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Scleredema diabeticorum

Tran, Kathleen; Boyd, Kevin P; Robinson, Maria R; Whitlow, Michael
We present a case of scleredema with a leonine facies in a 56-year-old man with a history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The patient initially presented with erythematous, edematous papules and plaques on the face, neck, and upper back.
PMID: 24365009
ISSN: 1087-2108
CID: 806772

Proliferating trichilemmal cyst with focal calcification [Case Report]

Anolik, Robert; Firoz, Bahar; Walters, Ruth F; Meehan, Shane A; Tsou, Hui C; Whitlow, Michael; Wainwright, Brent
A 64-year-old man presented with a superficial, well-demarcated, skin-colored tumor on the left posterior scalp that measured 4 x 5 x 6 cm. The tumor was nearly hairless, rubbery, non-tender, and mobile over the underlying subcutaneous tissues. The lesion had grown slowly since arising approximately 30 years ago. Treatment options were declined in the past. However, with relatively more rapid growth over the past five years, the nodule began to cause intermittent pain and interfere with the patient's ability to lie on his back. The patient denied a history of similar lesions in himself or his family. A biopsy specimen showed a ruptured proliferating trichilemmal cyst with focal calcification. Complete excision is recommended for all benign proliferating variants owing to their potential for locally aggressive behavior and malignant transformation
PMID: 19061624
ISSN: 1087-2108
CID: 95417

Aquatic dermatology

Chapter by: Whitlow M
in: Current dermatologic diagnosis & treatment by Freedberg IM; Sanchez MR [Eds]
Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001
pp. 16-17
ISBN: 0781735319
CID: 3678

Pyoderma gangrenosum

Chapter by: Kim L; Whitlow M
in: Current dermatologic diagnosis & treatment by Freedberg IM; Sanchez MR [Eds]
Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001
pp. 184-185
ISBN: 0781735319
CID: 3753

Interaction between terminal complement proteins C5b-7 and anionic phospholipids

Liu C; Marshall P; Schreibman I; Vu A; Gai W; Whitlow M
We have recently shown that C5b-6 binds to the erythrocyte membrane via an ionic interaction with sialic acid before the addition of C7 and subsequent membrane insertion. In this study we assessed the role of anionic lipids in the binding of the terminal complement proteins to the membrane and the efficiency of subsequent hemolysis. Human erythrocytes were modified by insertion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), or dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Lipid incorporation and the hemolytic assays were done in the presence of 100 micromol/L sodium orthovanadate to prevent enzymatic redistribution of lipid. We found that the neutral lipids, DPPC and DPPE, did not affect C5b-7 uptake or hemolysis by C5b-9. In contrast, the two acidic phospholipids, DPPS and DPPA, caused a dose-dependent increase in both lysis and C5b-7 uptake. We conclude that the presence of anionic lipids on the exterior face of the membrane increases C5b-7 uptake and subsequent hemolysis. It is known that sickle cell erythrocytes have increased exposure of phosphatidylserine on their external face and are abnormally sensitive to lysis by C5b-9. The data presented here provide a plausible mechanism for this increased sensitivity
PMID: 10090939
ISSN: 0006-4971
CID: 56412

Response of SCC-12F, a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line, to complement attack

Whitlow MB; Klein LM
We studied the response of a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC-12F, to human complement attack and found that the cells were completely resistant to complement lysis. In the absence of lysis, there was significant C3 deposition and C5b-9 deposition on the cells. Removal of the lipid-linked complement regulatory proteins CD59 and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) by treatment of the cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) resulted in increased C3b and C5b-9 deposition on the cells and a slight increase in cell death. Treatment of the cells with complement caused them to release membrane vesicles containing the terminal complement proteins. In addition, complement induced SCC-12F to produce significant amounts of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). We conclude that CD59 and DAF are important in the resistance of SCC-12F to complement and that these cells produce membrane vesicles and PGF2alpha in response to complement attack. These responses, in the absence of cell death, may be important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disease in which complement is deposited
PMID: 9204953
ISSN: 0022-202x
CID: 7280

Interaction between complement proteins C5b-7 and erythrocyte membrane sialic acid

Marshall P; Hasegawa A; Davidson EA; Nussenzweig V; Whitlow M
The initial phase of membrane attack by complement is the interaction between C5b6, C7, and the cell membrane that leads to the insertion of C5b-7. Here we investigate the role of sialic acid residues in the assembly of C5b-7 intermediates on erythrocyte cell membranes. We find that C5b6 binds to glycophorin, whereas C5 or C6 does not bind, and desialylation of the glycophorin abolishes C5b6 binding. Complement lysis is inhibited by either masking glycophorin sialic acid with F(ab) fragments of an mAb, or by removal of the sialylated region of glycophorin by mild trypsinization. Gangliosides inhibit C5b-7 deposition when added to the aqueous phase. Asialogangliosides and synthetic gangliosides lacking the carboxylic acid residue have no inhibitory activity. We conclude that C5b6 binds to sialylated molecules on the erythrocyte surface. We propose a new model of membrane attack in which C5b6 initially binds to membranes via ionic forces. C7 then binds to C5b6, disrupting the ionic interaction and leading to the exposure of hydrophobic domains. Sialic acid is known to inhibit complement activation. Thus, these findings reveal a paradoxical role for sialic acid in complement attack; the presence of sialic acid inhibits the generation of C5b6, but once the membrane attack pathway is initiated, sialic acid enhances complement lysis
PMID: 8879193
ISSN: 0022-1007
CID: 61953


ISSN: 0022-202x
CID: 52661

Identification of C1q as the heat-labile serum cofactor required for immune complexes to stimulate endothelial expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin and intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules 1

Lozada C; Levin RI; Huie M; Hirschhorn R; Naime D; Whitlow M; Recht PA; Golden B; Cronstein BN
To examine the role of complement components as regulators of the expression of endothelial adhesive molecules in response to immune complexes (ICs), we determined whether ICs stimulate both endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes and expression of E-selectin and intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). We found that ICs [bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA] stimulated endothelial cell adhesiveness for added leukocytes in the presence of complement-sufficient normal human serum (NHS) but not in the presence of heat-inactivated serum (HIS) or in tissue culture medium alone. Depletion of complement component C3 or C8 from serum did not prevent enhanced endothelial adhesiveness stimulated by ICs. In contrast, depletion of complement component C1q markedly inhibited IC-stimulated endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes. When the heat-labile complement component C1q was added to HIS, the capacity of ICs to stimulate endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes was completely restored. Further evidence for the possible role of C1q in mediating the effect of ICs on endothelial cells was the discovery of the presence of the 100- to 126-kDa C1q-binding protein on the surface of endothelial cells (by cytofluorography) and of message for the 33-kDa C1q receptor in resting endothelial cells (by reverse transcription-PCR). Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide blocked endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes stimulated by either interleukin 1 or ICs in the presence of NHS. After stimulation with ICs in the presence of NHS, endothelial cells expressed increased numbers of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1). Endothelial expression of adhesion molecules mediated, at least in part, endothelial adhesiveness for leukocytes, since leukocyte adhesion was blocked by monoclonal antibodies directed against E-selectin. These studies show that ICs stimulate endothelial cells to express adhesive proteins for leukocytes in the presence of a heat-labile serum factor. That factor appears to be C1q
PMID: 7545301
ISSN: 0027-8424
CID: 7927


ISSN: 0009-9279
CID: 52382