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Reduced frontal white matter integrity in cocaine dependence: a controlled diffusion tensor imaging study

Lim, Kelvin O; Choi, Steven J; Pomara, Nunzio; Wolkin, Adam; Rotrosen, John P
BACKGROUND: In vivo magnetic resonance studies have found that cocaine dependence is associated with T2 signal hyperintensities and metabolite abnormalities in cerebral white matter (WM). Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested that chronic cocaine use is primarily associated with frontal lobe deficits in regional cerebral blood flow and brain glucose metabolism levels; however, the effects of cocaine dependence, if any, on frontal WM microstructure are unknown. Thus, we sought to examine the effects of cocaine dependence on frontal WM integrity. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was employed to examine the WM integrity of frontal regions at four levels: 10 mm above, 5 mm above, 0 mm above, and 5 mm below the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) plane. The fractional anisotropy (FA) of 12 cocaine-dependent patients and 13 age-similar control subjects was compared. RESULTS: The cocaine-dependent patients had significantly reduced FA in the frontal WM at the AC-PC plane and a trend toward reduced FA at 5 mm below the AC-PC plane, suggestive of reduced WM integrity in these regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings were consistent with the hypothesis that cocaine dependence involves alterations in orbitofrontal connectivity, which may be involved in the decision-making deficits seen in this disorder
PMID: 12022962
ISSN: 0006-3223
CID: 32117

Cardiovascular Effects of 0.5 Milligrams per Kilogram Oral d-Amphetamine and Possible Attenuation by Haloperidol

Angrist B; Sanfilipo M; Wolkin A
SUMMARY: In a series of earlier studies, an oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg d-amphetamine was administered to 81 patients with schizophrenia and eight normal control subjects. Seven more subjects with schizophrenia received placebo. Blood pressure and pulse rate were monitored before and 3 hours after drug administration. Blood pressure increased in both amphetamine groups, whereas placebo had no effect. However, pulse rate did not change in the schizophrenic group and only increased after 3 hours in normal control subjects as blood pressure began to decrease. Significant negative correlations between systolic blood pressure and pulse rate occurred at 2 and 3 hours, suggesting that the early cardiovascular response to amphetamine is an increase in blood pressure that recruits reflex control of heart rate. Eighteen of these subjects had hypertensive responses. Six subjects received 5 mg haloperidol intramuscularly, and 12 others had their blood pressure monitored until normalization. Haloperidol led to a more rapid decline of some but not all indices of blood pressure, suggesting that amphetamine-induced hypertension may have a dopaminergic component
PMID: 11391124
ISSN: 0362-5664
CID: 20630

Volumetric measure of the frontal and temporal lobe regions in schizophrenia: relationship to negative symptoms

Sanfilipo M; Lafargue T; Rusinek H; Arena L; Loneragan C; Lautin A; Feiner D; Rotrosen J; Wolkin A
BACKGROUND: Previous research has provided evidence for brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, but their relationship to specific clinical symptoms and syndromes remains unclear. METHODS: With an all-male demographically similar sample of 53 schizophrenic patients and 29 normal control subjects, cerebral gray and white matter volumes (adjusted for intracranial volume and age were determined for regions in the prefrontal lobe and in the superficial and mesial temporal lobe using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with 2.8-mm coronal slices. RESULTS: As a group, schizophrenic patients had wide-spread bilateral decrements in gray matter in the pre-frontal (7.4%) and temporal lobe regions (8.9%), but not in white matter in these regions. In the temporal lobe, gray matter reductions were found bilaterally in the superior temporal gyrus (6.0%), but not in the hippocampus and parahippocampus. While there were no overall group differences in white matter volumes, widespread decrements in prefrontal white matter in schizophrenic patients (n = 53) were related to higher levels of negative symptoms (partial r[49] = -0.42, P = .002), as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. A post hoc analysis revealed that schizophrenic patients with high negative symptoms had generalized prefrontal white matter reductions (11.4%) that were most severe in the orbitofrontal subregion (15.1%). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that gray matter deficits may be a fairly common structural abnormality of schizophrenia, whereas reductions in prefrontal white matter may be associated with schizophrenic negative symptoms
PMID: 10807487
ISSN: 0003-990x
CID: 23576

