Oral Microbiome in Nonsmoker Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Defined by Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing
Ganly, Ian; Hao, Yuhan; Rosenthal, Matthew; Wang, Hongmei; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Huang, Bin; Katabi, Nora; Brown, Stuart; Tang, Yi Wei; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying
Objectives: Smoking is the commonest cause of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCC), but the etiology of OC-SCC in nonsmokers is unknown. Our primary goal was to use metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) to define the taxonomic composition and functional potential of oral metagenome in nonsmokers with OC-SCC. Methods: We conducted a case"“control study with 42 OC-SCC case and 45 control nonsmokers. MSS was performed on DNA extracted from mouthwash samples. Taxonomic analysis and pathway analysis were done using MetaPhlAn2 and HUMAnN2, respectively. Statistical difference was determined using the Mann"“Whitney test controlling false discovery rate. Results: There was no significant difference in age, sex, race, or alcohol consumption between OC-SCC and control patients. There was a significant difference in beta diversity between OC-SCC and controls. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were overly represented in OC-SCC while Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were overly represented in controls. At the genus level, Fusobacterium was overly represented in OC-SCC compared with controls, while Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Cryptobacterium, and Selenomonas were overly represented in controls. Bacterial pathway analysis identified overrepresentation in OC-SCC of pathways related to metabolism of flavin, biotin, thiamin, heme, sugars, fatty acids, peptidoglycans, and tRNA and overrepresentation of nucleotides and essential amino acids in controls. Conclusions: The oral microbiome in nonsmoker patients with OC-SCC is significantly different from that of nonsmoker control patients in taxonomic compositions and functional potentials. Our study"™s MSS findings matched with previous 16S-based methods in taxonomic differentiation but varied greatly in functional differentiation of microbiomes in OC-SCC and controls.
Progressive dysbiosis of human orodigestive microbiota along the sequence of gastroesophageal reflux, Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma
Hao, Yuhan; Karaoz, Ulas; Yang, Liying; Yachimski, Patrick S; Tseng, Wenzhi; Nossa, Carlos W; Ye, Weimin; Tseng, Mengkao; Poles, Michael; Francois, Fritz; Traube, Morris; Brown, Stuart M; Chen, Yu; Torralba, Manolito; Peek, Richard M; Brodie, Eoin L; Pei, Zhiheng
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) has drastically increased in the United States since 1970s for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that the widespread usage of antibiotics has increased the procarcinogenic potential of the orodigestive microbiota along the sequence of gastroesophageal reflux (GR), Barrett's esophagus (BE) and EA phenotypes. This case control study included normal controls (NC) and three disease phenotypes GR, BE and EA. Microbiota in the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, and rectum were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, we discovered 44 significant pairwise differences in abundance of microbial taxa between the four phenotypes, with 12 differences in the mouth, 21 in the esophagus, two in the stomach, and nine in the rectum. Along the GRâ†’BEâ†’EA sequence, oral and esophageal microbiota were more diversified, the dominant genus Streptococcus was progressively depleted while six other genera Atopobium, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Lautropia progressively enriched. In NC, Streptococcus appeared to control populations of other genera in the foregut via numerous negative and positive connections, while in disease states, the rich network was markedly simplified. Inferred gene functional content showed a progressive enrichment through the stages of EA development in genes encoding antibiotic resistance, ligands of Toll-like and NOD-like receptors, nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and acetaldehyde metabolism. The orodigestive microbiota is in a progressive dysbiotic state along the GR-BE-EA sequence. The increasing dysbiosis and antibiotic and procarcinogenic genes in the disease states warrants further study to define their roles in EA pathogenesis.
