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The role of androgen deprivation therapy on the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in men with prostate cancer [Meeting Abstract]

Patel, V G; Zhong, X; Shah, N J; Martina, L P; Hawley, J; Lin, E; Gartrell, B A; Febles, V R A; Wise, D R; Qin, Q; Mellgard, G; Nauseef, J T; Green, D; Vlachostergios, P J; Kwon, D; Huang, F W; Liaw, B C -H; Tagawa, S T; Morris, M J; Oh, W K
Background: TMPRSS2, a cell surface protease which is commonly upregulated in prostate cancer (PC) and regulated by androgens, is a necessary component for SARS-CoV2 cellular entry into respiratory epithelial cells. PC patients receiving ADT were reported to have a lower risk of SARSCoV- 2 infection. However, whether ADT may have an impact on the severity of COVID-19 illness in this population is poorly understood.
Method(s): In this study performed across 7 US medical centers, we retrospectively evaluated patients with active PC and SARS-COV-2 viral detection by PCR between 03/01/20 and 05/31/20. We collected information on demographics; medical comorbidities; medications; PC Gleason score at initial diagnosis; presence of active disease, metastases, and castration resistance; ADT use as defined by GnRH analog or antagonist within 3 months or castration levels of testosterone < 50 ng/dL within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis, or history of bilateral orchiectomy; active non-ADT systemic therapies including, but not limited to, androgen-receptor-targeted therapies and chemotherapy; and COVID-19-related outcomes including hospitalization, supplemental oxygen use, mechanical ventilation requirement, WHO COVID-19 ordinal scale for clinical improvement, follow-up duration, and vital status. Multivariable mixed-effect logistic regression was performed to evaluate any difference in COVID-19 clinical outcomes between patients on and not on ADT. Survival analysis was done using adjusted Cox proportion-hazards regression model. All tests were two-sided at 0.05 significance level.
Result(s): We identified 465 evaluable patients with median age of 71 (61-81) years. Median duration of follow-up was 60 (12-114.2) days. In this follow up period, there were 195 (41.9%) hospitalizations and 111 (23.9%) deaths. When adjusted for age, BMI, and PC clinical disease state, overall survival (HR 1.28 [95%CI 0.79-2.08], P = 0.32), hospitalization status (HR 1.07 [0.61-1.87], P = 0.82), supplemental oxygen use (HR 1.29 [0.77-2.17], P = 0.34), and use of mechanical ventilation (HR 1.07 [0.51-2.23], P = 0.87) were not statistically different between ADT and non-ADT cohorts. Similarly, in subgroup analysis, no statistical difference in overall survival was found between ADT and non-ADT cohorts for hospitalized patients (HR 1.42 [0.82-2.47], P = 0.21) and those receiving supplemental oxygen (HR 1.10 [0.65-1.85], P = 0.73).
Conclusion(s): In this retrospective cohort of PC patients, use of ADT prior to COVID-19 diagnosis does not protect against severe COVID-19 illness as defined by hospitalization, supplemental oxygen use, or death. Further preclinical work in understanding TMPRSS2 expression and androgen regulation in respiratory epithelial cells is needed. As well, longer clinical follow-up and additional clinical studies inclusive of prospective data are warranted to fully address this question
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 4824312

Knowledge and practice regarding prostate cancer germline testing among urologists: Gaps to address for optimal implementation✰,✰✰

