KICK-STARTING A CULTURE OF SAFETY: HOW TEAMSTEPPS AND SIMULATION TRANSFORMED ATTITUDES ON THE MEDICINE SERVICE [Meeting Abstract]
Discharge before noon: Effect on throughput and sustainability
BACKGROUND: Late afternoon hospital discharges are thought to contribute to admission bottlenecks. We previously described an intervention that resulted in a statistically significant increase in the discharge before noon (DBN) rate on 2 inpatient medicine units. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) the effect of an increased DBN rate on the admission arrival time and the number of admissions per hour and (2) the sustainability of our DBN initiative. DESIGN: Pre-/postintervention retrospective analysis. SETTING: Two acute-care inpatient medicine units in a tertiary care, urban, academic medical center. PATIENTS: For the admission arrival time and admissions per hour analysis, all inpatients admitted to the medical units from June 1, 2011 to June 31, 2013. For the sustainability analysis, all patients discharged from July 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014. INTERVENTION: A multidisciplinary intervention to increase the DBN rate. MEASUREMENTS: Date and time of arrival to all inpatient sites, and discharge date and time of all patients from 2 inpatient medicine units. RESULTS: Concurrent with our increase in DBN rate, we found a statistically significant change in the median arrival time of emergency department (ED) admissions and transfers from 5 pm to 4 pm. High-frequency admission peaks were statistically significantly reduced for ED admissions. The statistically significant increase in DBN rate is sustained at 35%. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the DBN rate correlates with admissions arriving earlier in the day and reductions in high-frequency peaks of ED admissions. Statistically significant improvements in DBN rates are sustainable. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2015. (c) 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Treatment of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in a Patient With Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma
A 49-year-old woman with cholangiocarcinoma metastatic to the lungs presented with new-onset unrelenting headaches. A lumbar puncture revealed malignant cells consistent with leptomeningeal metastasis from her cholangiocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed leptomeningeal enhancement. An intrathecal (IT) catheter was placed and IT chemotherapy was initiated with methotrexate. Her case is notable for the rarity of cholangiocarcinoma spread to the leptomeninges, the use of IT chemotherapy with cytologic and potentially symptomatic response, and a possible survival benefit in comparison to previously reported cases of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to cholangiocarcinoma.
Discharge before noon: An achievable hospital goal
BACKGROUND: Late afternoon hospital discharges are thought to contribute to admission bottlenecks, overcrowding, and increased length of stay (LOS). In January 2012, the discharge before noon (DBN) percentage on 2 medical units was 7%, below the organizational goal of 30%. OBJECTIVE: To sustainably achieve a DBN rate of 30% and to evaluate the effect of this intervention on observed-to-expected (O/E) LOS and 30-day readmission rate. DESIGN: Pre-/post-intervention retrospective analysis. SETTING: Two acute care inpatient medical units in an urban, academic medical center. PATIENTS: All inpatients discharged from the units. INTERVENTION: All staff helped create a checklist of daily responsibilities at a DBN kickoff event. We initiated afternoon interdisciplinary rounds to identify next-day DBNs and created a website for enhanced communication. We provided daily feedback on the DBN percentage, rewards for success, and real-time opportunities for case review. MEASUREMENTS: Calendar month DBN percentage, O/E LOS, and 30-day readmission rate. RESULTS: The DBN percentage increased from 11% in the 8-month baseline period to an average of 38% over the 13-month intervention (P = 0.0002). The average discharge time moved 1 hour and 31 minutes earlier in the day. The O/E LOS declined from 1.06 to 0.96 (P = 0.0001), and the 30-day readmission rate declined from 14.3% to 13.1% (P = 0.1902). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that increased DBN is an achievable and sustainable goal for hospitals. Future work will allow for better understanding of the full effects of such an intervention on patient outcomes and hospital metrics. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014;9:210-214. (c) 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Incidence of transaminitis among HIV-infected patients with occult hepatitis B
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined as the presence of HBV DNA in individuals with HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc) in the absence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), is unclear in HIV-infected patients. This information is needed to determine the importance of detecting and treating occult HBV in this population. OBJECTIVE: To determine if HIV-infected patients with occult HBV infection have an increased incidence of transaminitis. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study among randomly selected HBsAg-/anti-HBc+ HIV-infected patients in the Penn CFAR Database and Specimen Repository. HBV DNA was qualitatively detected using a transcription-mediated amplification assay. Hepatic transaminase levels, the main study outcome, were collected at 6-month intervals from the time of occult HBV determination. RESULTS: Among 97 randomly selected subjects without baseline transaminitis, 13 (13%) had occult HBV. These subjects more frequently had detectable HIV RNA. The 2-year incidence of transaminitis among HIV-infected subjects with occult HBV (50 events/100 person-years) was not significantly different from those without occult HBV (38 events/100 person-years; adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.36 [95% CI, 0.72-2.59]). CONCLUSIONS: Occult HBV did not increase the incidence of hepatic transaminitis over 2 years. Future studies should determine whether occult HBV is associated with other clinically important outcomes, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma.
Therapeutic drug monitoring in HIV treatment: a literature review
PURPOSE: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the practice of managing plasma drug concentrations. This intervention can potentially improve inadequate antiretroviral dosing in the treatment of HIV infection. Our objective was to review the evidence regarding TDM in HIV management. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE using the following key words: therapeutic drug monitoring, HIV infection, pharmacokinetics, antiretroviral therapy, protease inhibitors, antiretroviral-naive, antiretroviral-experienced, and salvage therapy. inclusion criteria required definition of optimal concentration thresholds and measures of treatment effectiveness at these targets. RESULTS: Our search yielded 39 studies. 11 studies met inclusion criteria. 4 studies compared efficacy of TDM to standard of care (SOC) interventions via randomized clinical trials and were grouped as "interventional." 7 studies retrospectively defined thresholds from observed differences in outcome and were grouped as "observational." 3 interventional studies targeted similar indinavir concentrations (Cmin = 0.10-0.15 mg/L). 2 of these studies increased achievement of target serum levels and percentages of undetectable viral load (23%-41%, p < or = .009) with TDM implementation. CONCLUSION: TDM can effectively target antiretroviral threshold concentrations and improve virologic suppression in some cases. Further work is needed to define plasma thresholds and assess the value of TDM in HIV management.