Oral and gastric microbiome in relation to gastric intestinal metaplasia
Wu, Fen; Yang, Liying; Hao, Yuhan; Zhou, Boyan; Hu, Jiyuan; Yang, Yaohua; Bedi, Sukhleen; Sanichar, Navin Ganesh; Cheng, Charley; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Tseng, Wenche; Tseng, Wenzhi; Tseng, Mengkao; Francois, Fritz; Khan, Abraham R; Li, Yihong; Blaser, Martin J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Li, Huilin; Pei, Zhiheng; Chen, Yu
Evidence suggests that Helicobacter pylori plays a role in gastric cancer (GC) initiation. However, epidemiologic studies on the specific role of other bacteria in the development of GC are lacking. We conducted a case-control study of 89 cases with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 89 matched controls who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at three sites affiliated with NYU Langone Health. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing using oral wash samples from 89 case-control pairs and antral mucosal brushing samples from 55 case-control pairs. We examined the associations of relative abundances of bacterial taxa and functional pathways with IM using conditional logistic regression with and without elastic-net penalty. Compared with controls, oral species Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Johnsonella ignava, Neisseria elongata and Neisseria flavescens were enriched in cases (odds ratios [ORs]Â =Â 1.29-1.50, PÂ =Â .004-.01) while Lactobacillus gasseri, Streptococcus mutans, Sâ€‰parasanguinis and Sâ€‰sanguinis were under-represented (ORsÂ =Â 0.66-0.76, PÂ =Â .006-.042) in cases. Species Jâ€‰ignava and Filifactor alocis in the gastric microbiota were enriched (ORsÂ =Â 3.27 and 1.43, PÂ =Â .005 and .035, respectively), while Sâ€‰mutans, Sâ€‰parasanguinis and Sâ€‰sanguinis were under-represented (ORsÂ =Â 0.61-0.75, PÂ =Â .024-.046), in cases compared with controls. The lipopolysaccharide and ubiquinol biosynthesis pathways were more abundant in IM, while the sugar degradation pathways were under-represented in IM. The findings suggest potential roles of certain oral and gastric microbiota, which are correlated with regulation of pathways associated with inflammation, in the development of gastric precancerous lesions.
Case control study comparing the HPV genome in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma to normal patients using metagenomic shotgun sequencing
Ganly, Ian; Pei, Zhiheng; Hao, Yuhan; Ma, Yingfei; Rosenthal, Matthew; Wu, Zhenglin; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Huang, Bin; Katabi, Nora; Tseng, Wenzhi; Brown, Stuart; Tang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Liying
The aim of this study was to carry out a case control study comparing the HPV genome in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCC) to normal patients using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. We recruited 50 OC-SCC cases which were then matched with a control patient by age, gender, race, smoking status and alcohol status. DNA was extracted from oral wash samples from all patients and whole genome shotgun sequencing performed. The raw sequence data was cleaned, reads aligned with the human genome (GRCH38), nonhuman reads identified and then HPV genotypes identified using HPViewer. In the 50 patients with OC-SCC, the most common subsite was tongue in 26 (52%). All patients were treated with primary resection and neck dissection. All but 2 tumors were negative on p16 immunohistochemistry. There were no statistically significant differences between the cases and controls in terms of gender, age, race/ethnicity, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking. There was no statistically significant difference between the cancer samples and control samples in the nonhuman DNA reads (medians 4,228,072 vs. 5,719,715, P valueâ€‰=â€‰0.324). HPV was detected in 5 cases (10%) of OC-SCC (genotypes 10, 16, 98) but only 1 tumor sample (genotype 16) yielded a high number of reads to suggest a role in the etiology of OC-SCC. HPV was detected in 4 control patients (genotypes 16, 22, 76, 200) but all had only 1-2 HPV reads per human genome. Genotypes of HPV are rarely found in patients with oral cancer.
The association between smoking and gut microbiome in Bangladesh
Nolan-Kenney, Rachel; Wu, Fen; Hu, Jiyuan; Yang, Liying; Kelly, Dervla; Li, Huilin; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Parvez, Faruque; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; Islam, Tariqul; Pei, Zhiheng; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Epidemiological studies that investigate alterations in the gut microbial composition associated with smoking are lacking. This study examined the composition of the gut microbiome in smokers compared with non-smokers. METHODS:Stool samples were collected in a cross-sectional study of 249 participants selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh. Microbial DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and sequenced by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The associations of smoking status and intensity of smoking with the relative abundance or the absence and presence of individual bacterial taxon from phylum to genus levels were examined. RESULTS:The relative abundance of bacterial taxa along the Erysipelotrichi-to-Catenibacterium lineage was significantly higher in current smokers compared to never smokers. The odds ratio comparing the mean relative abundance in current smokers with that in never smokers was 1.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.69) for the genus Catenibacterium and 1.89 (95% CI = 1.39 to 2.56) for the family Erysipelotrichaceae, the order Erysipelotrichale, and the class Erysipelotrichi ((FDR-adjusted p-values = 0.0008 to 0.01). A dose-response association was observed for each of these bacterial taxa. The presence of Alphaproteobacteria was significantly greater comparing current with never smokers (OR = 4.85, FDR-adjusted p-values = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS:Our data in a Bangladeshi population are consistent with evidence of an association between smoking status and dosage with change in the gut bacterial composition. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:This study for the first time examined the relationship between smoking and the gut microbiome composition. The data suggest that smoking status may play an important role in the composition of the gut microbiome, especially among individuals with higher levels of tobacco exposure.