Loeb, Stacy; Byrne, Nataliya; Walter, Dawn; Makarov, Danil V; Wise, David R; Becker, Daniel; Giri, Veda N
BACKGROUND:Germline testing is recommended for all men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), and for some with localized PCa meeting specific histologic or family history criteria. Germline genetic evaluation has important implications for PCa prognosis and management, as well as implications for family members and cancer screening. Despite the importance of germline evaluation, its utilization in urologic practice is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We conducted a 32-item survey of U.S. urologists to examine knowledge of germline testing guidelines and practice patterns. It was shared through email to 6 American Urological Association sections, the Veterans Affairs Urology Mailgroup, and social media. RESULTS:Among 132 total respondents from diverse practice settings across the U.S., 12% perform germline testing, 44% refer to a genetic counselor, 11% do both, and 33% do not test/refer. Only 4% had formal education in genetics. While 98% ask about PCa family history, only 76% and 52% ask about breast and ovarian cancer. When presented with hypothetical case scenarios where germline testing is indicated, many respondents indicated they would not offer genetic counseling or testing. Younger age (p = 0,03), academic practice (p = 0.04), and specializing in PCa/oncology (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with performing or referring for germline testing. Specializing in PCa/oncology was significantly associated with recommending germline testing for all case scenarios involving metastatic PCa (p = 0.0009) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest significant gaps in knowledge of germline testing and alignment of practice with national guidelines among urologists. Germline testing education and facilitation of genetic evaluation in urologic practice is warranted.
PMID: 33091732
ISSN: 2468-2942
CID: 4660982

A phase Ib/II, open-label, randomized platform study evaluating the efficacy and safety of AB928-based treatment combinations in patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer [Meeting Abstract]

