Blood Pressure Visit Intensification in Treatment (BP-Visit) Findings: a Pragmatic Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomized Trial
BACKGROUND:Shortening time between office visits for patients with uncontrolled hypertension represents a potential strategy for improving blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the impact of multimodal strategies on time between visits and on improvement in systolic BP (SBP) among patients with uncontrolled hypertension. DESIGN/METHODS:We used a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial with three wedges involving 12 federally qualified health centers with three study periods: pre-intervention, intervention, and post-intervention. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Adult patients with diagnosed hypertension and two BPs â‰¥ 140/90 pre-randomization and at least one visit during post-randomization control period (N = 4277). INTERVENTION/METHODS:The core intervention included three, clinician hypertension group-based trainings, monthly clinician feedback reports, and monthly meetings with practice champions to facilitate implementation. MAIN MEASURES/METHODS:The main measures were change in time between visits when BP was not controlled and change in SBP. A secondary planned outcome was changed in BP control among all hypertension patients in the practices. KEY RESULTS/RESULTS:Median follow-up times were 34, 32, and 32 days and the mean SBPs were 142.0, 139.5, and 139.8 mmHg, respectively. In adjusted analyses, the intervention did not improve time to the next visit compared with control periods, HR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.04). SBP was reduced by 1.13 mmHg (95% CI: -2.10, -0.16), but was not maintained during follow-up. Hypertension control (< 140/90) in the practices improved by 5% during intervention (95% CI: 2.6%, 7.3%) and was sustained post-intervention 5.4% (95% CI: 2.6%, 8.2%). CONCLUSIONS:The intervention failed to shorten follow-up time for patients with uncontrolled BP and showed very small, statistically significant improvements in SBP that were not sustained. However, the intervention showed statistically and clinically relevant improvement in hypertension control suggesting that the intervention affected clinician decision-making regarding BP control apart from visit frequency. Future practice initiatives should consider hypertension control as a primary outcome. CLINICAL TRIAL/BACKGROUND:www.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02164331.
Motivation to move fast, motivation to wait and see: The association of prevention and promotion focus with clinicians' implementation of the JNC-7 hypertension treatment guidelines
Roughly half of the adults in the United States are diagnosed with hypertension (HTN). Unfortunately, less than one-third have their condition under control. Clinicians generally have positive regard for the use of HTN guidelines to achieve HTN treatment goals; however, actual uptake remains low. Factors underpinning clinician variation in practice are poorly understood. To understand the relationship between clinicians' personal motivation to complete goals and their uptake of the Joint National Commission's HTN guidelines. The authors used Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT, ie, prevention and promotion focus), an empirically supported motivational theory, as a guiding framework to examine the relationship. The authors hypothesized that clinicians with high prevention focus would report following guidelines more often and have shorter follow-up visit intervals for patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. Clinicians (nâ€‰Â =Â 27) caring for adult patients diagnosed with HTN (nÂ =Â 8605) in Federally Qualified Health Centers (nÂ =Â 8). Clinicians' prevention and promotion focus scores and the number of days between visits for their patients with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) (â‰¥ 140Â mm Hg). Consistent with RFT, 60% of prevention focused clinicians reported they always followed the monthly visit guideline for the patients with uncontrolled blood pressure, compared with 38% of promotion focused clinicians (pÂ =Â .254). The unadjusted probability of returning for a follow-up visit within 30 days was greater among patients whose clinician was higher in prevention focus (pÂ =Â .009), but there was no evidence at the 0.05 significance level in our adjusted model. These findings provide some limited evidence that RFT is a useful framework to understand clinician adherence to HTN treatment guidelines.
