Complete Repair of Massive, Retracted, and "Non-Repairable" Tears of the Rotator Cuff: The Anatomic Vector Repair
Massive and retracted tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons of the rotator cuff are associated with great pain and disability and may be considered "non-repairable," depending on the extent of injury and the experience of the treating clinician. The technique of anatomic vector repair of the rotator cuff is a surgical treatment method that enables the surgeon to accurately characterize the injury pattern and successfully repair many of these debilitating injuries anatomically in a stepwise manner, often in cases that would have otherwise been treated with a less preferable surgical procedure that does not restore native anatomy.
Surgical repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus using biologic inlay osteochondral reconstruction: Clinical outcomes after treatment using a medial malleolar osteotomy approach compared to an arthroscopically-assisted approach
BACKGROUND:Surgical treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus affecting the medial aspect of the talar dome is typically performed using medial malleolar osteotomy to optimize access. This study compares clinical outcomes of lesions repaired using biologic inlay osteochondral reconstruction in patients who did or did not undergo medial malleolar osteotomy, depending on defect dimensions. METHODS:Patients treated for osteochonral lesions of the talus through a medial mallolar approach or arthroscopically-assisted approach were prospectively followed. Assessment tools consisted of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot score (AOFAS). The magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used postoperatively. RESULTS:Data for 24 patients (mean age 34years, mean follow-up 22 months) was analyzed. Mean preoperative/final AOFAS and VAS in those who underwent osteotomy were 57.7/81.2 and 5.7/1.9 (p<0.001), respectively. In those who underwent arthroscopically-assisted reconstruction, mean preoperative/final AOFAS and VAS were 54.4/84.0 and 7.6/2.0 (p<0.001), respectively. There was no difference in mean MOCART score (p=0.662) for those treated with osteotomy (67.3) compared to those without (70.8). CONCLUSIONS:Osteochondral lesions of the talar dome can be treated successfully by biological inlay osteochondral reconstruction technique without medial malleolar osteotomy, with good to excellent clinical outcomes expected. MRI demonstrates good integration of the graft into surrounding tissue.
Acute cardiovascular responses to resistance exercise in anabolic steroids users: A preliminary investigation
Objectives. - Anabolic steroid (AS) use has increased in recent years, but the cardiovascular consequences for users is not fully understood.
Long-term Outcomes of Primary Repair of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Combined With Biologic Healing Augmentation to Treat Incomplete Tears
BACKGROUND:/UNASSIGNED:Surgical treatment to repair partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury without reconstruction has demonstrated inconsistent clinical success. PURPOSE:/UNASSIGNED:To examine the long-term clinical outcomes of primary ACL repair combined with biologic healing augmentation in patients with symptomatic partial ACL tears. STUDY DESIGN:/UNASSIGNED:Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:/UNASSIGNED:50 patients (mean age, 29.5 years) with a partial ACL tear and symptomatic knee instability were treated with primary ligament repair in conjunction with marrow stimulation and followed prospectively for a mean duration of 10.2 years (range, 5.3-14.3 years). Comparative analysis of preinjury, preoperative, and postoperative scores using patient-reported assessment instruments was performed to examine clinical outcomes. Correlation of final outcome scores with patient age, type of ACL tear, side-to-side difference in ligamentous laxity, and body mass index (BMI) was performed through use of Spearman rank analysis. RESULTS:/UNASSIGNED:= -0.376, P = .013). The mean side-to-side difference in ligamentous laxity of 3.4 mm at short-term follow-up in those patients who developed secondary ACL insufficiency over the duration of follow-up was significantly greater than the mean of 0.9 mm in those who did not ( P = .010). CONCLUSION:/UNASSIGNED:Primary ACL repair combined with biologic healing augmentation to treat select cases of knee instability secondary to incomplete ACL rupture demonstrated good to excellent long-term outcomes in this cohort for those patients who did not experience secondary ACL insufficiency, with high rates of restoration of knee stability and return to preinjury athletic activities. The rate of secondary treatment for recurrent ACL insufficiency over the course of long-term follow-up was greater than would be expected for primary ACL reconstruction. Greater side-to-side differences in objective findings of ligamentous laxity were identified at shorter term follow-up in the patients who later went on to experience symptomatic secondary ACL insufficiency, compared with those who maintained stability long term.
Peri-operative patient optimization for oesophageal cancer surgeryÂ -Â From prehabilitation to enhanced recovery
Editorial Commentary: Acetabular Cartilage Repair: AÂ Critically Important Frontier in Hip Preservation [Editorial]
Articular cartilage damage to the acetabulum is frequently associated with femoroacetabular impingement, and there are considerable long-term implications for such injury with regard to maintenance of a healthy hip joint and quality of life. Developing treatments capable of restoring articular cartilage to acetabular cartilage defects is of great importance if hip preservation treatments are to be successful. Ideally, such methods should be performed in a minimally invasive manner and be capable of restoring durable repair tissue that reconstitutes a healthy osteochondral unit and that continues to function effectively over the long term.
A comparison of methods to assess cell mechanical properties
The mechanical properties of cells influence their cellular and subcellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, polarization, and differentiation, as well as organelle organization and trafficking inside the cytoplasm. Yet reported values of cell stiffness and viscosity vary substantially, which suggests differences in how the results of different methods are obtained or analyzed by different groups. To address this issue and illustrate the complementarity of certain approaches, here we present, analyze, and critically compare measurements obtained by means of some of the most widely used methods for cell mechanics: atomic force microscopy, magnetic twisting cytometry, particle-tracking microrheology, parallel-plate rheometry, cell monolayer rheology, and optical stretching. These measurements highlight how elastic and viscous moduli of MCF-7 breast cancer cells can vary 1,000-fold and 100-fold, respectively. We discuss the sources of these variations, including the level of applied mechanical stress, the rate of deformation, the geometry of the probe, the location probed in the cell, and the extracellular microenvironment.
