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Growth hormone secreting pituitary carcinomas: Case report and review of literature

Vekaria, Shivani; Chen, Fei; William, Christopher; Sen, Chandra; Lebowitz, Richard; Zagzag, David; Warren, Floyd A; Brandler, Tamar C; Agrawal, Nidhi
ISSN: 1532-2238
CID: 5007452

Pediatric midline H3K27M-mutant tumor with disseminated leptomeningeal disease and glioneuronal features: case report and literature review

Navarro, Ralph E; Golub, Danielle; Hill, Travis; McQuinn, Michelle W; William, Christopher; Zagzag, David; Hidalgo, Eveline Teresa
BACKGROUND:H3K27M-mutant midline lesions were recently reclassified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "diffuse midline glioma" (DMG) based entirely on their molecular signature. DMG is one of the most common and most lethal pediatric brain tumors; terminal progression is typically caused by local midbrain or brainstem progression, or secondary leptomeningeal dissemination. H3K27M mutations have also been infrequently associated with a histologically and prognostically diverse set of lesions, particularly spinal masses with early leptomeningeal spread. CASE PRESENTATION/METHODS:A 15-year-old girl after 1 week of symptoms was found to have a T2/FLAIR-hyperintense and contrast-enhancing thalamic mass accompanied by leptomeningeal enhancement along the entire neuraxis. Initial infectious workup was negative, and intracranial biopsy was inconclusive. Spinal arachnoid biopsy revealed an H3K27M-mutant lesion with glioneuronal features, classified thereafter as DMG. She received craniospinal irradiation with a boost to the thalamic lesion. Imaging 1-month post-radiation demonstrated significant treatment response with residual enhancement at the conus. CONCLUSIONS:This case report describes the unique presentation of an H3K27M-mutant midline lesion with significant craniospinal leptomeningeal spread on admission and atypical glioneuronal histopathological markers. With such florid leptomeningeal disease, spinal dural biopsy should be considered earlier given its diagnostic yield in classifying the lesion as DMG. Consistent with similar prior reports, this lesion additionally demonstrated synaptophysin positivity-also potentially consistent with a diagnosis of diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT). In atypical DMG cases, particularly with leptomeningeal spread, further consideration of clinical and histopathological context is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prognostication.
PMID: 32989496
ISSN: 1433-0350
CID: 4651682

Blinded Review of Hippocampal Neuropathology in Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Reveals Inconsistent Observations and Similarities to Explained Pediatric Deaths

Leitner, Dominique F; McGuone, Declan; William, Christopher; Faustin, Arline; Askenazi, Manor; Snuderl, Matija; Guzzetta, Melissa; Jarrell, Heather S; Maloney, Katherine; Reichard, Ross; Smith, Colin; Weedn, Victor; Wisniewski, Thomas; Gould, Laura; Devinsky, Orrin
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Hippocampal findings are implicated in the pathogenesis of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC), although some studies have identified similar findings in sudden explained death in childhood (SEDC) cases. We blindly reviewed hippocampal histology in SUDC and SEDC controls. METHODS:Hippocampal H&E slides (n=67; 36 SUDC, 31 controls) from clinical and forensic collaborators were evaluated by 9 blinded reviewers: 3 board-certified forensic pathologists, 3 neuropathologists, and 3 dual-certified neuropathologist/forensic pathologists. RESULTS:Among nine reviewers, about 50% of hippocampal sections were rated as abnormal (SUDC 52.5%, controls 53.0%), with no difference by cause of death (COD) (p=0.16) or febrile seizure history (p=0.90). There was little agreement among nine reviewers on whether a slide was within normal range (Fleiss' kappa=0.014, p=0.47). Within reviewer groups, there were no findings more frequent in SUDC compared to controls, with variability in pyramidal neuron and dentate gyrus findings. Across reviewer groups, there was concordance for bilamination and granule cell loss. Neither SUDC (51.2%) nor control (55.9%) slides were considered contributory to determining COD (p=0.41). CONCLUSIONS:The lack of an association of hippocampal findings in SUDC and controls, as well as inconsistency of observations by multiple blinded reviewers, indicates discrepancy with previous studies and an inability to reliably identify hippocampal malformation associated with sudden death (HMASD). These findings underscore a need for larger studies to standardize evaluation of hippocampal findings, identify the range of normal variation and, changes unrelated to SUDC or febrile seizures. Molecular studies may help identify novel immunohistological markers that inform on COD.
PMID: 34164845
ISSN: 1365-2990
CID: 4918622