Mitochondrial somatic mutations and the lack of viral genomic variation in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
Hao, Yuhan; Ruiz, Ryan; Yang, Liying; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Amin, Milan R; Kelly, Dervla; Achlatis, Stratos; Roof, Scott; Bing, Renjie; Kannan, Kasthuri; Brown, Stuart M; Pei, Zhiheng; Branski, Ryan C
Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease of the aerodigestive tract caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that manifests as profoundly altered phonatory and upper respiratory anatomy. Current therapies are primarily symptomatic; enhanced insight regarding disease-specific biology of RRP is critical to improved therapeutics for this challenging population. Multiplex PCR was performed on oral rinses collected from twenty-three patients with adult-onset RRP every three months for one year. Twenty-two (95.6%) subjects had an initial HPV positive oral rinse. Of those subjects, 77.2% had an additional positive oral rinse over 12 months. A subset of rinses were then compared to tissue samples in the same patient employing HPViewer to determine HPV subtype concordance. Multiple HPV copies (60-787 per human cell) were detected in RRP tissue in each patient, but a single dominant HPV was found in individual samples. These data confirm persistent oral HPV infection in the majority of patients with RRP. In addition, three novel HPV6 isolates were found and identical HPV strains, at very low levels, were identified in oral rinses in two patients suggesting potential HPV subtype concordance. Finally, somatic heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations were observed in RRP tissue with 1.8 mutations per sample and two nonsynonymous variants. These data provide foundational insight into both the underlying pathophysiology of RRP, but also potential targets for intervention in this challenging patient cohort.
Periodontal pathogens are a risk factor of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, independent of tobacco and alcohol and human papillomavirus
Ganly, Ian; Yang, Liying; Giese, Rachel A; Hao, Yuhan; Nossa, Carlos W; Morris, Luc G T; Rosenthal, Matthew; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Kelly, Dervla; Tseng, Wenzhi; Hu, Jiyuan; Li, Huilin; Brown, Stuart; Pei, Zhiheng
Over the past decade, there has been a change in the epidemiology of oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OC-SCC). Many new cases of OC-SCC lack the recognized risk factors of smoking, alcohol and human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to determine if the oral microbiome may be associated with OC-SCC in nonsmoking HPV negative patients. We compared the oral microbiome of HPV-negative nonsmoker OC-SCC( n=18), premalignant lesions(PML) (n=8) and normal control patients (n=12). Their oral microbiome was sampled by oral wash and defined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We report that the periodontal pathogens Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Alloprevotella were enriched while commensal Streptococcus depleted in OC-SCC. Based on the four genera plus a marker genus Veillonella for PML, we classified the oral microbiome into two types. Gene/pathway analysis revealed a progressive increase of genes encoding HSP90 and ligands for TLRs 1, 2 and 4 along the controlsâ†’PMLâ†’OC-SCC progression sequence. Our findings suggest an association between periodontal pathogens and OC-SCC in non smoking HPV negative patients.
The association between gut microbiome and anthropometric measurements in Bangladesh
Osborne, Gwendolyn; Wu, Fen; Yang, Liying; Kelly, Dervla; Hu, Jiyuan; Li, Huilin; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Parvez, Faruque; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; Islam, Tariqul; Pei, Zhiheng; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu
Our objective was to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota and anthropometric measurements among 248 participants from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh. Our cohort represents a unique population that allows for the investigation of the gut microbiota and anthropometric measurements in lean individuals. We measured height, weight, arm, thigh, hip, and waist circumferences, and collected fecal samples. Microbial DNA was extracted from the stool samples and sequenced by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We examined associations between relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa from phylum to genus levels and anthropometric measurements. We found that higher BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were associated with a lower alpha diversity of fecal bacteria. Relative abundance of the genus Oscillospira and the family S24-7 were inversely related to all measurements after correction for multiple testing. Relative abundance of genus Acidaminococcus and family Ruminococcaceae were also associated with several measurements. The positive associations of the genus Acidaminococcus with BMI, as well as waist and hip circumferences, were stronger in women than in men. Our data in this lean Bangladeshi population found a correlation between Oscillospira and leanness, as measured using multiple anthropometric measures.
