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Central serous chorioretinopathy: An evidence-based treatment guideline

Feenstra, Helena M A; van Dijk, Elon H C; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Koizumi, Hideki; Larsen, Michael; Querques, Giuseppe; Downes, Susan M; Yzer, Suzanne; Breazzano, Mark P; Subhi, Yousif; Tadayoni, Ramin; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Pauleikhoff, Laurenz J B; Lange, Clemens A K; Loewenstein, Anat; Diederen, Roselie M H; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Hoyng, Carel B; Chhablani, Jay K; Holz, Frank G; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Lotery, Andrew J; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey; Boon, Camiel J F
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a relatively common disease that causes vision loss due to macular subretinal fluid leakage and is often associated with reduced vision-related quality of life. In CSC, the leakage of subretinal fluid through defects in the retinal pigment epithelial layer's outer blood-retina barrier appears to occur secondary to choroidal abnormalities and dysfunction. The treatment of CSC is currently the subject of controversy, although recent data obtained from several large randomized controlled trials provide a wealth of new information that can be used to establish a treatment algorithm. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of our current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of CSC, current therapeutic strategies, and an evidence-based treatment guideline for CSC. In acute CSC, treatment can often be deferred for up to 3-4 months after diagnosis; however, early treatment with either half-dose or half-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with the photosensitive dye verteporfin may be beneficial in selected cases. In chronic CSC, half-dose or half-fluence PDT, which targets the abnormal choroid, should be considered the preferred treatment. If PDT is unavailable, chronic CSC with focal, non-central leakage on angiography may be treated using conventional laser photocoagulation. CSC with concurrent macular neovascularization should be treated with half-dose/half-fluence PDT and/or intravitreal injections of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor compound. Given the current shortage of verteporfin and the paucity of evidence supporting the efficacy of other treatment options, future studies-ideally, well-designed randomized controlled trials-are needed in order to evaluate new treatment options for CSC.
PMID: 38301969
ISSN: 1873-1635
CID: 5626772


Ramtohul, Prithvi; Marchese, Alessandro; Introini, Ugo; Goldstein, Debra A; Freund, K Bailey; Jampol, Lee M; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A
PURPOSE:To describe specific clinical, multimodal imaging, and natural history features of an unusual variant of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. METHODS:Retrospective, observational, longitudinal, multicenter case series. Patients exhibiting this unusual clinical condition among cases previously diagnosed with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were included. Multimodal imaging, laboratory evaluations, and genetic testing for inherited retinal diseases were reviewed. RESULTS:Twenty eyes from 10 patients (8 females and 2 males) with a mean age of 54.1 ± 13.3 years (range, 38-71 years) were included. The mean follow-up duration was 13.1 ± 5.3 years (range, 8-23 years). Presenting symptoms were bilateral in 7 patients (85% of eyes) and included scotomata and photopsia. All patients had bilateral lesions at presentation involving the peripapillary and far peripheral retina. Baseline optical coherence tomography showed alteration of the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor layers corresponding to zonal areas of fundus autofluorescence abnormalities. Centrifugal and centripetal progression of the peripapillary and far-peripheral lesions, respectively, occurred over the follow-up, resulting in areas of complete outer retinal and retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. CONCLUSION:Initial alteration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium and a stereotypical natural course that includes involvement of the far retinal periphery, characterize this unusual condition. It may represent a variant of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy or may be a new entity. We suggest to call it multizonal outer retinopathy and retinal pigment epitheliopathy .
PMID: 37748093
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 5614102