Subudhi, S K; Wise, D; Liu, S T; Chaudhry, A; Kim, J; Gardner, O; Gilbert, H; Grady, M; Paoloni, M; Krishnan, K; Carducci, M
Background: Standard of care (SOC) regimens may contribute to immunosuppression by elevating intratumoral levels of adenosine, which activates the A2a and A2b receptors (R) on immune cells. Extracellular adenosine is primarily produced by the enzyme CD73. In prostate cancer, the activity of the highly expressed protein, prostatic acid phosphatase, produces additional adenosine. AB928, which is the first clinical-stage small molecule dual antagonist of both A2aR and A2bR, is highly potent, pharmacodynamically active, and well tolerated in dose escalation studies in combination with chemo/immunotherapy. Targeting the adenosine axis in combination with SOC regimens or immunotherapy may have a more profound effect on activating and inducing sustained antitumor immunity in patients (pts) with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Trial design: This is a phase (Ph) 1b/2, open-label, multicenter platform trial to evaluate the antitumor activity and safety of AB928-based combination therapy in pts with mCRPC. Eligibility for a specific treatment arm will be informed by prior anticancer therapy. Treatment arms will independently evaluate AB928 + zimberelimab (AB122; anti-PD-1 antibody) alone or in combination with an SOC backbone (enzalutamide or docetaxel) in earlier-line pts or AB928 + AB680 (CD73 inhibitor) +/- zimberelimab in later-line pts. Treatment arms will be conducted in 2 stages: Stage 1 (Ph1b) and Stage 2 (Ph2). In Ph1b, up to 15 pts will receive investigational product(s) at the single agent recommended dose with SOC per label guidance. Provided safety and futility stopping criteria are not met, further accrual in the earlier-line arms will involve randomization to SOC alone; in the later-line arms, upfront randomization to the all-experimental regimens will continue in Ph2. Investigator-assessed antitumor response (radiologic, prostate specific antigen [PSA]) will follow PCWG3 criteria. New treatment arms may be added via protocol amendment. ARC-6 is actively recruiting in the United States, and results will be shared in upcoming scientific conferences (NCT04381832). Clinical trial identification: NCT04381832. Legal entity responsible for the study: Arcus Biosciences.
Funding(s): Arcus Biosciences. Disclosure: S.K. Subudhi: Advisory/Consultancy, Research grant/Funding (self): Janssen Oncology; Advisory/Consultancy: Polaris; Advisory/Consultancy: Dendreon; Advisory/Consultancy, Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options: Apricity Health; Advisory/Consultancy: Amgen; Advisory/Consultancy: Bayer; Advisory/Consultancy: Exelixis; Advisory/Consultancy, Research grant/Funding (self): AstraZeneca; Advisory/Consultancy: Bristol-Myers Squibb; Advisory/Consultancy: Dava Oncology; Advisory/Consultancy: Cancer Now; Advisory/Consultancy: MEDACorp; Honoraria (self): Parker Institute of Cancer Immunotherapy; Honoraria (self): SITC. D. Wise: Advisory/Consultancy: ScientiaCME; Advisory/Consultancy: OncLIve; Advisory/Consultancy: Foundation Medicine; Honoraria (self), Advisory/Consultancy: Best Doctors; Advisory/Consultancy: Leap Therapeutics; Advisory/Consultancy: Guidepoint Consulting; Advisory/Consultancy: GLG Consulting; Advisory/Consultancy: Silverlight; Advisory/Consultancy: Alphasights; Advisory/Consultancy: Pfizer. S.T. Liu: Advisory/Consultancy: Merck; Advisory/Consultancy: Exelixis; Advisory/Consultancy: Esai; Advisory/Consultancy: Seattle Genetics. A. Chaudhry: Speaker Bureau/Expert testimony, Research grant/Funding (institution): Bayer; Advisory/Consultancy, Research grant/Funding (institution): Exelixis; Advisory/Consultancy: Astellas Pharma; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options: Novartis; Research grant/Funding (institution): Arcus Biosciences; Research grant/Funding (institution): Merck; Research grant/Funding (institution): Abbvie; Research grant/Funding (institution): AstraZeneca; Research grant/Funding (institution): BMS; Research grant/Funding (institution): Eli Lilly; Research grant/Funding (institution): Pfizer; Research grant/Funding (institution): Beigene; Research grant/Funding (institution): BerGenBio; Research grant/Funding (institution): Blueprint; Research grant/Funding (institution): Alkermes; Research grant/Funding (institution): Genentech; Research grant/Funding (institution): Gilead; Research grant/Funding (institution): Janssen; Research grant/Funding (institution): Millennium; Research grant/Funding (institution): Basilea; Research grant/Funding (institution): IunoCare; Research grant/Funding (institution): Amgen; Research grant/Funding (institution): Novartis. J. Kim: Advisory/Consultancy: Sanofi; Advisory/Consultancy: EMD Serono; Advisory/Consultancy: Voluntis; Research grant/Funding (self): Immune Design. O. Gardner: Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Arcus Biosciences; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Bellicum Pharmaceuticals; Full/Part-time employment: Aduro Biotech; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Janssen. H. Gilbert: Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Arcus Biosciences; Advisory/Consultancy, Full/Part-time employment: Bellicum; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Roche/Genentech; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options: Denali; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options: Celgene; Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options: BMS. M. Grady: Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Arcus Biosciences; Full/Part-time employment: Bellicum; Full/Part-time employment: Biothera. M. Paoloni: Leadership role, Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Arcus Biosciences; Advisory/Consultancy: Eli Lilly; Advisory/Consultancy: Janssen Oncology; Advisory/Consultancy: Amgen. K. Krishnan: Leadership role, Shareholder/Stockholder/Stock options, Full/Part-time employment: Arcus Biosciences; Full/Part-time employment: Astex; Full/Part-time employment: Roche/Genentech; Full/Part-time employment: Five Prime. M. Carducci: Advisory/Consultancy, Research grant/Funding (institution): Pfizer; Advisory/Consultancy: Medivation; Advisory/Consultancy: Astellas; Advisory/Consultancy: Roche; Advisory/Consultancy: Abbvie; Advisory/Consultancy: Foundation Medicine; Advisory/Consultancy: Merck; Research grant/Funding (institution): EMD Serono; Research grant/Funding (institution): Exelixis; Research grant/Funding (institution): Gilead; Research grant/Funding (institution): Effector; Non-remunerated activity/ies: ECOG-ACRIN.
ISSN: 1569-8041
CID: 4623812

Exploring Variation in the Use of Conservative Management for Low-risk Prostate Cancer in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System