Fine volumetric analysis of the cerebral ventricular system in schizophrenia: further evidence for multifocal mild to moderate enlargement

Sanfilipo M; Lafargue T; Arena L; Rusinek H; Kushner K; Lautin A; Loneragan C; Vaid G; Rotrosen J; Wolkin A
We used traditional volumetric regional analysis and a finer anterior-posterior (AP) profile volumetric analysis to examine the cerebral ventricular system in an all-male, demographically matched sample of schizophrenia patients (n = 73) and normal controls (n = 29) using 2.8-mm-thin coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from a 1.5 tesla scanner. Traditional regional analysis was performed on various regions using absolute volumes after adjusting for intracranial volume (ICV) and age. The fine AP profile analysis was done by intrasubject 'stacking' of contiguous coronal cross-sectional volumes (adjusted for ICV and age) across the AP plane, intersubject AP alignment of all slices relative to the mammillary bodies, and plotting of slice volumes along the AP plane with 95 percent t-test-based confidence intervals. Schizophrenia subjects had mild to moderate multifocal ventricular enlargement (overall effect size d = 0.48), which was especially prominent in the right posterior temporal horn and, more generally, in the central to posterior portions of the lateral and third ventricles. Schizophrenia subjects also had milder enlargement in the left frontal horn, but no significant differences were found in the anterior temporal horns and the right frontal horn. Post hoc analyses of demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological variables did not account for much variance in the ventriculomegaly observed in the schizophrenia group. The lack of a single locus in the observed ventricular enlargement, the nonsignificant results from schizophrenia subtypes based on regional distributions, and the strong positive correlations among the ventricular regions for the schizophrenia group suggest that the ventriculomegaly seen in this chronic population reflects a single brainwide disease process leading to a multifocal or patchy loss of integrity in brain structure
PMID: 10755682
ISSN: 0586-7614
CID: 23575

Structural magnetic resonance image averaging in schizophrenia

Wolkin A; Rusinek H; Vaid G; Arena L; Lafargue T; Sanfilipo M; Loneragan C; Lautin A; Rotrosen J
OBJECTIVE: Intersubject averaging of structural magnetic resonance (MR) images has been infrequently used as a means to study group differences in cerebral structure throughout the brain. In the present study, the authors used linear intersubject averaging of structural MR images to evaluate the validity and utility of this technique and to extend previous research, conducted using a different approach to image averaging, in which reduction in thalamic size and abnormalities in perithalamic white matter tracts in the brains of schizophrenic patients were reported by Andreasen et al. METHOD: A 1.5-T MR scanner was used to obtain high-resolution, whole brain T1-weighted structural MR images for an age-matched sample of 25 schizophrenic patients and 25 normal control subjects. A 'bounding box' procedure was used to create a single 'averaged' brain for the schizophrenic group and for the control group. Differences in signal intensity between the two average brains were examined on a pixel-wise basis through use of one-tailed effect size maps. RESULTS: Effect size maps revealed widespread patchy signal intensity differences between the two groups in both cortical and periventricular areas, including major white matter tracts. The signal intensity differences were consistent with cortical thinning/sulcal widening and ventricular enlargement. No differences were found within thalamus or in immediately surrounding white matter. Effect size maps for differences (schizophrenic minus normal subjects) had only small values. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with diffuse structural brain abnormalities of both gray and white matter in schizophrenic populations such as the one in this study
PMID: 9699695
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 23577

Fronto-striatal circuits assessed by positron emission tomography in patients treated with atypical neuroleptics, typical neuroleptics, and fenfluramine [Meeting Abstract]

Buchsbaum, MS; Wolkin, A; Hazlett, E; Fallon, J; Guich, S; Gupta, A; Siever, L; McCarthy, BG
ISSN: 0006-3223
CID: 98349

Effect of a haloperidol challenge on regional brain metabolism in neuroleptic-responsive and nonresponsive schizophrenic patients

