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"Home Sweet Home -- The Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency Match During the COVID-19 Pandemic"

Antezana, Luis A; Rode, Matthew; Muro-Cardenas, Jose; Xie, Katherine; Weissler, Jason; Bakri, Karim
PMID: 35724416
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5261272

Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Seroma and Hematoma Formation Following Reduction Mammaplasty

Weissler, Jason M; Kuruoglu, Doga; Antezana, Luis; Curiel, Daniel; Kerivan, Lauren; Alsayed, Ahmed; Banuelos, Joseph; Harless, Christin A; Sharaf, Basel A; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys; Tran, Nho V; Nguyen, Minh-Doan T
BACKGROUND:Tranexamic acid (TXA) has gained increasing recognition as a valuable pharmacologic agent within plastic surgery. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the value and safety profile of both intravenous and topically administered TXA in the setting of bilateral reduction mammaplasty. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed to identify consecutive patients who underwent bilateral reduction mammaplasty for symptomatic macromastia (January 2016-July 2021). Pertinent preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative details were collected/reviewed. Primary outcome measures included hematoma requiring surgical evacuation and clinically significant/symptomatic seroma formation mandating percutaneous aspiration. Patients taking anticoagulation/antiplatelet medication or those with a history of thromboembolic diseases were excluded. Patients who had received TXA were compared to a historical control group who did not receive TXA within the same consecutive cohort. RESULTS:A total of 385 consecutive patients (770 breasts) were included. TXA was used in 514 (66.8%) cases (topical, 318 [61.9%]; intravenous, 170 [33.1%]; intravenous and topical, 26 [5.1%]). Neither seroma nor hematoma were impacted/reduced with TXA (P > 0.05). Increased age (hazards ratio, 1.06 per 1-year increase; 95% CI, 1.004-1.118) significantly increased the risk of hematoma (P = 0.032). The use of drains significantly decreased the risk of seroma (P < 0.0001). Increased BMI increased the risk of seroma (hazards ratio, 1.16 per 1-kg/m2 increase; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26; P = 0.0013). The use of TXA did not impact drain duration. CONCLUSIONS:This study, the largest to date on the use of IV and topical TXA, did not find any reduction in risk when using TXA in breast reduction surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3/METHODS/:
PMID: 35029651
ISSN: 1527-330x
CID: 5261232

Medical Students' Exposure to Plastic Surgery: A Cross-sectional Review of Scholarly and Academic Opportunities

Antezana, Luis A; Xie, Katherine Z; Weissler, Jason M; Bakri, Karim
Specialty exposure is most influential in a medical student's decision to pursue plastic surgery training. We aimed to understand what opportunities exist for students through national plastic surgery organizations.
PMID: 35651887
ISSN: 2169-7574
CID: 5261242

A 28-year single institution experience with primary skin malignancies in the pediatric population

Kuruoglu, Doga; Weissler, Jason M; Bustos, Samyd S; Moran, Steven L; Davis, Dawn M R; Bite, Uldis; Mardini, Samir; Baum, Christian L; Otley, Clark C; Brewer, Jerry D; Lehman, Julia S; Sharaf, Basel
The aim of this study is to report our institution's experience with pediatric skin malignancies. A single institution retrospective review of pediatric patients with a primary skin malignancy from 1992 to 2020 was performed. Demographics, tumor characteristics and treatment outcomes were reviewed. Ninety-nine patients with 109 primary malignant skin lesions were reviewed. The most common lesion was malignant melanoma [MM] (n = 50, 45.9%). Compared to non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), MM were more likely to present on trunk or extremities (p=.01, OR = 3.2), and be misdiagnosed (p=.03, OR = 2.7). NMSC were more common in the head and neck region (p=.01, OR = 3.2), and were associated with a personal history of skin cancer (p=.0005, OR = 17.1) or a known risk factor (p=.04, OR = 2.5). Patients with MM were 12.4-times more likely to develop metastatic disease compared to NMSC (p<.0001). Increased Breslow's thickness also increased the odds of developing metastatic disease (p=.03, OR = 1.6 per 1-mm increase). Interval time between lesion recognition and diagnostic biopsy or surgical treatment did not impact overall survival. Malignant melanoma was the most common malignancy in our cohort, followed by basal cell carcinoma. Malignant melanoma was the most likely tumor to be misdiagnosed and/or metastasize. Treatment delays did not impact risk of metastasis, recurrence or survival rate, though some patients succumbed to disease. These results may be attributed to small sample size or the biology of melanoma in pediatric patients. Awareness of skin malignancies in the pediatric population is imperative to providers and the public, with low threshold for specialty consultation and excision when warranted.
PMID: 34032193
ISSN: 2000-6764
CID: 5261222

