Outcomes of SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Compared With Surgical Valve Replacement in Intermediate-Risk Patients
BACKGROUND:Previous studies demonstrated transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with an earlier generation balloon-expandable valve to be noninferior to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for death and disabling stroke in intermediate-risk patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis at 5 years. However, limited long-term data are available with the more contemporary SAPIEN 3 (S3) bioprosthesis. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to compare 5-year risk-adjusted outcomes in intermediate-risk patients undergoing S3 TAVR vs SAVR. METHODS:Propensity score matching was performed to account for baseline differences in intermediate-risk patients undergoing S3 TAVR in the PARTNER 2 (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) S3 single-arm study and SAVR in the PARTNER 2A randomized clinical trial. The primary composite endpoint consisted of 5-year all-cause death and disabling stroke. RESULTS:A total of 783 matched pairs of intermediate-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis were studied. There were no differences in the primary endpoint between S3 TAVR and SAVR at 5 years (40.2% vs 42.7%; HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.74-1.03; P = 0.10). The incidence of mild or greater paravalvular regurgitation was more common after S3 TAVR. There were no differences in structural valve deterioration-related stage 2 and 3 hemodynamic valve deterioration or bioprosthetic valve failure. CONCLUSIONS:In this propensity-matched analysis of intermediate-risk patients, 5-year rates of death and disabling stroke were similar between S3 TAVR and SAVR. Rates of structural valve deterioration-related hemodynamic valve deterioration were similar, but paravalvular regurgitation was more common after S3 TAVR. Longer-term follow-up is needed to further evaluate differences in late adverse clinical events and bioprosthetic valve durability. (PII S3i [PARTNER II Trial: Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves II - S3 Intermediate], NCT03222128; PII A (PARTNER II Trial: Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves II - XT Intermediate and High Risk], NCT01314313).
Real-World Outcomes of Fourth-Generation Mitral Transcatheter Repair: 30-Day Results From EXPAND G4
BACKGROUND:The fourth-generation MitraClip G4 System builds on the previous NTR/XTR system with additional wider clip sizes (NTW and XTW), an independent grasping feature, and an improved clip deployment sequence. OBJECTIVES:The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety and performance of the MitraClip G4 System within a contemporary real-world setting. METHODS:EXPAND G4 is a prospective, multicenter, international, single-arm, postapproval study that enrolled patients with primary (degenerative) mitral regurgitation (MR) and secondary (functional) MR at 60 centers. Follow-up of the full cohort has been conducted through 30 days. Echocardiograms were analyzed by an echocardiography core laboratory. Study outcomes included MR severity, functional capacity measured by NYHA functional class, quality of life measured using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, major adverse event rates, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS:In EXPAND G4, 1,141 subjects with primary MR and secondary MR were treated from March 2021 to February 2022. Implantation and acute procedural success rates were 98.0% and 96.2%, respectively, with a mean of 1.4 ± 0.6 clips implanted per subject. MR was significantly reduced at 30 days compared with baseline (98% achieved MR ≤ 2+, and 91% achieved MR ≤ 1+; P < 0.0001). Functional capacity and quality of life were substantially improved, with 83% of patients achieving NYHA functional class I or II. Likewise, an 18-point improvement was observed in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire summary scores compared with baseline. The composite major adverse event rate was 2.7%, and the all-cause death rate was 1.3% at 30 days. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates for the first time the effectiveness and safety of MitraClip G4 System at 30 days in a cohort of >1,000 patients with MR in a contemporary, real-world setting.
Expanding the Spectrum of TEER Suitability: Evidence From the EXPAND G4 Post Approval Study
BACKGROUND:Anatomical and clinical criteria to define mitral transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) "unsuitability" have been proposed on the basis of a Heart Valve Collaboratory consensus opinion from physician experience with early-generation TEER devices but lacked an evidence-based approach. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to explore the spectrum of TEER suitability using echocardiographic and clinical outcomes from the EXPAND G4 real-world postapproval study. METHODS:EXPAND G4 is a global, prospective, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 1,164 subjects with mitral regurgitation (MR) treated with the MitraClip G4 System. Three groups were defined using the Heart Valve Collaboratory TEER unsuitability criteria: 1) risk of stenosis (RoS); 2) risk of inadequate MR reduction (RoIR); and 3) subjects with baseline moderate or less MR (MMR). A TEER-suitable (TS) group was defined by the absence of these characteristics. Endpoints included independent core laboratory-assessed echocardiographic characteristics, procedural outcomes, MR reduction, NYHA functional class, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score, and major adverse events through 30 days. RESULTS:Subjects in the RoS (n = 56), RoIR (n = 54), MMR (n = 326), and TS (n = 303) groups had high 30-day MR reduction rates (≤1+: RoS 97%, MMR 93%, and TS 91%; ≤2+: RoIR 94%). Thirty-day improvements in functional capacity (NYHA functional class I or II at 30 days vs baseline: RoS 94% vs 29%, RoIR 88% vs 30%, MMR 79% vs 26%, and TS 83% vs 33%) and quality of life (change in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score: RoS +27 ± 26, RoIR +16 ± 26, MMR +19 ± 26, and TS +19 ± 24) were safely achieved in all groups, with low major adverse events (<3%) and all-cause mortality (RoS 1.8%, RoIR 0%, MMR 1.5%, and TS 1.3%). CONCLUSIONS:Patients previously deemed TEER unsuitable can be safely and effectively treated with the mitral TEER fourth-generation device.
