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Aberrant within- and between-network connectivity of the mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network in first episode psychosis

Choe, Eugenie; Lee, Tae Young; Kim, Minah; Hur, Ji-Won; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Cho, Kang-Ik K; Kwon, Jun Soo
INTRODUCTION:It has been suggested that the mentalizing network and the mirror neuron system network support important social cognitive processes that are impaired in schizophrenia. However, the integrity and interaction of these two networks have not been sufficiently studied, and their effects on social cognition in schizophrenia remain unclear. METHODS:Our study included 26 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 26 healthy controls. We utilized resting-state functional connectivity to examine the a priori-defined mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network and to assess the within- and between-network connectivities of the networks in FEP patients. We also assessed the correlation between resting-state functional connectivity measures and theory of mind performance. RESULTS:FEP patients showed altered within-network connectivity of the mirror neuron system network, and aberrant between-network connectivity between the mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network. The within-network connectivity of the mirror neuron system network was noticeably correlated with theory of mind task performance in FEP patients. CONCLUSION:The integrity and interaction of the mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network may be altered during the early stages of psychosis. Additionally, this study suggests that alterations in the integrity of the mirror neuron system network are highly related to deficient theory of mind in schizophrenia, and this problem would be present from the early stage of psychosis.
PMID: 29599093
ISSN: 1573-2509
CID: 5345262

Predicting Remission in Subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Using Mismatch Negativity

Kim, Minah; Lee, Tak Hyung; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
Background:The declining transition rate to psychotic disorder and the increasing rate of nonpsychotic poor outcomes among subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis have increased the need for biomarkers to predict remission regardless of transition. This study investigated whether mismatch negativity (MMN) predicts the prognosis of CHR individuals during a 6-year follow-up period. Methods:A total of 47 healthy control (HC) subjects and 48 subjects at CHR for psychosis participated in the MMN assessment. The clinical statuses of the CHR subjects were examined at baseline and regularly for up to 6 years. The CHR subjects were divided into remitter and nonremitter groups, and the baseline MMN amplitudes and latencies were compared across the remitter, nonremitter, and HC groups. Regression analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors of remission, the improvement of attenuated positive symptoms, and functional recovery. Results:CHR nonremitters showed reduced MMN amplitudes at baseline compared to CHR remitters and HC subjects. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the baseline MMN amplitude at the frontal electrode site was the only significant predictor of remission. In a multiple regression analysis, the MMN amplitude, antipsychotic use, and years of education predicted an improvement in attenuated positive symptoms. The MMN amplitude at baseline predicted functional recovery. Conclusions:These results suggest that MMN is a putative predictor of prognosis regardless of the transition to psychotic disorder in subjects at CHR. Early prognosis prediction and the provision of appropriate interventions based on the initial CHR status might be aided using MMN.
PMID: 29036493
ISSN: 1745-1701
CID: 5345232

The effect of tDCS on auditory hallucination and P50 sensory gating in patients with schizophrenia: A pilot study [Letter]

Kim, Minah; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Lee, Tak Hyung; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
PMID: 28416094
ISSN: 1573-2509
CID: 5345202

Higher serotonin transporter availability in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder patients undergoing escitalopram treatment: A [11 C]DASB PET study

Lee, Junhee; Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, Euitae; Howes, Oliver D; Cho, Kang Ik Kevin; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Kwon, Jun Soo
OBJECTIVE:Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (EOCD) and late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (LOCD) are distinct subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD patients are treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, but the difference in serotonin transporter (SERT) availability between medicated EOCD and LOCD is unexplored yet. METHODS:C]DASB positron emission tomography scans during maintenance therapy with escitalopram, and their plasma concentration of escitalopram was measured simultaneously with the scan. Then, the drug-free binding potential of SERT was calculated by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling. RESULTS:In comparison with LOCD patients, SERT availability was significantly higher in the putamen of EOCD patients (U = 4, p = .026), but not in the caudate nucleus (U = 14, p = .589), thalamus (U = 16, p = .818), and dorsal raphe nucleus (U = 7, p = .093). Binding potential of putamen showed a negative correlation (r = -.580, p = .048) with age of onset of the disease, but not with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale scores. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that the earlier the age of onset of OCD, the less serotonergic pathology there is and that this difference remains even after long-term serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Clinically, it might suggest that nonserotonergic treatments would be a better option for EOCD patients.
PMID: 29210107
ISSN: 1099-1077
CID: 5345242

Beyond Domain-Specific Expertise: Neural Signatures of Face and Spatial Working Memory in Baduk (Go Game) Experts