The Chrysanthemum Phenotype of Idiopathic Multifocal Choroiditis

Ramtohul, Prithvi; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Gal-Or, Orly; Mrejen, Sarah; García-Martínez, Jesús R; Goldberg, Alla; Cunha de Souza, Eduardo; Miserocchi, Elisabetta; Cunningham, Emmett T; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey; Tsui, Edmund
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical characteristics and multimodal imaging (MMI) features of a distinctive subtype of active idiopathic multifocal choroiditis (iMFC) lesions with grey-yellow chorioretinal lesions surrounded by smaller satellite dots, a presentation referred to as "chrysanthemum lesions". METHODS:Retrospective, observational, multi-center case series of eyes with active iMFC and chrysanthemum lesions. Multimodal imaging features were reviewed and presented. RESULTS:Twenty-five eyes from 20 patients (12 women and 8 men), with a mean age of 35.8±17.0 years (range, 7 - 78 years) were included. Chrysanthemum lesions were equally located in the macula (48.0%) or the mid/far-periphery (52.0%). The number of lesions per eye varied from 1 (16.0%) to more than 20 (56.0%). On optical coherence tomography (OCT), chrysanthemum lesions showed typical features of iMFC, including subretinal hyperreflective material splitting the retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane (RPE/BrM). Chrysanthemum lesions were hypoautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence imaging, hyperfluorescent on fluorescein angiography, hypofluorescent on indocyanine green angiography, and associated with choriocapillaris flow signal deficit on OCT-angiography. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Active iMFC may present with findings resembling chrysanthemum lesions. The distinctive lesion morphology on ophthalmoscopic examination, the high number of lesions, and the high prevalence of exclusive mid- and far-peripheral involvement may represent a distinctive phenotype of iMFC.
PMID: 37071923
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 5466132

Retinal racemose hemangioma (retinal arteriovenous communication) diagnosed and managed with multimodal imaging

Breazzano, Mark P; Ledesma-Gil, Gerardo; Essilfie, Juliet O; Bacci, Tommaso; Pandey, Avi; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Retinal racemose hemangioma (RRH) is a rare congenital abnormality of the retinal vasculature with a variety of secondary manifestations that can cause vision loss, including macular edema. This report aims to demonstrate the utility of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in further characterizing this abnormality. METHODS:Case report with multimodal imaging including SS-OCTA. RESULTS:A 56-year-old woman with blurred vision was diagnosed macular edema secondary to RRH. Localization of the arterial-venous connection was identified with SS-OCTA at the deep capillary plexus (DCP). Conservative management of the associated foveal exudation ultimately led to a favorable outcome. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Observation or topical therapy may be useful and warranted in select cases of RRH. The anomalous vascular connection in RRH appears to originate at the level of the DCP in this case, however larger studies are necessary for corroboration. Evolving angiographic modalities like SS-OCTA may continue to provide insights for this rare disease.
PMID: 34033599
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 4887762

Subretinal drusenoid deposits are strongly associated with coexistent high-risk vascular diseases

Ledesma-Gil, Gerardo; Otero-Marquez, Oscar; Alauddin, Sharmina; Tong, Yuehong; Tai, Katy; Lloyd, Harriet; Koci, Micaela; Scolaro, Maria; Pillai, Cinthi; Ye, Catherine; Govindaiah, Arun; Bhuiyan, Alauddin; Dhamoon, Mandip S.; Deobhakta, Avnish; Lema, Gareth; Narula, Jagat; Rosen, Richard B.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Freund, K. Bailey; Smith, Roland Theodore
Background/aims Demonstrate that subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are linked to coexistent high-risk vascular diseases (HRVDs). Methods Cross-sectional study. Two hundred AMD subjects (aged 51-100 years; 121 women, 79 men) were recruited. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance imaging, and lipid profiles were obtained. Subjects were assigned by health history questionnaires into those with or without HRVDs, defined as: cardiac valve defect (eg, aortic stenosis), myocardial defect (eg, myocardial infarction) and stroke/transient ischaemic attack. Masked readers assigned subjects into two groups: SDD (with or without drusen) and drusen (only). Univariate testing was performed by χ 2 test. We built multivariate regression models to test relationships of coexistent HRVD to SDD status, lipid levels and other covariates. Results The prevalence of HRVD was 41.2% (40/97) and 6.8% (7/103) in the SDD and non-SDD groups, respectively (correlation of SDD with HRVD, p=9×10 -9, OR 9.62, 95% CI 4.04 to 22.91). Multivariate regressions: only SDDs and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the first two HDL quartiles remained significant for HRVD (p=9.8×10 -5, 0.021, respectively). Multivariate regression model: SDDs and an HDL in Q1 or Q2 identified the presence of HRVD with the accuracy of 78.5%, 95% CI 72.2% to 84.0%. Conclusions High-risk cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases were accurately identified in an AMD cohort from SDDs and HDL levels. The SDDs may be related to inadequate ocular perfusion resulting from the systemic vasculopathies. Further research with this paradigm is warranted and might reduce mortality and morbidity from vascular disease.
ISSN: 2397-3269
CID: 5393012

