#BlackLivesMatter to C-L Psychiatrists: Examining Racial Bias in Clinical Management of Behavioral Emergencies in the Inpatient Medical Setting [Meeting Abstract]
Caravella, R A; Ying, P; Ackerman, M; Deutch, A; Siegel, C; Lin, Z; Vaughn, R; Madanes, S; Caroff, A; Storto, M; Polychroniou, P; Lewis, C; Kozikowski, A
Background: CL psychiatrists are uniquely positioned to combat structural racism in medicine Currently, there are no published papers examining racial bias in the management of psychiatric emergencies in the general medical hospital. Given the potential for restrictive clinical interventions that directly challenge a patient's autonomy (including intramuscular injections and restraints), our group embarked on a long-term, quality improvement project to detect and address racial bias affecting the clinical management of these psychiatric emergencies.
Method(s): Our institution has a multidisciplinary behavioral code team known as the Behavioral Emergency Response Team (BERT) that responds to behavioral emergencies throughout the medical hospital. Secondary BERT event data occurring from 2017 to 2020 was combined with demographic data from the electronic medical record. Race and ethnic data were collapsed into unique, phenotypic categories. BERT events were coded based on the most restrictive intervention utilized. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample and examine whether race / ethnicity correlated with BERT intervention utilized, diagnostic impression, reason for BERT activation, or recurrent BERTs.
Result(s): Our sample included 1532 BERT events representing N = 902 unique patients. The main interaction of BERT intervention by Race / Ethnic category reached statistical significance (p=0.04). Though most BERTs only required verbal de-escalation (n=419, 46.45%), 3% of BERTs (n = 29) escalated to 4-pt restraints (most restrictive intervention). Though reaching level 5 was rare, Black patients had a statistically significant higher likelihood of receiving this intervention compared with White patients (6% v 2%, p=0.027) and compared with all other non-Black patients (6% v 2%, p=0.040). Although the overall comparison for Race/Ethnicity and the diagnostic impression "Psychosis" did not reach significance (p=0.086), targeted analysis showed that Black patients were significantly more likely to have "Psychosis" listed as a contributing factor compared with White patients (p=0.009) and all other non-Black patients (p=0.016). Several other comparisons with Race / Ethnic category reached statistical significance: Age (p=0.048), and need for interpreter yes/no (p<0.001). Closer examination of the interaction of Race/Ethnicity x Need for Interpreter revealed that half of events involving Asian patients (n=22, 53.66%) and a third of events involving Hispanic patients (n=29, 30.53%) required interpreter services.
Discussion(s): This study demonstrates the feasibility of investigating racial bias in behavioral emergency management. The results of this preliminary analysis suggest multiple areas for enhanced education, self-awareness development, and programmatic improvement to target systemic racism, decrease racial bias, and improve patient care. These areas include bias in restraints use, the role of language in behavioral emergencies, and the influence of race on perception of underlying diagnosis.
Successful Use of Electroconvulsive Therapy for Catatonia After Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury [Case Report]
Kim, Katherine; Anbarasan, Deepti; Caravella, Rachel A; Nally, Emma; Ying, Patrick; Gurin, Lindsey
Development of a Virtual Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Service: A Multifaceted Transformation
Caravella, Rachel A.; Deutch, Allison B.; Noulas, Paraskevi; Ying, Patrick; Liaw, K. Ron-Li; Greenblatt, Jeanne; Collins, Kelsey; Eastburn, H. K.; Fries, Emily; Khan, Shabana; Kozikowski, Adam; Sidelnik, S. Alex; Yee, Michael; Ginsberg, David
On call: Psychiatry
Bernstein, Carol A; Poag, Molly; Rubinstein, Mort; Ahn, Christina; Maloy, Katherine F; Ying, Patrick
Amsterdam, Netherlands : Elsevier, 2019
Extent: xix, 332 p.
SUCCESSFUL ECT IN THE CONTEXT OF AN IMPLANTED STAPES PROSTHESIS [Meeting Abstract]
Ying, Patrick; Shalvoy, Keriann; Cooper, Timothy
Fire safety and ECT: A review of the safety record and the creation of an evidenced-based safety protocol [Meeting Abstract]
Ying, P; Cohen-Fetterman, T
Objective: To review issues with ECT and fire safety. Background: Regulatory agencies are increasing concerned with fire safety in procedural areas. While surgical lasers and electrocautery are more common culprits, ECT may come to the attention of internal and external agencies. ECT providers will need to respond to inquiries about fire safety and demonstrate safety protocols. Design/Methods: We reviewed the literature on fire safety and ECT as well as the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience for adverse events regarding ECT, fire or burns. We developed a fire-safety protocol based on our findings. Results: There are no reports of fire in the FDA database with either of the two commercially available machines in the United States. We discovered only two reported cases of fires related to ECT from the time period of 1992-2015, and none in the last ten years. In the both reported cases, the presence of 100% oxygen has been implicated as an important factor. There are roughly 26 cases of burns or suspected burns reported to the FDA between 1992-2015. Many of these burns appear to be related to improper use of adhesive electrodes or improper preparation of the treatment site. Fire safety in procedural areas focuses on reducing the three components required for ignition: spark, fuel source and oxygen. We adapted these concepts in creating a fire-safety protocol for ECT. Conclusions: Fires and burns are an extremely rare complication in ECT. A reasonable fire-safety protocol can reduce this risk even further
Recurrent Aspiration in a Patient With Gastric Band Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy
Lubit, Elana B; Fetterman, Tammy Cohen; Ying, Patrick
We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with depression and suicidal ideation, treated successfully with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the past. Since her previous course of ECT, she underwent gastric banding, a bariatric surgical procedure associated with increased risk of gastric regurgitation. Despite increasingly stringent measures to minimize the risk of regurgitation and aspiration during ECT, she had several episodes of regurgitation, the last of which precipitated an acute illness consistent with aspiration pneumonitis. We took additional precautions after each event, until she had no further episodes of regurgitation. We discuss the risk posed by the gastric band, the measures we implemented to minimize that risk, and our recommendations for assessment and management of post-gastric banding patients who present for ECT.
Considerations for ECT in the Bariatric Surgery Patient [Meeting Abstract]
Ying, Patrick; Cohen-Fetterman, Tammy; Lubit, Elana B
Psychiatric consequences of actual versus feared and perceived bed bug infestations: a case series examining a current epidemic
Rieder, Evan; Hamalian, Gareen; Maloy, Katherine; Streicker, Elizabeth; Sjulson, Lucas; Ying, Patrick
Informed consent and electroconvulsive therapy
Cohen Fetterman, Tammy; Ying, Patrick