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Vaccine Equity: Lessons Learned Exploring Facilitators and Barriers to COVID-19 Vaccination in Urban Black Communities

Parameswaran, Lalitha; Jaysing, Anna; Ding, Helen; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Dean, Ranekka; Wilson, Kesi K; Frank, Olivia; Duerr, Ralf; Mulligan, Mark J
COVID-19 vaccines were developed at unparalleled speed, but racial disparities persist in vaccine uptake. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted in mid-2021 in ambulatory clinics across Brooklyn, New York. The objectives of the study were to assess: knowledge of COVID-19, healthcare communication and access, attitudes including trust in the process of vaccine development and mistrust due to racial discrimination, and to determine the relationship of the above to vaccine receipt. 58 respondents self-identified as Black non-Hispanic and completed the survey: the majority were women (79%), <50 years old (65%), employed (66%), and had annual household income <$75,000 (59%). The majority reported having some health insurance (97%) and a regular place of healthcare (95%). 60% of respondents reported COVID-19 vaccination receipt. A significant percentage of the vaccinated group compared to the unvaccinated group scored higher on knowledge questions (91% vs. 65%; p = 0.018), felt it was important that others in the community get vaccinated (89% vs. 65%, p = 0.04), and trusted vaccine safety (86% vs. 35%; p < 0.0001) and effectiveness (88% vs. 48%; p < 0.001). The unvaccinated group reported a lower annual household income of <$75,000 (72% vs. 50%; p = 0.0002) and also differed by employment status (p = 0.04). Majority in both groups agreed that racial discrimination interferes with healthcare (78%). In summary, unvaccinated Black non-Hispanic respondents report significant concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy and have greater mistrust in the vaccine development process. The relationship between racial discrimination, mistrust, and vaccine hesitancy needs further study in order to improve vaccine uptake in this population.
PMID: 37391605
ISSN: 2196-8837
CID: 5540652

The Effect of Abuse and Mistreatment on Healthcare Providers (TEAM): A Survey Assessing the Prevalence of Aggression From Patients and Their Families and Its Impact

Pinkhasov, Aaron; Filangieri, Carole; Rzeszut, Mary; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Akerman, Meredith; Divers, Jasmin; Oliveras, Jessica; Bostwick, J Michael; Svoronos, Alexander; Peltier, Morgan R
OBJECTIVE:Aggression from patients and families on health care providers (HCP) is common yet understudied. We measured its prevalence and impact on HCPs in inpatient and outpatient settings. METHODS:Four thousand six hundred seven HCPs employed by a community teaching hospital received an anonymous survey with results analyzed. RESULTS:Of 1609 HCPs (35%) completing the survey, 88% of inpatient staff reported experiencing different types of aggression compared to 82% in outpatient setting. Almost half did not report it to their supervisor. Younger staff were more likely to report abuse. Negative impacts on productivity and patient care were reported. A third of all responders' indicated negative effects on mental health. CONCLUSIONS:Despite negative impacts on staff wellbeing and productivity, patient/family aggression toward HCPs is highly prevalent and underreported. Our healthcare system needs measures to address staff security and wellness.
PMID: 34935679
ISSN: 1536-5948
CID: 5203382

Allergic and Nonallergic Covid-19 Vaccine Adverse Reactions in Hospital Employees [Meeting Abstract]

Jin, H; Diaz, A M; Phillips, M; Akerman, M; Cohan, C; Salvati, S; Wilkenfeld, M; Fonacier, L
Rationale: Allergic and non-allergic adverse reactions (ARs) to Covid-19 vaccine (Cov19V) have been reported. Understanding the characteristics of Cov19V ARs, particularly those that are allergic in nature, may help us to better counsel patients who are at risk of developing a vaccine AR.
Method(s): We performed a retrospective chart review of ARs voluntarily reported to our Occupational Health Services following Cov19V at a multi-site academic medical center between December 2020-June 2021.
Result(s): 464 Cov19V ARs among 71,281 vaccine doses given (0.65%) were reported. 57 ARs (12.3%) were determined to be allergic (10 after the second dose), 356 were nonallergic, and 51 (11.0%) were undetermined. Of the 47 first-dose allergic ARs, 30 (63.8%) received a second dose, 16 did not complete the vaccine series, and 1 had no data. 3 employees received an alternative Cov19V. Of the 356 nonallergic ARs, 110 were following second dose, 2 were following Janssen, and 4 had no data. 228 of first dose reactions (95.0%, 228/240) completed the vaccine series. 22/57 (38.6%) allergic ARs versus 38/356 (10.7%) nonallergic ARs required ER transfer. More allergic ARs were categorized as moderate/severe (80.7%, 46/57) than nonallergic ARs (66.3%, 236/356).
Conclusion(s): Cov19V ARs are extremely uncommon with nonallergic AR more common than allergic. A vast majority of ARs, allergic or nonallergic, are able to receive subsequent Cov19V. Employees with allergic ARs were less likely to receive a second Cov19V and more frequently required emergent medical evaluation compared to those with nonallergic ARs.
ISSN: 1097-6825
CID: 5157442

Determining the Efficacy of Various Governmental Interventions in Stemming the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Seven Locations

