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Presentation and outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-infected patients: a U.S.-Canadian multicenter study

Brau, Norbert; Fox, Rena K; Xiao, Peiying; Marks, Kristen; Naqvi, Zeenat; Taylor, Lynn E; Trikha, Anita; Sherman, Morris; Sulkowski, Mark S; Dieterich, Douglas T; Rigsby, Michael O; Wright, Teresa L; Hernandez, Maria D; Jain, Mamta K; Khatri, Gajendra K; Sterling, Richard K; Bonacini, Maurizio; Martyn, Catherine A; Aytaman, Ayse; Llovet, Josep M; Brown, Sheldon T; Bini, Edmund J
BACKGROUND/AIMS: HIV-infected patients now live longer and often have complications of liver disease, especially with hepatitis B or C virus coinfection. Limited data are available on those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis from 1992 to 2005 in 6 centers identified 63 HIV-infected HCC patients. Controls were 226 consecutive HIV-negative HCC patients from four sites. RESULTS: HIV-positive patients were younger than controls (52 vs. 64 years, p<0.001), more commonly had chronic hepatitis B or C (97% vs. 73%, p<0.001), were more frequently symptomatic (51% vs. 38%, p=0.048), had a higher median alfa-fetoprotein level (227 vs. 51 ng/ml, p=0.005), but a similar mean Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (7.0 vs. 7.5, p=0.05) and HCC staging score (Barcelona-Clinic-Liver-Cancer stages C+D in 50% vs. 58%, p=0.24). HCC developed faster in HIV/HCV-coinfected than in HCV-monoinfected patients (mean, 26 vs. 34 years after HCV infection, p=0.002). HIV-positive patients received proven therapy more often (48% vs. 31%, p=0.017), but median survival was similar (6.9 vs. 7.5 months, p=0.44). Independent factors predicting survival were symptomatic presentation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.437; p<0.001), any proven therapy (HR, 2.19; p<0.001), diagnosis after 01-Jan-2002 (HR, 1.52; p=0.010), Barcelona-Clinic-Liver-Cancer stages C+D (HR, 0.491; p<0.001), AST/ALT >or= 2.00 (HR, 0.597; p=0.001), AFP >or= 400 ng/mL (HR, 0.55, p=0.003), and platelets >or= 100,000/mm3 (HR, 0.651; p=0.012), but not HIV-serostatus (p=0.19). In HIV-infected patients without HCC therapy (n=33), median survival was longer with undetectable HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL) than with HIV viremia (6.5 vs. 2.6 months, p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive HCC patients are younger and more frequently symptomatic and infected with HCV or HBV than HIV-negative patients. Tumor staging and survival are similar. In untreated patients, undetectable HIV RNA independently predicts better survival
PMID: 17692986
ISSN: 0168-8278
CID: 95148

Prevalence of hepatitis C and coinfection with HIV among United States veterans in the New York City metropolitan area

Brau, Norbert; Bini, Edmund J; Shahidi, Azra; Aytaman, Ayse; Xiao, Peiying; Stancic, Saray; Eng, Robert; Brown, Sheldon T; Paronetto, Fiorenzo
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its risk factors, as well as the prevalence of coinfection with HIV and its risk factors, among patients with confirmed HCV infection. METHODS: In a 1-day cross-sectional HCV survey at six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the New York City metropolitan area, all 1943 patients undergoing phlebotomy for any reason were asked to be tested for HCV antibody by enzyme immumoassay (EIA). A total of 1098 patients (57%) agreed to HCV testing, 1016 of whom also completed a questionnaire on demographics and HCV risk factors. All HCV EIA(+) samples were confirmed by HCV RNA and HCV recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) antibody testing and were also tested for HCV viral load, HCV genotype, and antibodies to HIV in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: The prevalence of confirmed HCV infection was 10.6% (95% CI = 8.7-12.4%), and the prevalence of HCV viremia was 8.2% (95% CI = 6.6-9.8%). The rate of HCV viremia among anti-HCV(+) patients was 77.6%, and HCV genotype 1 was present in 87.5% of viremic patients. Independent risk factors for HCV infection were injection drug use (OR = 35.6, 95% CI = 16.9-75.2), blood exposure during combat (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-5.7), alcohol abuse (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.2-4.8), and service in the Vietnam era (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0-4.5). Coinfection with HIV was present in 24.8% of anti-HCV(+) patients. The only independent risk factor for coinfection was age <50 yr (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.1-12.1). CONCLUSIONS: U.S. veterans who are receiving medical care at VA medical centers in the New York City metropolitan area have a much higher rate of chronic hepatitis C than the general population, with a high frequency of genotype 1. Coinfection with HIV is very common in patients with confirmed HCV infection, and these patients should routinely be offered HIV testing
PMID: 12190179
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 32912