The role of gut microbiome and its interaction with arsenic exposure in carotid intima-media thickness in a Bangladesh population
Wu, Fen; Yang, Liying; Islam, Muhammad Tariqul; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Nahar, Jebun; Barmon, Bhaswati; Parvez, Faruque; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Hu, Jiyuan; Li, Huilin; Graziano, Joseph H; Pei, Zhiheng; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu
BACKGROUND:Emerging data suggest that inorganic arsenic exposure and gut microbiome are associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The gut microbiome may modify disease risk associated with arsenic exposure. Our aim was to examine the inter-relationships between arsenic exposure, the gut microbiome, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT)-a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. METHODS:We recruited 250 participants from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh, measured IMT and collected fecal samples in year 2015-2016. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted on microbial DNA extracted from the fecal samples. Arsenic exposure was measured using data on arsenic concentration in drinking water wells over time to derive a time-weighted water arsenic index. Multivariable linear regression models were used to test the inter-relationships between arsenic exposure, relative abundance of selected bacterial taxa from phylum to genus levels, and IMT. RESULTS:We identified nominally significant associations between arsenic exposure, measured using either time-weighted water arsenic or urinary arsenic, and the relative abundances of several bacterial taxa from the phylum Tenericutes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. However, none of the associations retained significance after correction for multiple testing. The relative abundances of the family Aeromonadaceae and genus Citrobacter were significantly associated with IMT after correction for multiple testing (P-valueâ€¯=â€¯0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Every 1% increase in the relative abundance of Aeromonadaceae and Citrobacter was related to an 18.2-Î¼m (95% CI: 7.8, 28.5) and 97.3-Î¼m (95% CI: 42.3, 152.3) difference in IMT, respectively. These two taxa were also the only selected family and genus using the LASSO variable selection method. There was a significant interaction between Citrobacter and time-weighted water arsenic in IMT (P for interactionâ€¯=â€¯0.04). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest a role of Citrobacter in the development of atherosclerosis, especially among individuals with higher levels of arsenic exposure.
Differential effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate administration on vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women
Yang, Liying; Hao, Yuhan; Hu, Jiyuan; Kelly, Dervla; Li, Huilin; Brown, Stuart; Tasker, Carley; Roche, Natalie E; Chang, Theresa L; Pei, Zhiheng
The use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a 3-monthly injectable hormonal contraceptive, is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition possibly through alteration of the vaginal microbiome. In this longitudinal interventional study, we investigated the impact of DMPA administration on the vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women at the baseline (visit 1), 1 month (visit 2), and 3 months (visit 3) following DMPA treatment by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No significant changes in the vaginal microbiome were observed after DMPA treatment when Hispanic White and Black women were analysed as a combined group. However, DMPA treatment enriched total vaginosis-associated bacteria (VNAB) and Prevotella at visit 2, and simplified the correlational network in the vaginal microbiome in Black women, while increasing the network size in Hispanic White women. The microbiome in Black women became more diversified and contained more VNAB than Hispanic White women after DMPA treatment. While the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and Lactobacillus to Prevotella (L/P) ratio were comparable between Black and Hispanic White women at visit 1, both ratios were lower in Black women than in Hispanic White women at visit 2. In conclusion, DMPA treatment altered the community network and enriched VNAB in Black women but not in Hispanic White women. The Lactobacillus deficiency and enrichment of VNAB may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition in Black women. Future studies on the impact of racial differences on the risk of HIV acquisition will offer insights into developing effective strategies for HIV prevention. Abbreviations: DMPA: depot medroxyprogesterone acetate; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; OTU: operational taxonomic unit; STI: sexually transmitted infections; VNAB: vaginosis-associated bacteria.