Performance of Abbott ID NOW COVID-19 rapid nucleic acid amplification test in nasopharyngeal swabs transported in viral media and dry nasal swabs, in a New York City academic institution
The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has posed formidable challenges for clinical laboratories seeking reliable laboratory diagnostic confirmation. The swift advance of the crisis in the United States has led to Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) facilitating the availability of molecular diagnostic assays without the more rigorous examination to which tests are normally subjected prior to FDA approval. Our laboratory currently uses two real time RT-PCR platforms, the Roche Cobas SARS-CoV2 and the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2. Both platforms demonstrate comparable performance; however, the run times for each assay are 3.5 hours and 45 minutes, respectively. In search for a platform with shorter turnaround time, we sought to evaluate the recently released Abbott ID NOW COVID-19 assay which is capable of producing positive results in as little as 5 minutes. We present here the results of comparisons between Abbott ID NOW COVID-19 and Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 using nasopharyngeal swabs transported in viral transport media and comparisons between Abbott ID NOW COVID-19 and Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 using nasopharyngeal swabs transported in viral transport media for Cepheid and dry nasal swabs for Abbott ID NOW. Regardless of method of collection and sample type, Abbott ID NOW COVID-19 had negative results in a third of the samples that tested positive by Cepheid Xpert Xpress when using nasopharyngeal swabs in viral transport media and 45% when using dry nasal swabs.
Diagnosis And Management Of Deep Venous Thrombosis In The Emergency Department [Case Report]
Although the clinical presentations of deep venous thrombosis are notoriously subtle and nonspecific, risk stratification tools such as the Wells clinical model have improved the efficiency of the diagnostic evaluation. The emergency clinician may be guided down several pathways, including D-dimer assays and/ or ultrasonography. New oral anticoagulants offer alternatives to the traditional heparins and vitamin K antagonists in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis. This review examines the current literature, evidence, and guidelines in the diagnosis and management of deep venous thrombosis. It also explores some of the controversies and developments regarding risk stratification, adjusted D-dimer thresholds,special populations, isolated distal deep venous thrombosis, upper extremity deep venous thrombosis, outpatient treatment, and the new oral anticoagulants.
Early recognition of acute thoracic aortic dissection and aneurysm
BACKGROUND:Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) and aneurysm (TAA) are rare but catastrophic. Prompt recognition of TAD/TAA and differentiation from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is difficult yet crucial. Earlier identification of TAA/TAD based upon routine emergency department screening is necessary. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of patients that presented with acute thoracic complaints to the ED from January 2007 through June 2012 was performed. Cases of TAA/TAD were compared to an equal number of controls which consisted of patients with the diagnosis of ACS. Demographics, physical findings, EKG, and the results of laboratory and radiological imaging were compared. P-value ofâ€‰>â€‰0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:In total, 136 patients were identified with TAA/TAD, 0.36% of patients that presented with chest complaints. Compared to ACS patients, TAA/TAD group was older (68.9 vs. 63.2Â years), less likely to be diabetic (13% vs 32%), less likely to complain of chest pain (47% vs 85%) and head and neck pain (4% vs 17%). The pain for the TAA/TAD group was less likely characterized as tight/heavy in nature (5% vs 37%). TAA/TAD patients were also less likely to experience shortness of breath (42% vs. 51%), palpitations (2% vs 9%) and dizziness (2% vs 13%) and had a greater incidence of focal lower extremity neurological deficits (6% vs 1%), bradycardia (15% vs. 5%) and tachypnea (53% vs. 22%). On multivariate analysis, increasing heart rate, chest pain, diabetes, head & neck pain, dizziness, and history of myocardial infarction were independent predictors of ACS. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing heart rate, chest pain, diabetes, head & neck pain, dizziness, and history of myocardial infarction can be used to differentiate acute coronary syndromes from thoracic aortic dissections/aneurysms.
Subtle vaginal evisceration resulting in small bowel evisceration: a case report [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:Evisceration of bowel contents through the vagina is a rare event that may be complicated by bowel obstruction. OBJECTIVE:We report a case of vaginal evisceration with small bowel obstruction which, in contrast to previous, more dramatic case reports in the literature, is a more subtle and, in fact, characteristic clinical presentation for this unusual occurrence. CASE REPORT/METHODS:A 72-year-old woman with a previous history of pelvic surgery presented to the Emergency Department with lower abdominal discomfort and a prolapsing mass from her vagina. She was initially discharged home after bedside reduction of the mass, but returned 48 h later with worsening symptoms. A computed tomography scan on her repeat visit confirmed evisceration of bowel into the vaginal vault with obstruction of distal bowel loops. Surgical and gynecologic services were consulted and the patient underwent partial small bowel resection and vaginal cuff repair in the operating room. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Early recognition of subtle presentations of vaginal evisceration is crucial for preserving bowel viability and preventing morbidity from bowel ischemia or infarction. Risk factors for this rare condition include postmenopausal status, previous pelvic surgery, and presence of an enterocele.
High-risk chief complaints I: chest pain--the big three
Chest pain is one of the most frequently seen chief complaints in patients presenting to emergency departments, and is considered to be a "high-risk" chief complaint. The differential diagnosis for chest pain is broad, and potential causes range from the benign to the immediately life-threatening. Although many (if not most) emergency department patients with chest pain do not have an immediately life-threatening condition, correct diagnoses can be difficult to make, incorrect diagnoses may lead to catastrophic therapies, and failure to make a timely diagnosis may contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Several atraumatic "high-risk" causes of chest pain are discussed in this article, including myocardial infarction and ischemia, thoracic aortic dissection, and pulmonary embolism. Also included are brief discussions of tension pneumothorax, esophageal perforation, and cardiac tamponade.