Bartlett EJ; Brodie JD; Simkowitz P; Schlosser R; Dewey SL; Lindenmayer JP; Rusinek H; Wolkin A; Cancro R; Schiffer W
OBJECTIVE: The CNS metabolic response to a neuroleptic challenge in treatment-responsive and nonresponsive schizophrenic patients was measured in order to examine the relation between treatment outcome and the capacity to alter neurochemical function in response to acute receptor blockade. METHOD: Positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were used to measure regional cerebral metabolism in seven schizophrenic patients judged to have been responsive to drug treatment previously and seven nonresponsive schizophrenic patients after a drug-free period of at least 3 weeks (baseline) and again 12 hours after administration of 5.0 mg of haloperidol. RESULTS: The haloperidol challenge caused widespread decreases in absolute metabolism in the nonresponsive patients but not the responsive patients. These group differences reflect the findings on the second (challenge) scans, since metabolic values at baseline were not statistically different in the two groups. The pattern of decreased metabolic activity in the nonresponders after the haloperidol challenge is similar to that previously observed in normal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic response to drug challenge separates treatment responders from nonresponders and normal subjects. The results suggest that subtyping of schizophrenia (and other psychiatric disorders) can be achieved by measuring the physiologic response to a pharmacologic challenge in vivo with chemical brain-imaging techniques
PMID: 9501742
ISSN: 0002-953x
CID: 7497

Inter-subject coregistration of brain images : a phantom study

Rusinek H; Tsui W-H; Sanfilipo M; Wolkin A
ISSN: n/a
CID: 73287

Inter-subject coregistration of brain images: A phantom study

Rusinek, H; Tsui, W-H; Sanfilipo, M; Wolkin, A
Inter-subject coregistration is a powerful neuroimaging technique that enables comparison and detection of morphological differences across groups of subjects. The present study uses digital phantoms to evaluate errors in two widely employed approaches to inter-subject coregistration of structural MR images of the brain: the manual step-wise approach and the automated method provided with the software package SPM96. Phantoms were constructed by deforming a high resolution T1-weighted MR image in which we have embedded 12 landmarks. For the manual method the accuracy ranged from 0.8 mm in quadrigeminal plate to 2.4 mm in superior central sulcus and occipital lobe. The average error was 1.5 mm. For the automated SPM96 method and the 9 parameter model, the accuracy ranged from 0.8 mm to 2.1 mm and averaged 1.1 mm. Error of the manual method correlated strongly with the distance from the center of the image (r = 0.77, slope =.020, p =.003). The linear correlation of the error obtained with the automated method with the distance was poor (r = 0.39, slope =.008, p > 0.2). The results suggest that the inferior performance of the manual method is due to its step-wise approach and to a relatively large rotational error.
ISSN: 0277-786x
CID: 638242

The study of neurotransmitter interactions using positron emission tomography and functional coupling

Schloesser R; Simkowitz P; Bartlett EJ; Wolkin A; Smith GS; Dewey SL; Brodie JD
Functional brain imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) has opened up new avenues for the investigation of possible functional disturbances related to psychiatric disease as well as pharmacodynamic assessment of drug treatment in vivo. Different strategies to study pharmacologic effects on the brain have been developed in recent years. The basic methods are to measure (a) blood flow or glucose metabolism, (b) parameters of specific receptor binding, or (c) neurotransmitter metabolism. Each of these can be performed either in a resting state or after perturbation with a pharmacologic challenge. Our group has developed a general strategy for investigating pharmacologic effects on brain function: (a) determining indirect drug-induced metabolic changes with fluorodeoxyglucose PET and (b) characterizing functional interactions of neurotransmitter systems by assaying drug-induced displacement of specific receptor ligands. These study designs reflect a paradigm shift where functional coupling of brain regions and interaction of different neurotransmitter systems are seen as the basis for a multitransmitter hypothesis of schizophrenia. In this view, any disturbance in the self-regulatory process is reflected in the loss of functional interaction between systems. An overview of recent studies and their possible clinical importance will be presented
PMID: 8889281
ISSN: 0362-5664
CID: 12529