Altered corticostriatal synchronization associated with compulsive-like behavior in APP/PS1 mice
Mild behavioral impairment (MBI), which can include compulsive behavior, is an early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that 3-5-month-old APP/PS1 mice display obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behavior. The number of parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons and level of high gamma (Î³high) oscillation are significantly decreased in the striatum of AD mice. This is accompanied by enhanced Î²-Î³high coupling and firing rates of putative striatal projection neurons (SPNs), indicating decorrelation between PV interneurons and SPNs. Local field potentials (LFPs) simultaneously recorded in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum (Str) demonstrate a decrease in Î³high-band coherent activity and spike-field coherence in corticostriatal circuits of APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, levels of GABAB receptor (GABABR), but not GABAA receptor (GABAAR), and glutamatergic receptors, were markedly reduced, in line with presymptomatic AD-related behavioral changes. These findings suggest that MBI occurs as early as 3-5Â months in APP/PS1 mice and that altered corticostriatal synchronization may play a role in mediating the behavioral phenotypes observed.
The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 Evidence-based Conclusions about the Disorder
BACKGROUND:Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. METHODS:We reviewed studies with more than 2,000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2,000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder. RESULTS:We generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 79 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 362 people who have read this document and agree with its contents. CONCLUSIONS:Many findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.
Minocycline inhibits sleep deprivation-induced aberrant microglial activation and Keap1-Nrf2 expression in mouse hippocampus
Sleep deprivation (SD) is a hallmark of modern society and associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying SD-associated depression and anxiety remain elusive. Does the neuroinflammation play a role in mediating the effects of SD? In this study, we investigated SD-induced cellular and molecular alterations in the hippocampus and asked whether treatment with an anti-inflammatory drug, minocycline, could attenuate these alterations. We found that SD animals exhibit activated microglia and decreased levels of Keap1 and Nrf2 (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factors) in the hippocampus. In vivo local field potential recordings show decreased theta and beta oscillations, but increased high gamma oscillations, as a result of SD. Behavioral analysis revealed increased immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, and decreased sucrose intake in SD mice, all indicative of depressive-like behavior. Moreover, open field test and elevated plus maze test results indicated that SD increases anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, treatment with the microglial modulator minocycline prevented SD-induced microglial activation, restored Keap1 and Nrf2 levels, normalized neuronal oscillations, and alleviated depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior. The present study reveals that microglial activation and Keap1-Nrf2 signaling play a crucial role in SD-induced behavioral alteration, and that minocycline treatment has a protective effect on these alterations.
Disrupted prefrontal neuronal oscillations and morphology induced by sleep deprivation in young APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice
Emerging evidence suggests that sleep deprivation (SD) is a public health epidemic and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully investigated. In this study, we investigate the impact of 72 h SD on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 3âˆ¼4-months-old APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice - at an age before the onset of plaque formation and memory decline. Our results reveal that SD alters delta, theta and high-gamma oscillations in the PFC, accompanied by increased levels of excitatory postsynaptic signaling (NMDAR, GluR1, and CaMKII) in AD mice. SD also caused alteration in the dendritic length and dendritic branches of PFC pyramidal neurons, accompanied by a reduction in neuroprotective agent CREB. This study suggests that failure to acquire adequate sleep could trigger an early electrophysiological, molecular, and morphological alteration in the PFC of AD mice. Therapeutic interventions that manipulate sleep by targeting these pathways may be a promising approach toward delaying the progression of this incurable disease.
Microglial activation in the dorsal striatum participates in anxiety-like behavior in Cyld knockout mice
CYLD lysine 63 deubiquitinase (CYLD), that is mainly involved in immune responses and inflammation, is expressed at high levels in the brain, especially in the dorsal striatum, but its physiological function of CYLD in the brain remains unexplored. The present study investigated the effect of Cyld gene knockout on behavior relevant to the dorsal striatum, such as motor activity and depression-like and anxiety-like behavior. Microglia and the pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1 Î² and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- Î± were evaluated in the dorsal striatum to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Cyld knockout (Cyld-/-) mice exhibited anxiety-like behavior, but not motor deficits or depression-like behavior. Microglia were activated and the mRNA levels of IL-1 Î² and TNF- Î± were increased in the dorsal striatum of Cyld-/- mice compared to Cyld+/+ mice. The microglial modulator minocycline partially reversed the anxiety-like behavior, microglial activation and increase in IL-1 Î² and TNF- Î± mRNA and protein levels in the dorsal striatum of Cyld-/- mice. Collectively, these results suggest that Cyld knockout leading to microglial activation promotes IL-1 Î² and TNF- Î± expression and acts as a critical pathway in the pathophysiology of anxiety.