Loeb, Stacy; Byrne, Nataliya K; Wang, Binhuan; Makarov, Danil V; Becker, Daniel; Wise, David R; Lepor, Herbert; Walter, Dawn
Current guidelines recommend conservative management as the preferred option for most low-risk prostate cancer cases, with certain possible exceptions (age <55yr, African Americans, and high-volume grade group 1). Although previous studies have documented substantial heterogeneity in the uptake of conservative management, less is known about the underlying reason for this variation and whether it is due to guideline-concordant factors (age, race, and biopsy cancer volume). We explored variation in the use of conservative management for low-risk prostate cancer among 20 597 men diagnosed in the US Veterans Affairs health care system from 2010 to 2016. Conservative management increased substantially over this time from 51% to 76% (p< 0.001). However, there was substantial variation by facility (35-100%). Multivariable analysis revealed that patient factors included in the guidelines (e.g., age and biopsy cores), other patient factors (eg, marital status and PSA) and non-patient factors (eg, geographic region, case volume, year) were associated with conservative management use. In conclusion, even within an integrated health care system, there remains significant heterogeneity in the uptake of conservative management for low-risk prostate cancer. Both guideline-concordant factors and other factors not discussed in the guidelines were associated with conservative management use. PATIENT SUMMARY: In the US Veterans Affairs health care system the vast majority of men with low-risk prostate cancer were managed conservatively by 2016, although there was significant variation by facility. Patient factors specifically mentioned in guidelines had the greatest impact on prediction of conservative management.
PMID: 32098730
ISSN: 1873-7560
CID: 4323382

Translating the Immunobiology of SBRT to Novel Therapeutic Combinations for Advanced Prostate Cancer

Adorno Febles, Victor R; Blacksburg, Seth; Haas, Jonathan A; Wise, David R
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an increasingly used radiation modality for the treatment of both localized and metastatic prostate cancer. Substantial data suggests that prostate cancer may be more sensitive to higher doses of radiation per fraction due to its low α/β ratio. This increased sensitivity raises important questions as to how SBRT should be combined with systemic therapy for clinically significant prostate cancer, including whether androgen deprivation therapy retains its beneficial effects when combined with SBRT. Furthermore, pre-clinical and clinical data suggest pronounced immunomodulatory effects of SBRT, including observed improvements in T cell priming and trafficking. These data support investigational strategies combining SBRT with immunotherapy. Here we aim to review the data for the use of SBRT in both the local and metastatic disease settings as well as ongoing translational and clinical research examining combinations with ADT, immunotherapy and other targeted agents.
PMID: 32670868
ISSN: 2234-943x
CID: 4529262

Dickkopf-1 Can Lead to Immune Evasion in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

Wise, David R; Schneider, Jeffrey A; Armenia, Joshua; Febles, Victor Adorno; McLaughlin, Bridget; Brennan, Ryan; Thoren, Katie L; Abida, Wassim; Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Fox, Josef J; Haas, Michael; Heath, Heidi; Kagey, Michael H; Newman, Walter; Sirard, Cynthia A; Fleisher, Martin; Morris, Michael J; Chen, Yu; Larson, Steven M; Haffner, Michael C; Nelson, Peter S; Schultz, Nikolaus; Garabedian, Michael J; Scher, Howard I; Logan, Susan K; Sawyers, Charles L
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with low androgen receptor (AR) and without neuroendocrine signaling, termed double-negative prostate cancer (DNPC), is increasingly prevalent in patients treated with AR signaling inhibitors and is in need of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. METHODS:Candidate genes enriched in DNPC were determined using differential gene expression analysis of discovery and validation cohorts of mCRPC biopsies. Laboratory studies were carried out in human mCRPC organoid cultures, prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, and mouse xenograft models. Epigenetic studies were carried out in a rapid autopsy cohort. RESULTS:< .0005). Growth inhibition of the human PCa model PC3 by the anti-DKK1 monoclonal antibody DKN-01 depends on the presence of NK cells in a severe combined immunodeficient xenograft mouse model. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These results support DKK1 as a contributor to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of DNPC. These data have provided the rationale for a clinical trial targeting DKK1 in mCRPC ( identifier: NCT03837353).
PMID: 33015525
ISSN: 2473-4284
CID: 4626642

Somatic and germline sequencing in genitourinary oncology: genetics for the clinician