Prevalence and correlates of depression among black and Latino stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension: a cross-sectional study
OBJECTIVE:To examine the prevalence and correlates of depression in a cohort of black and Hispanic stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension. SETTING/METHODS:Baseline survey data from 10 stroke centres across New York City. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Black and Hispanic stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension (n=450). OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 8-item Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measure. Depression was defined as a PROMIS score â‰¥55. Other data collected included clinical factors, health-related quality of life (EuroQoL five dimensions (EQ-5D)), functional independence (Barthel Index, BI), stroke-related disability (Modified Rankin Score), physical function (PROMIS Physical Function) and executive functioning (Frontal Assessment Battery). RESULTS:The mean age was 61.7Â±11.1 years, 44% of participants were women and 51% were black. Poststroke depression was noted in 32% of the cohort. Examining bivariate relationships, patients with depression were observed to have poorer function and quality of life as evidenced by significantly lower PROMIS physical function scores (36.9Â±8.32 vs 43.4Â±10.19, p<0.001); BI scores (79.9Â±19.2 vs 88.1Â±15.1, p<0.001); EQ-5D scores (0.66Â±0.24 vs 0.83Â±0.17, p<0.001) and higher Rankin scores (2.10Â±1.00 vs 1.46Â±1.01, p<0.001) compared with those without depression. Multivariate (model adjusted) significant correlates of depression included lower self-reported quality of life (OR=0.02 (CI 0.004 to 0.12) being younger (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97); not married (OR=0.46; CI 0.24 to 0.89)); and foreign-born (OR=3.34, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.97). There was a trend for higher comorbidity to be uniquely associated with depression (â‰¥3 comorbid conditions, OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.23). CONCLUSIONS:Poststroke depression is common among black and Hispanic stroke survivors with higher rates noted among foreign-born patients and those with high comorbidity. These findings highlight the importance of screening for depression in minority stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER/BACKGROUND:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01070056.
COVID-19 impact on multi-site recruitment and enrollment [Letter]
Protocol paper: Stepped wedge cluster randomized trial translating the ABCS into optimizing cardiovascular care for people living with HIV
People living with HIV (PWH) are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke in comparison to their non-infected counterparts. The ABCS (aspirin-blood pressure control-cholesterol control-smoking cessation) reduce atherosclerotic (ASCVD) risk in the general population, but little is known regarding strategies for promoting the ABCS among PWH. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), we designed multilevel implementation strategies that target PWH and their clinicians to promote appropriate use of the ABCS based on a 10-year estimated ASCVD risk. Implementation strategies include patient coaching, automated texting, peer phone support, academic detailing and audit and feedback for the patient's clinician. We are evaluating implementation through a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial based on the Reach-Effectiveness-Adoption-Maintenance/Qualitative-Evaluation-for-Systematic-Translation (RE-AIM/QuEST) mixed methods framework that integrates quantitative and qualitative assessments. The primary outcome is change in ASCVD risk. Findings will have important implications regarding strategies for reducing ASCVD risk among PWH.
Use of home blood pressure telemonitoring in routine practice: Still many rivers to cross
Types of Sedentary Behavior and Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Mortality in Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study
Background Previous cross-sectional studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of television viewing and occupational sitting on cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare the association of both television viewing and occupational sitting with CVD events and all-cause mortality in blacks. Methods and Results Participants included 3592 individuals enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based study of blacks residing in Jackson, Mississippi. Television viewing (<2, 2-4, and >4Â h/day) and occupational sitting (never/seldom, sometimes, often/always) were self-reported. Over a median follow-up of 8.4Â years, there were 129 CVD events and 205 deaths. The highest category of television viewing (>4Â h/day) was associated with a greater risk for a composite CVD events/all-cause mortality end point compared with the lowest category (<2Â h/day; hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% CI , 1.13-1.97). In contrast, the highest category of occupational sitting (often/always) was not associated with risk for a composite CVD events/all-cause mortality end point compared with the lowest category (never/seldom; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI , 0.69-1.18). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity moderated the association of television viewing with CVD events/all-cause mortality such that television viewing was not associated with greater risk among those with high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels. Conclusions Television viewing was associated with greater risk of CVD events and all-cause mortality, while occupational sitting had no association with these outcomes. These findings suggest that minimizing television viewing may be more effective for reducing CVD and mortality risk in blacks compared with reducing occupational sedentary behavior.
