Hexavalent chromium inhibits myogenic differentiation and induces myotube atrophy
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is extensively used in many industrial processes. Previous studies reported that Cr(VI) exposures during early embryonic development reduced body weight with musculoskeletal malformations in rodents while exposures in adult mice increased serum creatine kinase activity, a marker of muscle damage. However, the impacts of Cr(VI) on muscle differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we report that acute exposures to Cr(VI) in mouse C2C12 myoblasts inhibit myogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to 2 μM of Cr(VI) resulted in delayed myotube formation, as evidenced by a significant decrease in myotube formation and expression of muscle-specific markers, such as muscle creatine kinase (Mck), Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2), Myomaker (Mymk) and Myomixer (Mymx). Interestingly, exposure to 5 μM of Cr(VI) completely abolished myotube formation in differentiating C2C12 cells. Moreover, the expression of key myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) including myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) were significantly altered in Cr(VI)-treated cells. The inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) on myogenic differentiation was further confirmed in freshly isolated mouse satellite cells, a stem cell population essential for adult skeletal muscle regeneration. Furthermore, Cr(VI) exposure to fully differentiated C2C12 myotubes resulted in a decrease in myotube diameter, which was exacerbated upon co-treatment with dexamethasone. Together, our results demonstrate that Cr(VI) inhibits myogenic differentiation and induces myotube atrophy in vitro.
Activation of β-catenin in mesenchymal progenitors leads to muscle mass loss
Loss of muscle mass is a common manifestation of chronic disease. We find the canonical Wnt pathway to be activated in mesenchymal progenitors (MPs) from cancer-induced cachectic mouse muscle. Next, we induce β-catenin transcriptional activity in murine MPs. As a result, we observe expansion of MPs in the absence of tissue damage, as well as rapid loss of muscle mass. Because MPs are present throughout the organism, we use spatially restricted CRE activation and show that the induction of tissue-resident MP activation is sufficient to induce muscle atrophy. We further identify increased expression of stromal NOGGIN and ACTIVIN-A as key drivers of atrophic processes in myofibers, and we verify their expression by MPs in cachectic muscle. Finally, we show that blocking ACTIVIN-A rescues the mass loss phenotype triggered by β-catenin activation in MPs, confirming its key functional role and strengthening the rationale for targeting this pathway in chronic disease.
Corrigendum to "Hormone sensitive lipase ablation promotes bone regeneration" [Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Basis Dis. Volume 1868, Issue 9, 1 September 2022, 166449]
Hormone sensitive lipase ablation promotes bone regeneration
Targeting microRNA-mediated gene repression limits adipogenic conversion of skeletal muscle mesenchymal stromal cells
Intramuscular fatty deposits, which are seen in muscular dystrophies and with aging, negatively affect muscle function. The cells of origin of adipocytes constituting these fatty deposits are mesenchymal stromal cells, fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAPs). We uncover a molecular fate switch, involving miR-206 and the transcription factor Runx1, that controls FAP differentiation to adipocytes. Mice deficient in miR-206 exhibit increased adipogenesis following muscle injury. Adipogenic differentiation of FAPs is abrogated by miR-206 mimics. Using a labeled microRNA (miRNA) pull-down and sequencing (LAMP-seq), we identified Runx1 as a miR-206 target, with miR-206 repressing Runx1 translation. In the absence of miR-206 in FAPs, Runx1 occupancy near transcriptional start sites of adipogenic genes and expression of these genes increase. We demonstrate that miR-206 mimicry inÂ vivo limits intramuscular fatty infiltration. Our results provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of FAP fate determination and formation of harmful fatty deposits in skeletal muscle.