Optic nerve tortuosity and displacements during horizontal eye movements in healthy and highly myopic subjects

Wang, Xiaofei; Chang, Stanley; Grinband, Jack; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey; Hoang, Quan V; Girard, Michael Ja
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:(1) To assess the morphology and 3-dimensional (3D) displacements of the eye globe and optic nerve (ON) in adduction/abduction using MRI. (2) To assess differences between healthy emmetropic and highly myopic (HM) subjects. METHODS:MRI volumes of both eyes from 18 controls and 20 HM subjects in primary gaze, abduction and adduction (15°) were postprocessed. All ONs were manually segmented and fitted to a 3D curve to assess ON tortuosity. ON displacements were evaluated in four quasicoronal planes which were perpendicular to the ON in primary gaze and were 3 mm apart. RESULTS:Axial length was higher in the HM group (28.62±2.60 vs 22.84±0.89 mm; p<0.0001). Adjusted ON tortuosities (ie, ON tortuosities estimated before myopia onset) were lower in HM eyes (0.9063±0.0591) versus controls (1.0152±0.02981) in primary gaze, adduction (0.9023±0.05538 vs 1.0137±0.0299) and abduction (0.9100±0.0594 vs 1.0182±0.0316); p<0.0001 for all cases. In all eyes, ON displacements in adduction were significantly different from those in abduction in the naso-temporal direction (p<0.0001 in all planes) but not in the supero-inferior direction. ON displacements in the posterior segments of the ON were smaller in the HM group in both gaze directions and were larger in the anterior-most ON segment in adduction only. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The adjusted tortuosity of the ON was significantly lower in HM eyes, suggesting that eyes destined towards HM exhibited higher ON traction forces during eye movements before the onset of myopia. Our ON metrics may be valuable to explore a potential link between eye movements and axial elongation.
PMID: 34039559
ISSN: 1468-2079
CID: 4888022

Indolent Non-Progressive Multifocal Choroidal Lymphoid Lesions: A Clinical-Histopathological Correlation

Abdelhakim, Aliaa H; Curcio, Christine A; Jampol, Lee M; Freund, K Bailey; Eagle, Ralph C; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To present a clinicopathologic correlation of indolent, non-progressive multifocal choroidal lesions, clinically presumed to be lymphoid in nature, using multimodal imaging and histopathological analysis of a donor eye. DESIGN/METHODS:Case study and clinicopathologic correlation. PARTICIPANT/METHODS:A 77-year-old man of Caucasian ancestry was followed for nineteen years with indolent non-progressive multifocal choroidal infiltration of his right eye, presumed to be lymphocytic in nature based on the appearance of the lesions. METHODS:Multimodal imaging including fundus photography, B-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography were performed throughout 19 years of follow up prior to the patient's death. The involved eye was preserved 21 hours postmortem and analyzed using standard histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Correlation of findings on multimodal imaging with histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in the involved eye. RESULTS:Clinical examination over the course of 19 years showed no deterioration in visual acuity of the involved eye. Multimodal imaging revealed yellow-orange choroidal lesions that showed no appreciable progression during the 19 year follow up. These areas stained minimally on fluorescein angiography. Indocyanine green angiography revealed tortuous choroidal vessels and fluorescence blockage. Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed hyporeflective homogenous choroidal thickening. Light microscopy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry showed that the lesions were composed of small, mature-appearing B-cells that spared the choriocapillaris. The findings were most consistent with an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). CONCLUSIONS:Indolent non-progressive multifocal choroidal lymphoid lesions in this patient remained confined to the choroid on clinical examination and imaging for almost two decades, with no clinical evidence of extension into the retina. Light microscopy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry postmortem showed that the lesions were composed of small, mature-appearing B-cells that spared the choriocapillaris. The findings were consistent with an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). This entity is distinct from more aggressive uveal and choroidal lymphoma and is expected to remain relatively stationary on long-term clinical follow-up, with a good visual prognosis.
PMID: 35338027
ISSN: 2468-6530
CID: 5220502

Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits and Soft Drusen: Are They Markers for Distinct Retinal Diseases?