Mobile Phone Ownership, Health Apps, and Tablet Use in US Adults With a Self-Reported History of Hypertension: Cross-Sectional Study
BACKGROUND:Mobile phone and tablet ownership have increased in the United States over the last decade, contributing to the growing use of mobile health (mHealth) interventions to help patients manage chronic health conditions like diabetes. However, few studies have characterized mobile device ownership and the presence of health-related apps on mobile devices in people with a self-reported history of hypertension. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to describe the prevalence of smartphone, tablet, and basic mobile phone ownership and the presence of health apps by sociodemographic factors and self-reported hypertension status (ie, history) in a nationally representative sample of US adults, and to describe whether mobile devices are associated with health goal achievement, medical decision making, and patient-provider communication. METHODS:Data from 3285 respondents from the 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed. Participants were asked if they owned a smartphone, tablet, or basic mobile phone and if they had health apps on a smartphone or tablet. Participants were also asked if their smartphones or tablets helped them achieve a health-related goal like losing weight, make a decision about how to treat an illness, or talk with their health care providers. Chi-square analyses were conducted to test for differences in mobile device ownership, health app presence, and app helpfulness by patient characteristics. RESULTS:Approximately 1460 (37.6% weighted prevalence) participants reported a history of hypertension. Tablet and smartphone ownership were lower in participants with a history of hypertension than in those without a history of hypertension (55% vs 66%, P=.001, and 86% vs 68%, P<.001, respectively). Participants with a history of hypertension were more likely to own a basic mobile phone only as compared to those without a history of hypertension (16% vs 9%, P<.001). Among those with a history of hypertension exclusively, basic mobile phone, smartphone, and tablet ownership were associated with age and education, but not race or sex. Older adults were more likely to report having a basic mobile phone only, whereas those with higher education were more likely to report owning a tablet or smartphone. Compared to those without a history of hypertension, participants with a history of hypertension were less likely to have health-related apps on their smartphones or tablets (45% vs 30%, P<.001) and report that mobile devices helped them achieve a health-related goal (72% vs 63%, P=.01). CONCLUSIONS:Despite the increasing use of smartphones, tablets, and health-related apps, these tools are used less among people with a self-reported history of hypertension. To reach the widest cross-section of patients, a mix of novel mHealth interventions and traditional health communication strategies (eg, print, web based, and in person) are needed to support the diverse needs of people with a history of hypertension.
Different Relationship Between Systolic Blood Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion in Subjects With and Without Hypertension
Although there is an increasing agreement that hypertension is associated with cerebrovascular compromise, relationships between blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow are not fully understood. It is not known what BP level, and consequently what therapeutic goal, is optimal for brain perfusion. Moreover, there is limited data on how BP affects hippocampal perfusion, a structure critically involved in memory. We conducted a cross-sectional (n=445) and longitudinal (n=185) study of adults and elderly without dementia or clinically apparent stroke, who underwent clinical examination and brain perfusion assessment (age 69.2Â±7.5 years, 62% women, 45% hypertensive). Linear models were used to test baseline BP-blood flow relationship and to examine how changes in BP influence changes in perfusion. In the entire group, systolic BP (SBP) was negatively related to cortical (Î²=-0.13, P=0.005) and hippocampal blood flow (Î²=-0.12, P=0.01). Notably, this negative relationship was apparent already in subjects without hypertension. Hypertensive subjects showed a quadratic relationship between SBP and hippocampal blood flow (Î²=-1.55, P=0.03): Perfusion was the highest in subjects with mid-range SBP around 125 mmâ€‰Hg. Longitudinally, in hypertensive subjects perfusion increased with increased SBP at low baseline SBP but increased with decreased SBP at high baseline SBP. Cortical and hippocampal perfusion decrease with increasing SBP across the entire BP spectrum. However, in hypertension, there seems to be a window of mid-range SBP which maximizes perfusion.
Partnerships to Improve Shared Decision Making for Patients with Hypertension - Health Equity Implications
Shared decision making (SDM) has increasingly become appreciated as a method to enhance patient involvement in health care decisions, patient-provider communication, and patient-centered care. Compared with cancer, the literature on SDM for hypertension is more limited. This is notable because hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and both conditions disproportionately affect certain subgroups of patients. However, SDM holds promise for improving health equity by better engaging patients in their health care. For example, many reasonable options exist for treating uncomplicated stage-1 hypertension. These options include medication and/or lifestyle changes such as healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. Deciding on "the best" plan of action for hypertension management can be challenging because patients have different goals and preferences for treatment. As hypertension management may be considered a preference-sensitive decision, adherence to treatment plans may be greater if those plans are concordant with patient preferences. SDM can be implemented in a broad array of care contexts, from patient-provider dyads to interprofessional collaborations. In this article, we argue that SDM has the potential to advance health equity and improve clinical care. We also propose a process to evaluate whether SDM has occurred and suggest future directions for research.