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are Required for Regeneration and Homeostatic Maintenance of Skeletal Muscle
The necessity of mesenchymal stromal cells, called fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAPs), in skeletal muscle regeneration and maintenance remains unestablished. We report the generation of a PDGFRÎ±CreER knockin mouse model that provides a specific means of labeling and targeting FAPs. Depletion of FAPs using Cre-dependent diphtheria toxin expression results in loss of expansion of muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and CD45+ hematopoietic cells after injury and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Furthermore, FAP-depleted mice under homeostatic conditions exhibit muscle atrophy and loss of MuSCs, revealing that FAPs are required for the maintenance of both skeletal muscle and the MuSC pool. We also report that local tamoxifen metabolite delivery to target CreER activity in a single muscle, removing potentially confounding systemic effects of ablating PDGFRÎ±+ cells distantly, also causes muscle atrophy. These data establish a critical role of FAPs in skeletal muscle regeneration and maintenance.
Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris
Here we present a compendium of single-cell transcriptomic data from the model organism Mus musculus that comprises more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues. These data represent a new resource for cell biology, reveal gene expression in poorly characterized cell populations and enable the direct and controlled comparison of gene expression in cell types that are shared between tissues, such as T lymphocytes and endothelial cells from different anatomical locations. Two distinct technical approaches were used for most organs: one approach, microfluidic droplet-based 3'-end counting, enabled the survey of thousands of cells at relatively low coverage, whereas the other, full-length transcript analysis based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting, enabled the characterization of cell types with high sensitivity and coverage. The cumulative data provide the foundation for an atlas of transcriptomic cell biology.
Bioengineered Viral Platform for Intramuscular Passive Vaccine Delivery to Human Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle is ideal for passive vaccine administration as it is easily accessible by intramuscular injection. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are in consideration for passive vaccination clinical trials for HIV and influenza. However, greater human skeletal muscle transduction is needed for therapeutic efficacy than is possible with existing serotypes. To bioengineer capsids with therapeutic levels of transduction, we utilized a directed evolution approach to screen libraries of shuffled AAV capsids in pools of surgically resected human skeletal muscle cells from five patients. Six rounds of evolution were performed in various muscle cell types, and evolved variants were validated against existing muscle-tropic serotypes rAAV1, 6, and 8. We found that evolved variants NP22 and NP66 had significantly increased primary human and rhesus skeletal muscle fiber transduction from surgical explants exÂ vivo and in various primary and immortalized myogenic lines inÂ vitro. Importantly, we demonstrated reduced seroreactivity compared to existing serotypes against normal human serum from 50 adult donors. These capsids represent powerful tools for human skeletal muscle expression and secretion of antibodies from passive vaccines.
A Muscle Stem Cell Support Group: Coordinated Cellular Responses in Muscle Regeneration
Skeletal muscle has an extraordinary regenerative capacity due to the activity of tissue-specific muscle stem cells. Consequently, these cells have received the most attention in studies investigating the cellular processes of skeletal muscle regeneration. However, efficient capacity to rebuild this tissue also depends on additional cells in the local milieu, as disrupting their normal contributions often leads to incomplete regeneration. Here, we review these additional cells that contribute to the regenerative process. Understanding the complex interactions between and among these cell populations has the potential to lead to therapies that will help promote normal skeletal muscle regeneration under conditions in which this process is suboptimal.
Macrophage-released ADAMTS1 promotes muscle stem cell activation
Coordinated activation of muscle stem cells (known as satellite cells) is critical for postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. The muscle stem cell niche is central for regulating the activation state of satellite cells, but the specific extracellular signals that coordinate this regulation are poorly understood. Here we show that macrophages at sites of muscle injury induce activation of satellite cells via expression of Adamts1. Overexpression of Adamts1 in macrophages in vivo is sufficient to increase satellite cell activation and improve muscle regeneration in young mice. We demonstrate that NOTCH1 is a target of ADAMTS1 metalloproteinase activity, which reduces Notch signaling, leading to increased satellite cell activation. These results identify Adamts1 as a potent extracellular regulator of satellite cell activation and have significant implications for understanding the regulation of satellite cell activity and regeneration after muscle injury.Satellite cells are crucial for growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Here the authors show that in response to muscle injury, macrophages secrete Adamts1, which induces satellite cell activation by modulating Notch1 signaling.