Impairment of visual cortical plasticity by amyloid-beta species

William, Christopher M; Stern, Matthew A; Pei, Xuewei; Saqran, Lubna; Ramani, Margish; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:A variety of transgenic and knock-in mice that express mutant alleles of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) have been used to model the effects of amyloid-beta (Aβ) on circuit function in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however phenotypes described in these mice may be affected by expression of mutant APP or proteolytic cleavage products independent of Aβ. In addition, the effects of mutant APP expression are attributed to elevated expression of the amyloidogenic, 42-amino acid-long species of Aβ (Aβ42) associated with amyloid plaque accumulation in AD, though elevated concentrations of Aβ40, an Aβ species produced with normal synaptic activity, may also affect neural function. METHODS:To explore the effects of elevated expression of Aβ on synaptic function in vivo, we assessed visual system plasticity in transgenic mice that express and secrete Aβ throughout the brain in the absence of APP overexpression. Transgenic mice that express either Aβ40 or Aβ42 were assayed for their ability to appropriately demonstrate ocular dominance plasticity following monocular deprivation. RESULTS:Using two complementary approaches to measure the plastic response to monocular deprivation, we find that male and female mice that express either 40- or 42-amino acid-long Aβ species demonstrate a plasticity defect comparable to that elicited in transgenic mice that express mutant alleles of APP and Presenilin 1 (APP/PS1 mice). CONCLUSIONS:These data support the hypothesis that mutant APP-driven plasticity impairment in mouse models of AD is mediated by production and accumulation of Aβ. Moreover, these findings suggest that soluble species of Aβ are capable of modulating synaptic plasticity, likely independent of any aggregation. These findings may have implications for the role of soluble species of Aβ in both development and disease settings.
PMID: 33766652
ISSN: 1095-953x
CID: 4822922

Neuropathology in the North American sudden unexpected death in epilepsy registry

Leitner, Dominique F; Faustin, Arline; Verducci, Chloe; Friedman, Daniel; William, Christopher; Devore, Sasha; Wisniewski, Thomas; Devinsky, Orrin
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is the leading category of epilepsy-related death and the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Risk factors can include a recent history and high frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, which can depress brain activity postictally, impairing respiration, arousal and protective reflexes. Neuropathological findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases parallel those in other epilepsy patients, with no implication of novel structures or mechanisms in seizure-related deaths. Few large studies have comprehensively reviewed whole brain examination of such patients. We evaluated 92 North American Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy Registry cases with whole brain neuropathological examination by board-certified neuropathologists blinded to the adjudicated cause of death, with an average of 16 brain regions examined per case. The 92 cases included 61 sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (40 definite, 9 definite plus, 6 probable, 6 possible) and 31 people with epilepsy controls who died from other causes. The mean age at death was 34.4 years and 65.2% (60/92) were male. The average age of death was younger for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases than for epilepsy controls (30.0 versus 39.6 years; P = 0.006), and there was no difference in sex distribution respectively (67.3% male versus 64.5%, P = 0.8). Among sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases, earlier age of epilepsy onset positively correlated with a younger age at death (P = 0.0005) and negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (P = 0.001). Neuropathological findings were identified in 83.7% of the cases in our cohort. The most common findings were dentate gyrus dysgenesis (sudden unexpected death in epilepsy 50.9%, epilepsy controls 54.8%) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) (sudden unexpected death in epilepsy 41.8%, epilepsy controls 29.0%). The neuropathological findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy paralleled those in epilepsy controls, including the frequency of total neuropathological findings as well as the specific findings in the dentate gyrus, findings pertaining to neurodevelopment (e.g. FCD, heterotopias) and findings in the brainstem (e.g. medullary arcuate or olivary dysgenesis). Thus, like prior studies, we found no neuropathological findings that were more common in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy cases. Future neuropathological studies evaluating larger sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and control cohorts would benefit from inclusion of different epilepsy syndromes with detailed phenotypic information, consensus among pathologists particularly for more subjective findings where observations can be inconsistent, and molecular approaches to identify markers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy risk or pathogenesis.
PMID: 34514397
ISSN: 2632-1297
CID: 5007112

Evaluation of Concordance Between Original Death Certifications and an Expert Panel Process in the Determination of Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood

Crandall, Laura Gould; Lee, Joyce H; Friedman, Daniel; Lear, Kelly; Maloney, Katherine; Pinckard, J Keith; Lin, Peter; Andrew, Thomas; Roman, Kristin; Landi, Kristen; Jarrell, Heather; Williamson, Alex K; Downs, J C Upshaw; Pinneri, Kathy; William, Christopher; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Reichard, R Ross; Devinsky, Orrin
Importance/UNASSIGNED:The true incidence of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC), already the fifth leading category of death among toddlers by current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates, is potentially veiled by the varied certification processes by medicolegal investigative offices across the United States. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate the frequency of SUDC incidence, understand its epidemiology, and assess the consistency of death certification among medical examiner and coroner offices in the US death investigation system. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:In this case series, 2 of 13 forensic pathologists (FPs) conducted masked reviews of 100 cases enrolled in the SUDC Registry and Research Collaborative (SUDCRRC). Children who died aged 11 months to 18 years from 36 US states, Canada, and the United Kingdom had been posthumously enrolled in the SUDCRRC by family members from 2014 to 2017. Comprehensive data from medicolegal investigative offices, clinical offices, and family members were reviewed. Data analysis was conducted from December 2014 to June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Certified cause of death (COD) characterized as explained (accidental or natural) or unexplained, as determined by SUDCRRC masked review process. Results/UNASSIGNED:In this study of 100 cases of SUDC (mean [SD] age, 32.1 [31.8] months; 58 [58.0%] boys; 82 [82.0%] White children; 92 [92.0%] from the United States), the original pathologist certified 43 cases (43.0%) as explained COD and 57 (57.0%) as unexplained COD. The SUDCRRC review process led to the following certifications: 16 (16.0%) were explained, 7 (7.0%) were undetermined because of insufficient data, and 77 (77.0%) were unexplained. Experts disagreed with the original COD in 40 cases (40.0%). These data suggest that SUDC incidence is higher than the current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate (ie, 392 deaths in 2018). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive masked forensic pathology review process of sudden unexpected pediatric deaths, and it suggests that SUDC may often go unrecognized in US death investigations. Some unexpected pediatric deaths may be erroneously attributed to a natural or accidental COD, negatively affecting surveillance, research, public health funding, and medical care of surviving family members. To further address the challenges of accurate and consistent death certification in SUDC, future studies are warranted.
PMID: 33125496
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 4655772

Orbital Rosai-Dorfman disease initially diagnosed as IgG4-related disease: a case report

Iyengar, Nishanth S; Golub, Danielle; McQuinn, Michelle W; Hill, Travis; Tang, Karen; Gardner, Sharon L; Harter, David H; Sen, Chandranath; Staffenberg, David A; Thomas, Kristen; Elkin, Zachary; Belinsky, Irina; William, Christopher
Inflammatory orbital lesions include a broad list of diagnoses, many of them with overlapping clinical and radiographic features. They often present a diagnostic conundrum, even to the most experienced orbital specialist, thus placing considerable weight on surgical biopsy and histopathological analysis. However, histopathological diagnosis is also inherently challenging due to the rarity of these lesions and the overlaps in histologic appearance among distinct disease entities. We herein present the case of an adolescent male with a subacutely progressive orbital mass that generated a significant diagnostic dilemma. Early orbital biopsy was consistent with a benign fibro-inflammatory lesion, but corticosteroid therapy was ineffective in halting disease progression. After an initial substantial surgical debulking, histopathological analysis revealed several key features consistent with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a systemic fibro-inflammatory process typically accompanied by multifocal tumor-like lesions. Surprisingly, within months, there was clear evidence of clinical and radiographic disease progression despite second-line rituximab treatment, prompting a second surgical debulking. This final specimen displayed distinctive features of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by uncontrolled histiocytic proliferation. Interestingly, certain features of this re-excision specimen were still reminiscent of IgG4-RD, which not only reflects the difficulty in differentiating RDD from IgG4-RD in select cases, but also illustrates that these diagnoses may exist along a spectrum that likely reflects a common underlying pathogenetic mechanism. This case emphasizes the importance of surgical biopsy or resection and histopathological analysis in diagnosing-and, ultimately, treating-rare, systemic inflammatory diseases involving the orbit, and, furthermore, highlights the shared histopathological features between RDD and IgG4-RD.
PMID: 32682450
ISSN: 2051-5960
CID: 4531782

Spontaneous, Intrasphenoidal Rupture of Ecchordosis Physaliphora with Pneumocephalus Captured During Serial Imaging and Clinical Follow-up: Pathoanatomic Features and Management [Case Report]