An Algorithmic Approach to Managing Parotid Duct Injury Following Buccal Fat Pad Removal

Weissler, Jason M; Mohamed, Omar; Gryskiewicz, Joseph M; Chopra, Karan
The principles of achieving an aesthetically pleasing and harmonious facial appearance are influenced by our evolving understanding of the three-dimensional topography of the face coupled with novel approaches to midface volumization and contouring. In parallel with the evolving landscape of facial aesthetic surgery, an increasing number of publications have emerged focusing on the role of intraoral buccal fat pad removal (BFPR) for the purposes of aesthetic midface contouring. The authors sought to emphasize an underreported and potentially preventable and untoward complication involving iatrogenic parotid duct injury following BFPR. The purpose of this publication is 3-fold: (1) to review the relevant anatomy and literature on intraoral BFPR, (2) to present a case example of this complication, and (3) to discuss treatment options as part of a proposed management algorithm. The authors detail the surgical indications for performing BFPR and review the relevant anatomic considerations. Complication prevention strategies are outlined, and details regarding avoidance of parotid duct injury are reviewed. The diagnostic criteria and clinical presentation of parotid duct injuries following BFPR are comprehensively outlined. The authors present a clinically actionable algorithm for managing a suspected or diagnosed parotid duct injury following BFPR. A clinical case example is discussed to highlight this complication, the diagnostic criteria, and the systematic and algorithmic approach to management. Intraoral BFPR is an incredibly valuable and powerful procedure that can improve facial contour in patients with buccal lipodystrophy or buccal fat pad pseudoherniation. The authors propose a proper diagnostic approach and treatment algorithm to manage this untoward complication.
PMID: 35662908
ISSN: 2631-4797
CID: 5261252

Defining the Role for Topically Administered Tranexamic Acid in Panniculectomy Surgery

Weissler, Jason M; Kuruoglu, Doga; Salinas, Cristina; Tran, Nho V; Nguyen, Minh-Doan T; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys; Bite, Uldis; Harless, Christin A; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Sharaf, Basel
Background/UNASSIGNED:Abdominal panniculectomy after weight loss is a commonly performed procedure with high patient satisfaction yet continues to have a high post-operative complication profile. Several risk-reducing surgical approaches, such as preservation of Scarpa's fascia, use of tissue adhesives, and progressive tension suture techniques have been described. However, the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) has not been previously reported in panniculectomy surgery. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:To improve the safety and predictability of this procedure, the authors investigate whether the use of topically administered TXA during panniculectomy surgery reduces seroma, hematoma, and drain duration. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Consecutive patients who underwent panniculectomy (January 2010 to January 2022) were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome measures included hematoma requiring surgical evacuation, seroma requiring percutaneous aspiration, and drain duration. Patients with thromboembolic diseases and those taking anticoagulation/antiplatelet medications were excluded. Patients who had received TXA were compared with a historical control group who had not received TXA. Results/UNASSIGNED:= 0.42), respectively. The mean (SD) duration of drains was slightly lower in the TXA group (18.1 [12.1] days vs 19.8 [13.9] days); however, this difference was not statistically significant, albeit clinically significant. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:As the use of TXA in plastic surgical procedures continues to expand, the utility of TXA in panniculectomy and abdominoplasty has not been elucidated. Although previous studies report hematoma and seroma risk reduction, the use of TXA was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in seroma, hematoma, or drain duration following panniculectomy surgery. Prospective, randomized controlled studies on the use of TXA in body contouring are needed. Level of Evidence 3/UNASSIGNED/:
PMID: 35692487
ISSN: 2631-4797
CID: 5261262

