinically significant long-term weight loss of 10% or more beyond 4 years is achievable in clinical practice settings with obesity pharmacotherapy.
PMID: 36810608
ISSN: 1945-7197
CID: 5588862

Dosing Common Medications in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients with Obesity: A Review

Ameer, Barbara; Weintraub, Michael A
Medication management in children and adolescents with obesity is challenging because both developmental and pathophysiological changes may impact drug disposition and response. Evidence to date indicates an effect of obesity on drug disposition for certain drugs used in this population. This work identified published studies evaluating drug dosing, pharmacokinetics (PK), and effect in pediatric patients with obesity, focusing on 70 common medications used in a pediatric network of 42 US medical centers. A PubMed search revealed 33 studies providing PK and/or effectiveness data for 23% (16 of 70) of medications, 44% of which have just one study and can be considered exploratory. This work appraising 4 decades of literature shows several promising approaches: greater use of PK models applied to prospective clinical studies, dosing recommendations derived from both PK and safety, and multiyear effectiveness data on drugs for chronic conditions (e.g., asthma). Most studies make dose recommendations but are weakened by retrospective study design, small study populations, and no controls or historic controls. Dosing decisions continue to rely on extrapolating knowledge, including targeting systemic drug exposure typically achieved in adults. Optimal weight-based dosing strategies vary by drug and warrant prospective, controlled studies incorporating PK and modeling and simulation to complement clinical assessment.
PMID: 32441477
ISSN: 1930-739x
CID: 5181742

Chronic Rhinosinusitis Is an Independent Risk Factor for OSA in World Trade Center Responders

Sunderram, Jag; Weintraub, Michael; Black, Kathleen; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Twumasi, Akosua; Sanders, Haley; Udasin, Iris; Harrison, Denise; Chitkara, Nishay; de la Hoz, Rafael E; Lu, Shou-En; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu
BACKGROUND:Many respiratory conditions have been attributed to toxic dust and fume exposure in World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers, who frequently report symptoms of OSA. We examined the prevalence of new-onset OSA and tested if the prevalence and severity of OSA are related to the presence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS:) enrolled in the WTC Health Program, excluding those with significant pre-September 11, 2001, snoring or prior CRS, underwent two nights of home sleep testing. OSA was defined as Apnea Hypopnea Index 4% ≥ 5 events/h or respiratory disturbance index of ≥ 15 events/h. CRS was assessed using nasal symptom questionnaires. RESULTS:The prevalence of OSA was 75% (25% no OSA, 46% mild OSA, 19% moderate OSA, and 10% severe OSA), and the prevalence of CRS was 43.5%. Compared with no CRS, new and worsening CRS was a significant risk factor for OSA with an OR of 1.80 (95% CI, 1.18-2.73; P = .006) unadjusted and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.08-2.88; P = .02) after adjustment for age, BMI, sex, gastroesophageal reflux disorder, and alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS:The high prevalence of OSA in WTC responders was not explained fully by obesity and sex. Possible mechanisms for the elevated risk of OSA in subjects with CRS include increased upper airway inflammation and/or elevated nasal/upper airway resistance, but these need confirmation.
PMID: 30739642
ISSN: 1931-3543
CID: 3655972

Pediatric Obesity: Influence on Drug Dosing and Therapeutics

Ameer, Barbara; Weintraub, Michael A
Obesity is an ongoing global health concern and has only recently been recognized as a chronic disease of energy homeostasis and fuel partitioning. Obesity afflicts 17% of U.S. children and adolescents. Severe obesity (≥120% of the 95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) for age, or a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 ) is the fastest-growing subgroup and now approaches 6% of all U.S. youth. Health consequences (eg, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease) are related in a dose-dependent manner to severity of obesity. Because therapeutic interventions are less effective in severe obesity, prevention is a high priority. Treatment plans involving combinations of behavioral therapy, nutrition, and exercise achieve limited success. Only one drug, orlistat, is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for long-term obesity management in adolescents 12 years and older. As part of comprehensive medication management, clinicians should consider the propensity for a given drug to aggravate weight gain and to consider alternatives that minimize weight impact. Medication management must take into account developmental changes as well as the pathophysiology of obesity and comorbidities. Despite expanding insight into obesity pathophysiology, there are gaps in its translation to therapeutic application. The historical construct of obesity as simply a fat-storage disorder is fundamentally inaccurate. The approach to adjusting doses based solely on body size and extrapolating from therapeutic knowledge of adult obesity may be based on assumptions that are not fully substantiated. Classes of drugs commonly prescribed for comorbidities associated with obesity should be prioritized for clinical research evaluations aimed at optimizing dosing regimens in pediatric obesity.
PMID: 30248198
ISSN: 1552-4604
CID: 5181732

Loss of hepatocyte ERBB3 but not EGFR impairs hepatocarcinogenesis

Scheving, Lawrence A; Zhang, Xiuqi; Stevenson, Mary C; Weintraub, Michael A; Abbasi, Annam; Clarke, Andrea M; Threadgill, David W; Russell, William E
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERBB3 have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). However, it is not known whether altering the activity of either EGFR or ERBB3 affects HCC development. We now show that Egfr(Dsk5) mutant mice, which have a gain-of-function allele that increases basal EGFR kinase activity, develop spontaneous HCC by 10 mo of age. Their tumors show increased activation of EGFR, ERBB2, and ERBB3 as well as AKT and ERK1,2. Hepatocyte-specific models of EGFR and ERBB3 gene ablation were generated to evaluate how the loss of these genes affected tumor progression. Loss of either receptor tyrosine kinase did not alter liver development or regenerative liver growth following carbon tetrachloride injection. However, using a well-characterized model of HCC in which N-nitrosodiethylamine is injected into 14-day-old mice, we discovered that loss of hepatocellular ERBB3 but not EGFR, which occurred after tumor initiation, retarded liver tumor formation and cell proliferation. We found no evidence that this was due to increased apoptosis or diminished phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity in the ERBB3-null cells. However, the relative amount of phospho-STAT3 was diminished in tumors derived from these mice, suggesting that ERBB3 may promote HCC through STAT3 activation.
PMID: 26492920
ISSN: 1522-1547
CID: 5181722