Derakhshani, Ahrya; Livingston, Stephanie; William, Christopher; Lieberman, Seth; Young, Matthew; Pacione, Donato; Dehkharghani, Seena
BACKGROUND:Ecchordosis physaliphora (EP) is a congenital, uniformly asymptomatic, hamartomatous lesion of the primitive notochord. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first credible case report of unprovoked intra-sphenoidal rupture resulting in recurrent pneumocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, definitively captured over serial imaging during clinical and radiologic surveillance. CASE DESCRIPTION/METHODS:A 68-year old woman with Marfan syndrome presented to the Emergency Department with the worst headache of life. Imaging demonstrated extensive pneumocephalus and revealed a small, dorsal midline clival lesion consistent with EP and a trans-sphenoidal defect. Remote imaging encounters confirmed typical EP without pneumocephalus or cortical defect, and an uneventful clinical course years preceding presentation. Over the ensuing months during neurosurgical follow-up, the patient reported recurrent headaches, imbalance, and unprovoked clear rhinorrhea. Further imaging demonstrates an apparently enlarging trans-sphenoidal defect which was managed by endoscopic trans-nasal resection and nasoseptal flap. Pathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of EP and chronic dural defect. CONCLUSIONS:This represents, to our knowledge, the first unambiguous example of spontaneous EP rupture and recurrent pneumocephalus captured over serial imaging. The case further underscores rare, but potentially significant complications of EP and highlights management options. BACKGROUND:. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first documented spontaneous rupture of EP resulting in recurrent pneumocephalus, credibly captured over serial radiologic surveillance. CLINICAL PRESENTATION/METHODS:A 68 year-old woman with history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and Marfan syndrome presented to the Emergency Department reporting the "worst headache of her life" after engaging in an interpersonal dispute the evening preceding presentation.
PMID: 32492548
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 4469112

Neuropathologic Changes in Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood

McGuone, Declan; Leitner, Dominique; William, Christopher; Faustin, Arline; Leelatian, Nalin; Reichard, Ross; Shepherd, Timothy M; Snuderl, Matija; Crandall, Laura; Wisniewski, Thomas; Devinsky, Orrin
Sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) affects children >1-year-old whose cause of death remains unexplained following comprehensive case investigation and is often associated with hippocampal abnormalities. We prospectively performed systematic neuropathologic investigation in 20 SUDC cases, including (i) autopsy data and comprehensive ancillary testing, including molecular studies, (ii) ex vivo 3T MRI and extensive histologic brain samples, and (iii) blinded neuropathology review by 2 board-certified neuropathologists. There were 12 girls and 8 boys; median age at death was 33.3 months. Twelve had a history of febrile seizures, 85% died during apparent sleep and 80% in prone position. Molecular testing possibly explained 3 deaths and identified genetic mutations in TNNI3, RYR2, and multiple chromosomal aberrations. Hippocampal abnormalities most often affected the dentate gyrus (altered thickness, irregular configuration, and focal lack of granule cells), and had highest concordance between reviewers. Findings were identified with similar frequencies in cases with and without molecular findings. Number of seizures did not correlate with hippocampal findings. Hippocampal alterations were the most common finding on histological review but were also found in possibly explained deaths. The significance and specificity of hippocampal findings is unclear as they may result from seizures, contribute to seizure pathogenesis, or be an unrelated phenomenon.
PMID: 31995186
ISSN: 1554-6578
CID: 4294212

Progressive myelopathy associated with spinal epidural lipomatosis in three non-obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Lotan, Itay; Charlson, Robert W; Fatterpekar, Girish M; Shapiro, Maksim; Smith, Michael L; William, Christopher; Kister, Ilya
BACKGROUND:Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition defined as pathological overgrowth of the normally present epidural fat within the spinal canal. SEL is associated with Cushing disease, obesity and chronic corticosteroid therapy. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) has not known to be a risk factor for SEL. The neurological symptoms of SEL are attributed mainly to mechanical compression on the spinal cord and the cauda equina. METHODS:A retrospective chart review of patients evaluated at NYU Multiple Sclerosis Care Center identified three diabetic patients with progressive myelopathy associated with SEL. We report the clinical course, diagnostic workup and outcomes in these three patients with SEL-associated myelopathy. RESULTS:Three patients (2 females and 1 male) had long-standing DM1 and developed progressive myelopathy in their early 40's. All were found to have thoracic SEL (extensive extradural T1, T2 hyperintense signal; biopsy confirmed in one case) with associated extensive abnormal cord signal in lower cervical/upper thoracic spinal cord. A comprehensive evaluation for metabolic, infectious, autoimmune and vascular causes of myelopathy that included serologies, cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and spinal angiography did not reveal an alternative cause for myelopathy. One of the patients underwent a surgical decompression of SEL with subsequent clinical and radiologic improvement. CONCLUSIONS:Our case series suggest that patients with DM1 and myelopathy of unknown cause should be evaluated for SEL. Timely diagnosis and appropriate intervention may forestall progression of neurological disability and even result in neurologic improvement. SEL should be considered on the short list of diagnoses that cause potentially reversible progressive myelopathy.
PMID: 31972349
ISSN: 1878-5883
CID: 4273332