Arthroscopic Cartilage Lesion Preparation in the Human Cadaveric Knee Using a Curette Technique Demonstrates Clinically Relevant Histologic Variation
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To examine the quality of arthroscopic cartilage debridement using a curette technique by comparing regional and morphologic variations within cartilage lesions prepared in human cadaveric knee specimens for the purpose of cartilage repair procedures. A secondary aim was to compare the histologic properties of cartilage lesions prepared by surgeons of varying experience. METHODS:Standardized cartilage lesions (8Â mmÂ Ã— 15Â mm), located to the medial/lateral condyle and medial/lateral trochlea were created within 12 human cadaver knees by 40 orthopaedic surgeons. Participants were instructed to create full-thickness cartilage defects within the marked area, shouldered by uninjured vertical walls of cartilage, and to remove the calcified cartilage layer, without violating the subchondral plate. Histologic specimens were prepared to examine the verticality of surrounding cartilage walls at the front and rear aspects of the lesions, and to characterize the properties of the surrounding cartilage, the cartilage wall profile, the debrided lesion depth, bone sinusoid access, and the bone surface profile. Comparative analysis of cartilage wall verticality measured as deviation from perpendicular was performed, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to examine associations between debrided wall verticality and surgeon experience. RESULTS:Â =Â -0.071, PÂ = .419). CONCLUSIONS:Arthroscopic cartilage lesion preparation using standard curette technique in a human cadaveric knee model results in inferior perpendicularity of the surrounding cartilage walls at the front aspect of the defect, compared to the rear aspect. This technique has shown significant variability in the depth of debridement, with debridement depths identified as either too superficial or too deep to the calcified cartilage layer in more than 60% of cases in this study. Surgeon experience does not appear to impact the morphologic properties of cartilage lesions prepared arthroscopically using ring curettes. CLINICALÂ RELEVANCE: To optimize restoration of hyaline-like cartilage tissue, careful attention to prepared cartilage lesion morphology is advised when arthroscopically performing cartilage repair, given the tendency for standard curette technique to create inferior verticality of cartilage walls at the front of the lesion, and the variable depth of debridement achieved.
Morphologic Properties of Cartilage Lesions in the Knee Arthroscopically Prepared by the Standard Curette Technique Are Inferior to Lesions Prepared by Specialized Chondrectomy Instruments
BACKGROUND:Cartilage lesion preparation is an important component to cartilage repair procedures, given the effect of prepared lesion morphology on the formation of durable and well-integrated repair tissue. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare the quality of arthroscopic cartilage lesion debridement performed by (1) the standard curette (SC) technique and (2) specialized chondrectomy (CM) instruments, to provide technical guidance for optimization of cartilage lesion preparation in the setting of arthroscopic cartilage repair. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Articular cartilage lesions of standardized size (8 Ã— 15 mm) were demarcated within the trochlea and femoral condyles of 20 human cadaver knee specimens. Orthopaedic surgeons performed arthroscopic lesion preparation using 2 techniques that consisted of SC preparation and preparation by CM instruments. A histologic comparative analysis was performed within each treatment group and between treatment groups to evaluate the morphology of prepared cartilage defects. RESULTS:The mean angle deviation from perpendicular of the cartilage wall at the front of the prepared cartilage lesions was significantly greater in the SC group versus the CM group (29.8Â° Â± 21.4Â° vs 7.7Â° Â± 7.6Â°, P < .001). In lesions prepared via the SC technique, the cartilage walls at the front of the prepared lesions were significantly less perpendicular than the cartilage walls at the rear of the lesions (29.8Â° Â± 21.4Â° vs 11.0Â° Â± 10.3Â°, P < .001), whereas lesions prepared by the CM technique demonstrated comparable verticality of surrounding cartilage walls at the front and rear aspects of the lesions (7.7Â° Â± 7.6Â° vs 9.4Â° Â± 12.3Â°, P = .827). Depth of lesion debridement was accomplished to the target level by the CM technique in 86% of prepared lesions, compared with 34% of lesions in the SC group. The prepared cartilage wall profile was characterized as the most ideal morphology in 55% of prepared lesions in the CM group, as opposed to 10% in the SC group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Arthroscopic cartilage lesion preparation with SC instruments results in superior perpendicularity of surrounding cartilage walls to subchondral bone and greater consistency of debrided lesion depth, as compared with the standard debridement technique with curettes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Arthroscopic preparation using standard curette technique leads to suboptimal morphologic characteristics of prepared lesions that likely affect the quality of repair tissue, compared to preparation using specialized chondrectomy instruments.
Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embedded Onto Collagen Scaffolding and Implanted Under Dry Arthroscopy
Cell-based cartilage repair procedures are becoming more widely available and have shown promising potential to treat a wide range of cartilage lesion types and sizes, particularly in the knee joint. More recently, techniques have evolved from 2-step techniques that use autologous chondrocyte expansion to 1-step techniques that make use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) embedded onto biocompatible scaffolding. Our 1-step technique has been further developed to provide cell-based cartilage repair using MSCs that have the potential to be used in an off-the-shelf manner, without the need for autologous tissue harvest. Precursor MSCs can be isolated in abundance from the Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord tissue. These cells have been shown to have the desired capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and release of trophic factors that make them an excellent candidate for use in the clinical setting to provide cell-based restoration of hyaline-like cartilage. Although allogeneic in nature, these cells stimulate little or no host immune response and can be stored for long periods while maintaining viability. We present a technique of cartilage repair in the knee using Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs embedded onto scaffolding and implanted in a minimally invasive fashion using dry arthroscopy.