Shoag, Jonathan E; Wise, David R; Sharaf, Ravi N; Sternberg, Cora N
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Next-generation sequencing is becoming more accessible. This review focuses on the clinical application of somatic and germline sequencing to genitourinary oncology. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Germline variants have been increasingly recognized as contributing to the development of genitourinary malignancies, particularly in patients with advanced disease. A variety of commercial and institutional technologies are in use to detect variants, with newer tools focused on integrating these results into the clinical workflow. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:DNA sequencing is becoming a valuable tool in caring for patients with genitourinary malignancies. Performing both somatic and germline sequencing will likely become standard practice. Interpretation and clinical application of these results can be challenging and often requires multidisciplinary expertise.
PMID: 31158105
ISSN: 1473-6586
CID: 3923352

Phase Ib results of ProSTAR: CPI-1205, EZH2 inhibitor, combined with enzalutamide (E) or abiraterone/prednisone (A/P) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) [Meeting Abstract]

Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Hussain, Arif; Shah, Satish; Shore, Neal D.; Edenfield, William Jeffery; Sartor, Oliver A.; Nordquist, Luke T.; Agrawal, Manish; Clark, William; Wise, David R.; Oh, William K.; Fleming, Mark T.; Butrynski, James E.; Chatta, Gurkamal S.; Bupathi, Manojkumar; Lebedinsky, Claudia; Senderowicz, Adrian; Li, Jian; Colak, Gozde; Nash, David; Trojer, Patrick; Bradley, William D.; Piel, Jessica; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.
ISSN: 0008-5472
CID: 4135662

A phase IB open-label, dose escalation and expansion study to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical activity of GSK525762 in combination with abiraterone or enzalutamide in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer [Meeting Abstract]

Vaishampayan, U N; Narayan, V; Wise, D; Lang, J M; Lowentritt, B H; Mellado, B; Carles, J; Isabel, Saez M; Abida, W; Taplin, M -E; Azad, A; Wang, K; Barbash, O; Ferron-Brady, G; Fecteau, D; Khaled, A H; Dhar, A; De, Bono J S
Background: Metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains an incurable illness as resistance develops after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and/or androgen receptor (AR) axis targeted therapies. The bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal (BET) proteins are critical for transcription. Preclinically, one of these proteins, BRD4, acts in complex with AR to mediate androgen signaling that leads to prostate cell growth and proliferation. GSK525762 is an oral pan-BET inhibitor that suppresses BET dependent activated AR-driven transcription. Combined with androgen production or receptor targeted agents like abiraterone or enzalutamide, GSK525762 may enhance efficacy of or overcome resistance to either agent.
Method(s): This is a Phase IB open-label, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral administration of GSK525762 in combination with either abiraterone plus prednisone (Arm A) or enzalutamide (Arm B) in mCRPC patients whose disease has progressed on prior abiraterone or enzalutamide. Patients must have documented prostate cancer progression as assessed by rising PSA or radiographic progression of soft tissue by PCWG3-modified RECIST 1.1 criteria or bone metastasis. Dose escalation is designed to identify safe doses to move into dose expansion. Dose expansion will explore safety and efficacy in patients who failed in first line (L2 population) or after multiple lines of prior therapy (LX population). Primary objectives include defining the safety, tolerability and clinical activity of GSK525762 when combined with products in Arm A or Arm B. Primary clinical activity endpoint is defined as the response rate of subjects achieving a 50% or more reduction from baseline of PSA at 12 weeks or thereafter. Dose escalation will employ a modified Toxicity Probability Interval (mTPI) design. Dose expansion will use a Bayesian adaptive design, which will calculate posterior probability that utility of the dose is clinically significant at interim futility analysis for each dose level.
Funding(s): GSK Clinical trial information: NCT03150056
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 3553952

Cutaneous vulvar metastases in a patient with anal squamous cell carcinoma [Case Report]

Wise, David R; Kim, Brian S; Ferenczi, Katalin; Rosenbach, Misha
Metastatic disease of the skin can be difficult to diagnose, particularly when lesions occur in unusual anatomic locations. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman with a history of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who developed genital ulcers. Biopsy of the lesions revealed features consistent with metastatic SCC. Cutaneous metastases are an infrequent cause of genital ulcerations, and it is important for physicians to consider this entity when evaluating genital ulcers in patients with prior malignancies.
PMID: 23617081
ISSN: 0011-4162
CID: 2484032