An 11-year Institutional Review of Nipple-Areolar Complex Tattooing for Breast Reconstruction: Identifying Risk Factors for Development of Tattoo-related Infectious Complications

Weissler, Jason M; Kuruoglu, Doga; Curiel, Daniel; Alsayed, Ahmed; Dudakovic, Amela; Harless, Christin A; Nguyen, Minh-Doan T
BACKGROUND:Nipple-areolar complex (NAC) tattooing remains a simple and safe procedure, which complements breast reconstruction. This study reviews 11 years of NAC tattooing to identify risk factors for tattoo-related complications. METHODS:Patients undergoing NAC tattooing from January 2009 to March 2020 were reviewed. Patient information, reconstructive, and tattoo procedural details were analyzed. Tattoo-related breast infections, defined as breast redness requiring antibiotic therapy within 30 days after tattoo, were captured. Patients with reactive breast redness during the first 2 postprocedural days were excluded. RESULTS:Overall, 539 patients (949 breasts) were included. Implant-based reconstruction (IBR) was performed in 73.6% of breasts (n = 698), whereas 26.4% (n = 251) underwent autologous-based reconstruction (ABR). Acellular-dermal matrix was used in 547 breasts (57.6%). There as a 13.7% (n = 130) of breasts that underwent pretattoo radiation. There was a 65.3% (n = 456) of breasts that underwent subpectoral IBR, whereas 34.7% (n = 242) breasts underwent prepectoral IBR. Tattoo-related infection rate was 2.2% (n = 21 breasts). Mean time to infection was 6.5 ± 5.3 days. There was a 85.7% (n = 18) of infections that occurred in IBR patients, one third occurring in radiated patients. There was a 95.2% (n = 20) of infections that were treated with oral antibiotics only. One explantation was performed after failed intravenous antibiotics. On multivariable analysis, radiation history (odds ratio, 4.1, P = 0.007) and prepectoral IBR (odds ratio, 2.8, P = 0.036) were independent predictors of tattoo-related infection. Among irradiated breasts, breasts with IBR had greater odds of developing tattoo-related infection versus breasts with ABR (P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS:Although tattoo-related infections were uncommon, previous radiation and prepectoral IBR were both found to be independent predictors of tattoo-related breast infection. There is a role for preprocedural prophylactic antibiotics in these patients to mitigate infectious risk.
PMID: 33833170
ISSN: 1536-3708
CID: 5261212

Characteristics of the Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Perforator Flap in a Western Population and a Practice Approach for Free Flap Reconstruction

Messa, Charles A; Carney, Martin J; Tantillo, Kristopher; Othman, Sammy; Moores, Craig; Mirzabeigi, Michael N; Weissler, Jason M; Cook, Tessa; Kovach, Stephen J
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in the superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap as a source of thin, pliable soft tissue combined with a favorable donor site. Despite several clinical series from Asia, barriers to adoption include reluctance to perform submillimeter "supermicrosurgery" and the effect of body habitus on flap feasibility. The purpose of this study is to distinguish vascular anatomic characteristics of the SCIP flap in a North American population. METHODS: Computed tomography angiography was examined in 84 flaps in healthy prospective renal donor patients from a radiographic database. Descriptive statistics as well as linear regression comparing variables to body mass index (BMI) were performed. RESULTS: < 0.001). BMI did not significantly affect vessel diameter. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: Despite a significantly higher BMI than many previously published cohorts, the SCIP remains an excellent source of thin and pliable tissue. When dissected closer to the source vessel, a vessel caliber of nearly 2 mm can be achieved, which may obviate the need for "supermicrosurgery" in this population.
PMID: 33129213
ISSN: 1098-8947
CID: 5261192

Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in Liposuction: A Single-Surgeon Outcomes Analysis and Considerations for Minimizing Postoperative Donor Site Ecchymosis

Weissler, Jason M; Banuelos, Joseph; Molinar, Vanessa E; Tran, Nho V
BACKGROUND:Tranexamic acid (TXA) has gained increasing recognition in plastic surgery as a dependable adjunct capable of minimizing blood loss, ecchymosis, and edema. To date, there have been limited data on the utilization of TXA to mitigate liposuction donor site ecchymosis. OBJECTIVES:The authors sought to investigate whether infiltration of TXA into liposuction donor sites safely reduces postoperative ecchymosis. METHODS:A single-surgeon retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze patients undergoing autologous fat transfer for breast reconstruction between 2016 and 2019. Following lipoaspiration, patients in the intervention group received 75 mL of TXA (3 g in NaCl 0.9%) infiltrated into the liposuction donor sites, whereas the historical controls did not. Patient demographics, degree of ecchymosis, surgical complications, and thromboembolic events were examined. A blinded assessment of postoperative photographs of the donor sites was performed. RESULTS:Overall, 120 autologous fat grafting procedures were reviewed. Sixty patients received TXA, whereas 60 patients did not. Patient demographics and comorbidities were similar among the groups. No difference existed between groups regarding donor site locations, tumescent volume, lipoaspirate volume, or time to postoperative photograph. Ten blinded evaluators completed the assessment. The median bruising score of patients who received TXA was significantly lower than that of patients who did not (1.6/10 vs 2.3/10, P = 0.01). Postoperative complications were similar among the groups. Adverse effects of TXA were not observed. CONCLUSIONS:Patients who received local infiltration of TXA into the liposuction donor sites were found to have less donor site ecchymosis than patients who did not. Further prospective randomized studies are warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4/:
PMID: 33399815
ISSN: 1527-330x
CID: 5261202

Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Safely Reduces Hematoma without Thromboembolic Events

Weissler, Jason M; Banuelos, Joseph; Jacobson, Steven R; Manrique, Oscar J; Nguyen, Minh-Doan T; Harless, Christin A; Tran, Nho V; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys
BACKGROUND:Antifibrinolytic medications, such as tranexamic acid, have recently garnered increased attention. Despite its ability to mitigate intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion, there remains a paucity of research in breast reconstruction. The authors investigate whether intravenous tranexamic acid safely reduces the risk of hematoma following implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS:A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze all consecutive patients undergoing immediate two-stage implant-based breast reconstruction following mastectomy between 2015 and 2016. The incidence of postoperative hematomas and thromboembolic events among all patients was reviewed. The patients in the intervention group received 1000 mg of intravenous tranexamic acid before mastectomy incision and 1000 mg at the conclusion of the procedure. Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to study the impact of intravenous tranexamic acid after adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS:A total of 868 consecutive breast reconstructions (499 women) were reviewed. Overall, 116 patients (217 breasts) received intravenous tranexamic acid, whereas 383 patients (651 breasts) did not. Patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between the two the groups. Patients who received tranexamic acid were less likely to develop hematomas [n = 1 (0.46 percent)] than patients who did not [n = 19 (2.9 percent)] after controlling for age, hypertension, and type of reconstruction (prepectoral and subpectoral) (p = 0.018). Adverse effects of intravenous tranexamic acid, including thromboembolic phenomena were not observed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age and hypertension independently increase risk for hematoma. CONCLUSIONS:Intravenous tranexamic acid safely reduces risk of hematoma in implant-based breast reconstruction. Further prospective randomized studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, III.
PMID: 32740567
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5261172