Economic Outcomes of Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Low Surgical Risk: Results from the PARTNER 3 Trial
BACKGROUND:In patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis at low surgical risk, transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the SAPIEN 3 valve has been shown to reduce the composite of death, stroke, or rehospitalization at 2-year follow-up compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Whether TAVR is cost-effective compared with SAVR for low-risk patients remains uncertain. METHODS:Between 2016 and 2017, 1000 low-risk patients with aortic stenosis were randomly assigned to TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve or SAVR in the PARTNER 3 trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves). Of these patients, 929 underwent valve replacement, were enrolled in the United States, and were included in the economic substudy. Procedural costs were estimated using measured resource use. Other costs were determined by linkage with Medicare claims or by regression models when linkage was not feasible. Health utilities were estimated using the EuroQOL 5-item questionnaire. With the use of a Markov model informed by in-trial data, lifetime cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the US health care system was estimated in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. RESULTS:Although procedural costs were nearly $19 000 higher with TAVR, total index hospitalization costs were only $591 more with TAVR compared with SAVR. Follow-up costs were lower with TAVR such that TAVR led to 2-year cost savings of $2030/patient compared with SAVR (95% CI, -$6222 to $1816) and a gain of 0.05 quality-adjusted life-years (95% CI, -0.003 to 0.102). In our base-case analysis, TAVR was projected to be an economically dominant strategy with a 95% probability that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for TAVR would be <$50 000/quality-adjusted life-year gained (consistent with high economic value from a US health care perspective). These findings were sensitive to differences in long-term survival, however, such that a modest long-term survival advantage with SAVR would render SAVR cost-effective (although not cost saving) compared with TAVR. CONCLUSIONS:For patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk similar to those enrolled in the PARTNER 3 trial, transfemoral TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve is cost saving compared with SAVR at 2 years and is projected to be economically attractive in the long run as long as there are no substantial differences in late death between the 2 strategies. Long-term follow-up will be critical to ultimately determine the preferred treatment strategy for low-risk patients from both a clinical and economic perspective.
1-Year Outcomes of Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Repair
BACKGROUND:Surgical management of isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, thereby creating a significant need for a lower-risk transcatheter solution. OBJECTIVES:The single-arm, multicenter, prospective CLASP TR (Edwards PASCAL TrAnScatheter Valve RePair System in Tricuspid Regurgitation [CLASP TR] Early Feasibility Study) evaluated 1-year outcomes of the PASCAL transcatheter valve repair system (Edwards Lifesciences) to treat TR. METHODS:Study inclusion required a previous diagnosis of severe or greater TR and persistent symptoms despite medical treatment. An independent core laboratory evaluated echocardiographic results, and a clinical events committee adjudicated major adverse events. The study evaluated primary safety and performance outcomes, with echocardiographic, clinical, and functional endpoints. Study investigators report 1-year all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization rates. RESULTS:Sixty-five patients were enrolled: mean age of 77.4 years; 55.4% female; and 97.0% with severe to torrential TR. At 30 days, cardiovascular mortality was 3.1%, the stroke rate was 1.5%, and no device-related reinterventions were reported. Between 30 days and 1 year, there were an additional 3 cardiovascular deaths (4.8%), 2 strokes (3.2%), and 1 unplanned or emergency reintervention (1.6%). One-year postprocedure, TR severity significantly reduced (P < 0.001), with 31 of 36 (86.0%) patients achieving moderate or less TR; 100% had at least 1 TR grade reduction. Freedom from all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalization by Kaplan-Meier analyses were 87.9% and 78.5%, respectively. Their New York Heart Association functional class significantly improved (P < 0.001) with 92% in class I or II, 6-minute walk distance increased by 94 m (P = 0.014), and overall Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores improved by 18 points (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The PASCAL system demonstrated low complication and high survival rates, with significant and sustained improvements in TR, functional status, and quality of life at 1 year. (Edwards PASCAL TrAnScatheter Valve RePair System in Tricuspid Regurgitation [CLASP TR] Early Feasibility Study [CLASP TR EFS]; NCT03745313).