Mendelson, Jordan; Moawad, Andrew; Tesoriero, Lauren; Wilkenfeld, Marc
PMID: 35646769
ISSN: 2296-2565
CID: 5236052

Case-Control Study of Paresthesia Among World Trade Center-Exposed Community Members

Marmor, Michael; Thawani, Sujata; Cotrina, Maria Luisa; Shao, Yongzhao; Wong, Ericka S; Stecker, Mark M; Wang, Bin; Allen, Alexander; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Reibman, Joan
OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether paresthesia of the lower extremities following exposure to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster was associated with signs of neuropathy, metabolic abnormalities, or neurotoxin exposures. METHODS:Case-control study comparing WTC-exposed paresthesia cases with "clinic controls" (WTC-exposed subjects without paresthesias), and "community controls" (WTC-unexposed persons). RESULTS:Neurological histories and examination findings were significantly worse in cases than controls. Intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were below normal in 47% of cases and sural to radial sensory nerve amplitude ratios were less than 0.4 in 29.4%. Neurologic abnormalities were uncommon among WTC-unexposed community controls. Metabolic conditions and neurotoxin exposures did not differ among groups. CONCLUSIONS:Paresthesias among WTC-exposed individuals were associated with signs of neuropathy, small and large fiber disease. The data support WTC-related exposures as risk factors for neuropathy, and do not support non-WTC etiologies.
PMID: 32049876
ISSN: 1536-5948
CID: 4304452

Paresthesias Among Community Members Exposed To The World Trade Center Disaster

Marmor, Michael; Shao, Yongzhao; Bhatt, D Harshad; Stecker, Mark M; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta M; Rosen, Rebecca L; Caplan-Shaw, Caralee; Kazeros, Angeliki; Pradhan, Deepak; Wilkenfeld, Marc; Reibman, Joan
OBJECTIVE: Paresthesias can result from metabolic disorders, nerve entrapment following repetitive motions, hyperventilation pursuant to anxiety, or exposure to neurotoxins. We analyzed data from community members exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of September 11, 2001, to evaluate whether exposure to the disaster was associated with paresthesias. METHODS: Analysis of data from 3141 patients of the WTC Environmental Health Center. RESULTS: Fifty-six percent of patients reported paresthesias at enrollment 7 to 15 years following the WTC disaster. After controlling for potential confounders, paresthesias were associated with severity of exposure to the WTC dust cloud and working in a job requiring cleaning of WTC dust. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that paresthesias were commonly associated with WTC-related exposures or post-WTC cleaning work. Further studies should objectively characterize these paresthesias and seek to identify relevant neurotoxins or paresthesia-inducing activities.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
PMID: 28157767
ISSN: 1536-5948
CID: 2437202

Neurologic Evaluations of Patients Exposed to the World Trade Center Disaster

Stecker, Mark M; Yu, Huiying; Barlev, Renee; Marmor, Michael; Wilkenfeld, Marc
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical phenotype of a limited group of responders and survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster who were referred for the evaluation of neuropathic symptoms. METHODS: Sixteen patients with WTC exposure were referred to a neurologist for evaluation. All had a neurologic examination. Most had electromyogram and nerve conduction testing/nerve conduction studies as well as appropriate imaging and blood tests. RESULTS: There was a higher probability of a neuropathy diagnosis in WTC-exposed patients than other patients referred for EMG testing. Two WTC-exposed patients had motor neuron disease and not neuropathy. CONCLUSION: This study provides objective evidence of neuropathy in a relatively high fraction of WTC-exposed patients with neuropathic symptoms. It also emphasizes that the scope of neurologic problems following WTC exposure may include other diagnoses such as motor neuron disease.
PMID: 27820766
ISSN: 1536-5948
CID: 2303662

Neuropathic Symptoms in World Trade Center Disaster Survivors and Responders

Wilkenfeld, Marc; Fazzari, Melissa; Segelnick, Jacqueline; Stecker, Mark
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research is to determine whether responders and survivors of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster experience symptoms of neuropathy at a rate higher than those not exposed. METHODS: A survey of neuropathic symptoms in patients who were and were not exposed at the WTC based upon the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). RESULTS: Even after correction for medical comorbidities, age, and depression, neuropathic symptoms are much more common in those exposed to WTC dust and increase with increasing exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that exposure to WTC dust is associated with neuropathic symptoms.
PMID: 26618530
ISSN: 1536-5948
CID: 2040932

Analysis of Short-Term Effects of World Trade Center Dust on Rat Sciatic Nerve

Stecker, Mark; Segelnick, Jacqueline; Wilkenfeld, Marc
OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of residual dust from the World Trade Center (WTC) on rat sciatic nerve. METHODS:: Nerve action potentials were recorded in nerves exposed to dust from the WTC as well as control nerves. RESULTS:: There was a reduction in the conduction velocity of nerves exposed to a high concentration of the dust from the WTC when compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS:: Although there are statistically significant reductions in conduction velocity when exposed to the WTC dust in this pilot study, additional studies both clinical and basic will be needed to further understand the significance of these results.
PMID: 25215548
ISSN: 1076-2752
CID: 1258422

9/11 and occupational/environmental medicine [Editorial]

Wilkenfeld, Marc
PMID: 21904165
ISSN: 1076-2752
CID: 302062