Thrombolysis with alteplase 3-4.5 hours after acute ischaemic stroke: the first multicentre, phase III trial in China
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Data on the efficacy and safety of alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) administered 3-4.5â€‰hours after the onset of stroke symptoms in Chinese patients is limited. We sought to determine whether AIS patients would benefit from thrombolysis with alteplase between 3 and 4.5â€‰hours after the onset of stroke symptoms in a prospective, multicentre, single-arm trial in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Eligible AIS patients were given 0.9â€‰mg/kg alteplase intravenously. The primary efficacy endpoint was a favourable outcome at 3 months, defined as a score of 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin Scale. Thresholds for the primary efficacy endpoint were determined to be 40% based on the literature review. The primary safety endpoint was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (sICH) according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) trial definition. Post hoc analysis between this study and the ECASS III trial were compared using the propensity score matching (PSM) method. RESULTS:A total of 120 eligible AIS patients from 11 sites in China received thrombolysis therapy in this study. The median time from onset of symptoms to needle was 3â€‰hours 54â€‰min. The percentage of patients with a favourable outcome was 63.3% (95% CI 54.4 to 71.4), significantly higher than the predefined threshold (p<0.0001). Three patients (2.5%, 95%â€‰CI 0.5 to 7.1) had sICH, including two fatal sICH. Six patients died within 3 months after treatment. The post hoc PSM analysis showed a numerically higher rate of the primary efficacy endpoint in this study (63.3%) than the matched placebo arm (56.7%) in the ECASS III trial. CONCLUSIONS:Intravenous alteplase with a standard dose administered between 3 and 4.5â€‰hours after onset of symptoms is effective and safe for Chinese AIS patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER/BACKGROUND:NCT02930837.
Induction of DNMT3B by PGE2 and IL6 at distant metastatic sites promotes epigenetic modification and breast cancer colonization
Current cancer treatments are largely based on the genetic characterization of primary tumors and are ineffective for metastatic disease. Here we report that DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) is induced at distant metastatic sites and mediates epigenetic reprogramming of metastatic tumor cells. Multi-omics analysis and spontaneous metastatic mouse models revealed that DNMT3B alters multiple pathways including STAT3, NFÎºB, PI3K/Akt, Î²-catenin, and Notch signaling, which are critical for cancer cell survival, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and colonization. PGE2 and IL-6 were identified as critical inflammatory mediators in DNMT3B induction. DNMT3B expression levels positively correlated with human metastatic progression. Targeting IL-6 or COX-2 reduced DNMT3B induction and improved chemo- or PD1- therapy. We propose a novel mechanism linking the metastatic microenvironment with epigenetic alterations that occur at distant sites. These results caution against the "Achilles' heel" in cancer therapies based on primary tumor characterization and suggests targeting DNMT3B induction as new option for treating metastatic disease.
Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales: update 2018
In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.
A prospective study of loss of consciousness in epilepsy using virtual reality driving simulation and other video games
Patients with epilepsy are at risk of traffic accidents when they have seizures while driving. However, driving is an essential part of normal daily life in many communities, and depriving patients of driving privileges can have profound consequences for their economic and social well-being. In the current study, we collected ictal performance data from a driving simulator and two other video games in patients undergoing continuous video/EEG monitoring. We captured 22 seizures in 13 patients and found that driving impairment during seizures differed in terms of both magnitude and character, depending on the seizure type. Our study documents the feasibility of a prospective study of driving and other behaviors during seizures through the use of computer-based tasks. This methodology may be applied to further describe differential driving impairment in specific types of seizures and to gain data on anatomical networks disrupted in seizures that impair consciousness and driving safety.