Contemporary Outcomes Following Transcatheter Edge-to-Edge Repair: 1-Year Results From the EXPAND Study
BACKGROUND:The third-generation MitraClip NTR/XTR transcatheter edge-to-edge repair system was introduced to assist in leaflet grasping with the longer clip arms of MitraClip XTR and to improve ease of use with the modified delivery catheter. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The EXPAND study evaluated contemporary real-world outcomes in subjects with mitral regurgitation (MR) treated with the third-generation MitraClip NTR/XTR transcatheter edge-to-edge repair system. METHODS:EXPAND is a prospective, multicenter, international, single-arm study that enrolled patients with primary MR and secondary MR at 57 centers. Follow-up was conducted through 12 months. Echocardiograms were analyzed by an echocardiographic core laboratories. Study outcomes included: MR severity, functional capacity measured by New York Heart Association functional class, quality of life measured by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, heart failure hospitalizations, all-cause mortality. RESULTS:1,041 patients were enrolled from April 2018 through March 2019, of which 50.5% had primary or mixed etiology. Implant success was 98.9%; 1.5 ± 0.6 clips were implanted per subject. Significant MR reduction from baseline (≥MR 3+: 56.0%) to 30 days (≤MR 1+:88.8%) was maintained through 1 year (MR ≤1+: 89.2%). A total of 84.5% and 93.0% of subjects in primary MR and secondary MR, respectively, had ≤1+ MR at 1 year. Significant improvements were observed in clinical outcomes (New York Heart Association functional class I/II in 80.3%, +21.6 improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score) at 1 year. All-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalizations at 1 year were 14.9% and 18.9%, respectively, which was significantly lower than previous studies. CONCLUSIONS:The study demonstrates treatment with the third-generation system resulted in substantial reduction of MR in a contemporary real-world practice, compared with the results of earlier EVEREST and COAPT trials.(The MitraClip® EXPAND Study of the Next Generation of MitraClip® Devices [EXPAND]; NCT03502811).
Transesophageal Echocardiographic Screening for Structural Heart Interventions
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Percutaneous structural interventions have provided patients with an effective therapeutic option, and its growth has been aided by echocardiography. We describe the vital role that transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) plays in screening patients prior to their procedure. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:A multimodality imaging approach is employed by the valve team, but TEE plays a unique role in diagnosis and planning. Utilization of all TEE views and features such as biplane, 3D imaging, and multiplanar reconstruction ensures accurate assessment of the structural lesion of interest. The role of TEE remains essential in the planning of structural interventions, and these studies should be performed in a systematic and comprehensive manner.
Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair for secondary mitral regurgitation with third-generation devices in heart failure patients - results from the Global EXPAND Post-Market study
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Mitral valve transcatheter edge-to-edge repair is a guideline-recommended treatment option for patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR). The purpose of this analysis was to report contemporary real-world outcomes in SMR patients treated with third-generation MitraClip systems. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:EXPAND is a prospective, multicentre, international, single-arm study with 1041 patients treated for mitral regurgitation (MR) with MitraClip NTR/XTR, with 30-day and 1-year follow-up. All echocardiograms were analysed by an independent echocardiographic core lab. Study outcomes included procedural outcomes, durability of MR reduction, and major adverse events including all-cause mortality and heart failure hospitalizations (HFH). A subgroup of 413 symptomatic patients (age 74.7 ± 10.1 years, 58% male) with severe SMR were included. MR reduction to MR ≤ 1+ and MR ≤ 2+ was achieved in 93.0% and 98.5% of patients, respectively, which was sustained at 1-year follow-up. All-cause mortality was 17.7% at 1-year- follow-up, and the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality or first HFH occurred in 34% of patients. This combined endpoint was significantly less frequently observed in MR ≤ 1+ patients (Kaplan-Maier estimates: 29.7% vs. 69.6% for MR ≤ 1+ vs. MR ≥ 2 +; p < 0.0001). New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class improved significantly from baseline (NYHA ≤ II: 17%) to 1-year follow-up (NYHA ≤ II: 78%) (p < 0.0001). While MR reduction was comparable between NTR-only vs. XTR-only treated patients, less XTR clips were required for achieving MR reduction. CONCLUSIONS:Under real-world conditions, optimal sustained MR reduction to MR ≤ 1+ was achieved in a high percentage of patients with third-generation MitraClip, which translated into symptomatic improvement and low event rates. These results appear to be comparable with recent randomized clinical trials.