Thomson, Robert J; Chazaro, Joshua; Otero-Marquez, Oscar; Ledesma-Gil, Gerardo; Tong, Yuehong; Coughlin, Arielle C; Teibel, Zachary R; Alauddin, Sharmina; Tai, Katy; Lloyd, Harriet; Scolaro, Maria; Govindaiah, Arun; Bhuiyan, Alauddin; Dhamoon, Mandip S; Deobhakta, Avnish; Narula, Jagat; Rosen, Richard B; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey; Smith, R Theodore
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Soft drusen and subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDDs) characterize two pathways to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), with distinct genetic risks, serum risks and associated systemic diseases. METHODS:126 Subjects with AMD were classified as SDD (with or without soft drusen), or non-SDD (drusen only) by retinal imaging, with serum risks, genetic testing, and histories of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. RESULTS:There were 62 SDD subjects and 64 non-SDD subjects, 51 total had CVD or stroke.SDD correlated significantly with: lower mean serum HDL (61±18 vs. 69±22 mg/dl, p= 0.038, t test); CVD and stroke (34/51 SDD, p= 0.001, chi square); ARMS2 risk allele (p= 0.019, chi square), but not with CFH risk allele (p = 0.66). Non-SDD (drusen only) correlated/trended with: APOE2 (p= 0.032) and CETP (p= 0.072) risk alleles (chi square). Multivariate independent risks for SDD were: CVD and stroke (p= 0.008), and ARMS2 homozygous risk (p= 0.038). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SDD and non-SDD subjects have distinct systemic associations, serum and genetic risks. SDD are associated with CVD and stroke, ARMS2 risk, and lower HDL; non-SDD with higher HDL, CFH risk and two lipid risk genes. These and other distinct associations suggest these lesions are markers for distinct diseases.
PMID: 35213528
ISSN: 1539-2864
CID: 5175212

Predominance of hyperopia in autosomal dominant Best vitelliform macular dystrophy

Coussa, Razek G; Binkley, Elaine M; Wilkinson, Mark E; Andorf, Jeaneen L; Tucker, Budd A; Mullins, Robert F; Sohn, Elliott H; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Stone, Edwin M; Han, Ian C
BACKGROUND/AIMS/OBJECTIVE:-associated Stargardt disease. METHODS:This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with molecularly confirmed AD-BVMD and Stargardt macular dystrophy seen at a single academic centre. Demographic information, including age, gender and genotype were extracted from the chart. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), as well as type and degree of refractive error on manifest refraction for each eye on each visit, were recorded and compared. RESULTS:A total of 178 eyes from 89 patients with AD-BVMD (35 women, 54 men; mean age 36.6 years) and 306 eyes from 153 patients (94 women, 59 men, mean age 30.2 years) with Stargardt disease were included in the study. Mean BCVA was excellent for both AD-BVMD and Stargardt eyes (logMAR 0.23 vs logMAR 0.31, respectively; p=0.55). At initial refraction, 73.0% of AD-BVMD eyes (130/178) were hyperopic, with mean spherical equivalent (SE) +1.38 dioptres (median +0.88) whereas 80.7% of Stargardt eyes (247/306) were myopic, with mean SE of -1.76 dioptres (median -1.19) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:in ocular growth and development.
PMID: 33243830
ISSN: 1468-2079
CID: 4681022


Orellana-Rios, Jorge; Leong, Belinda C S; Fernández-Avellaneda, Pedro; Gattoussi, Sarra; Freund, K Bailey; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report a very late recurrence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in elderly patients with noninfectious multifocal choroiditis (MFC). METHODS:Retrospective case series of patients with MFC with confirmed recurrence of CNV. Choroidal neovascularization was diagnosed with multimodal imaging, including optical coherence tomography angiography. Multifocal choroiditis-associated CNV eyes were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor medication. RESULTS:Four eyes of three patients were included in our study, with a mean (range) age of 73 years (67-78). The period between the original CNV and the recurrence was 53 years, with a range of 48-60 years. The mean number (range) of injections given after the late recurrence per eye was 7 (5-11). The mean duration (range) of follow-up post-treatment initiation was 93 (40-122) weeks. All eyes improved to 20/30 visual acuity or better at 6 months after initial treatment. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with MFC are never exempt from recurrent CNV, warranting follow-up in perpetuity. Age-related factors are important to consider which may increase the susceptibility for activating MFC-associated CNV in elderly people. Macular neovascularization could respond to a standard approach to management, in these patients with MFC, by a judicious use of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.
PMID: 31725597
ISSN: 1937-1578
CID: 4185702