Jung, Wi Hoon; Lee, Tae Young; Yoon, Youngwoo B; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Kwon, Jun Soo
Recent advances of neuroimaging methodology and artificial intelligence have resulted in renewed interest in board games like chess and Baduk (called Go game in the West) and have provided clues as to the mechanisms behind the games. However, an interesting question that remains to be answered is whether the board game expertise as one of cognitive skills goes beyond just being good at the trained game and how it maps on networks associated with cognitive abilities that are not directly trained. To address this issue, we examined functional activity and connectivity in Baduk experts, compared to novices, while performing a visual n-back working memory (WM) task. We found that experts, compared to novices, had greater activation in superior parietal cortex during face WM, though there were no group differences in behavioral performances. Using a data-driven, whole-brain multivariate approach, we also found significant group differences in the multivariate pattern of connectivity in frontal pole and inferior parietal cortex, further showing greater connectivity between frontal and parietal regions and between frontal and temporal regions in experts. Our findings suggest that long-term trained Baduk experts have the reorganization of functional interactions between brain regions even for untrained cognitive ability.
PMID: 30131686
ISSN: 1662-5161
CID: 5345282

Lower Glutamate Level in Temporo-parietal Junction may Predict a Better Response to tDCS in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study [Meeting Abstract]

Lee, Junhee; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Wijtenburg, Andrea; Rowland, Laura; Song, In Chan; Cho, Kang Ik; Kim, Minah; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
ISSN: 1751-7885
CID: 5345412

Disturbed Thalamo-cortical Connectivity in the Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients [Meeting Abstract]

Cho, Kang Ik K.; Kim, Minah; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
ISSN: 1751-7885
CID: 5345422

Higher extrinsic and lower intrinsic connectivity in resting state networks for professional Baduk (Go) players

Sohn, William S; Lee, Tae Young; Kwak, Seoyeon; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Kwon, Jun Soo
Introduction:Dedication and training to a profession results in a certain level of expertise. This expertise, like any other skill obtained in our lifetime, is encoded in the brain and may be reflected in our brain's connectome. This property can be observed by mapping resting state connectivity. In this study, we examine the differences in resting state functional connectivity in four major networks between professional "Baduk" (Go) players and normal subjects. Methods:Resting state fMRI scans were acquired for professional "Baduk" (Go) players and normal controls. Major resting state networks were identified using independent component analysis and compared between the two groups. Networks which were compared include the default mode network, the left and right fronto-parietal network, and the salience network. Results:We found that normal subjects showed increased connectivity within certain areas of each target network. Professional players, however, showed higher connectivity to regions outside the traditional regions of each given network. Close examination of these regions revealed that regions shown to have higher connectivity in professional players have been revealed to be relevant in expertise for board games. Conclusion:The findings in this study suggest that continuous training results in greater integration between regions and networks, which are necessary for high-level performance. The differences observed in our study between normal controls and professional players also shed light on the difference in brain connectivity which can arise through lifestyle and specialization in a specific field.
PMID: 29299380
ISSN: 2162-3279
CID: 5345252

Brain Structural Networks Associated with Intelligence and Visuomotor Ability

Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Shin, Won-Gyo; Lee, Tae Young; Hur, Ji-Won; Cho, Kang Ik K; Sohn, William Seunghyun; Kim, Seung-Goo; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Kwon, Jun Soo
Increasing evidence indicates that multiple structures in the brain are associated with intelligence and cognitive function at the network level. The association between the grey matter (GM) structural network and intelligence and cognition is not well understood. We applied a multivariate approach to identify the pattern of GM and link the structural network to intelligence and cognitive functions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 92 healthy individuals. Source-based morphometry analysis was applied to the imaging data to extract GM structural covariance. We assessed the intelligence, verbal fluency, processing speed, and executive functioning of the participants and further investigated the correlations of the GM structural networks with intelligence and cognitive functions. Six GM structural networks were identified. The cerebello-parietal component and the frontal component were significantly associated with intelligence. The parietal and frontal regions were each distinctively associated with intelligence by maintaining structural networks with the cerebellum and the temporal region, respectively. The cerebellar component was associated with visuomotor ability. Our results support the parieto-frontal integration theory of intelligence by demonstrating how each core region for intelligence works in concert with other regions. In addition, we revealed how the cerebellum is associated with intelligence and cognitive functions.
PMID: 28526888
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5345222

Aberrant temporal behavior of mismatch negativity generators in schizophrenia patients and subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis

Kim, Minah; Cho, Kang Ik Kevin; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
OBJECTIVE:Although disconnection syndrome has been considered a core pathophysiologic mechanism of schizophrenia, little is known about the temporal behavior of mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in individuals with schizophrenia or clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. METHODS:MMN was assessed in 29 schizophrenia patients, 40 CHR subjects, and 47 healthy controls (HCs). Individual realistic head models and the minimum L2 norm algorithm were used to generate a current source density (CSD) model of MMN. The strength and time course of MMN CSD activity were calculated separately for the frontal and temporal cortices and were compared across brain regions and groups. RESULTS:Schizophrenia patients and CHR subjects displayed lower MMN CSD strength than HCs in both the temporal and frontal cortices. We found a significant time delay in MMN generator activity in the frontal cortex relative to that in the temporal cortex in HCs. However, the sequential temporo-frontal activities of MMN generators were disrupted in both the schizophrenia and CHR groups. CONCLUSIONS:Impairments and altered temporal behavior of MMN multiple generators were observed even in individuals at risk for psychosis. SIGNIFICANCE:These findings suggest that aberrant MMN generator activity might be helpful in revealing the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
PMID: 28056388
ISSN: 1872-8952
CID: 5345192