CRT-700.03 TAVR in Intermediate-Risk Patients: 5-Year Outcomes From the SURTAVI Continued Access Study [Meeting Abstract]
Background: The Surgical Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Continued Access Study (SURTAVI CAS) evaluated the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) at intermediate surgical risk. Long-term follow-up data after TAVR are limited, and the objective of this analysis is to report 5-year outcomes for these patients.
Method(s): SURTAVI CAS was designed as a single-arm prospective, multicenter, non-randomized phase of the primary SURTAVI randomized controlled trial. Patients enrolled in CAS were selected based on detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria and assigned to TAVR with either the CoreValve or Evolut R device (Medtronic, Mpls, MN). The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause mortality or disabling stroke at 2 years. Prespecified secondary endpoints were also defined, and echocardiographic assessment of hemodynamics and measurements of health status and quality of life were included. Echocardiograms were assessed by a central core laboratory. Patients were followed through 5 years.
Result(s): A total of 275 patients underwent an attempted TAVR at 44 investigational sites in the U.S. Mean age was 79.0+/-6.1 years, and 46.2% were male. At baseline, most patients were in New York Heart Association class II (54.5%) or III (42.9%), and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality score was 4.1+/-1.5%. Study compliance through five years was 88.6% for follow-up visits. At 5-year follow-up, the rate of all-cause mortality or disabling stroke was 29.9% (all-cause mortality, 29.2%; disabling stroke, 3.4%). The rate of reintervention was 1.1%, and the new permanent pacemaker implantation rate was 27.6%. There were no cases of clinical valve thrombosis, and 3 cases of valve endocarditis (1.2%). The 5-year mean gradient was 9.16 mmHg and 5-year mean effective orifice area was 2.06 cm2. Most patients had no or trace aortic regurgitation (87.9%) and no or trace paravalvular leak (89.4%). At 5-year follow-up, the average increase in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score from baseline was 16.6 +/- 24.8, p<0.001.
Conclusion(s): For patients with severe symptomatic AS at intermediate surgical risk treated with TAVR, 5-year data from SURTAVI CAS shows favorable clinical outcomes, with excellent valve hemodynamics, low reintervention rates, and no clinical valve thrombosis. These data demonstrate the long-term safety and effectiveness of TAVR in this risk population.
Percutaneous MitraClip Device or Surgical Mitral Valve Repair in Patients With Primary Mitral Regurgitation Who Are Candidates for Surgery: Design and Rationale of the REPAIR MR Trial
Background The current standard of care for the treatment of patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR) is surgical mitral valve repair. Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip device provides a less invasive treatment option for patients with both primary and secondary MR. Worldwide, >150 000 patients have been treated with the MitraClip device. However, in the United States, MitraClip is approved for use only in primary patients with MR who are at high or prohibitive risk for mitral valve surgery. The REPAIR MR (Percutaneous MitraClip Device or Surgical Mitral Valve Repair in Patients With Primary Mitral Regurgitation Who Are Candidates for Surgery) trial is designed to compare early and late outcomes associated with transcatheter edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip and surgical repair of primary MR in older or moderate surgical risk patients. Methods and Results The REPAIR MR trial is a prospective, randomized, parallel-controlled, open-label multicenter, noninferiority trial for the treatment of severe primary MR (verified by an independent echocardiographic core laboratory). Patients with severe MR and indications for surgery because of symptoms (New York Heart Association class II-IV), or without symptoms with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤60%, pulmonary artery systolic pressure >50 mm Hg, or left ventricular end-systolic diameter ≥40 mm are eligible for the trial provided they meet the moderate surgical risk criteria as follows: (1) ≥75 years of age, or (2) if <75 years of age, then the subject has a Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk Of Mortality score of ≥2% for mitral repair (or Society of Thoracic Surgeons replacement score of ≥4%), or the presence of a comorbidity that may introduce a surgery-specific risk. The local surgeon must determine that the mitral valve can be surgically repaired. Additionally, an independent eligibility committee will confirm that the MR can be reduced to mild or less with both the MitraClip and surgical mitral valve repair with a high degree of certainty. A total of 500 eligible subjects will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the MitraClip device or to undergo surgical mitral valve repair (control group). There are 2 co-primary end points for the trial, both of which will be evaluated at 2 years. Each subject will be followed for 10 years after enrollment. The study has received approval from both the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and enrolled its first subject in July 2020. Conclusions The REPAIR MR trial will determine the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip in patients with primary MR who are at moderate surgical risk and are candidates for surgical MV repair. The trial will generate contemporary comparative clinical evidence for the MitraClip device and surgical MV repair. Registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04198870; NCT04198870.