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Bridging the Gap from Student to Doctor: Developing Coaches for the Transition to Residency

Winkel, Abigail Ford; Gillespie, Colleen; Park, Agnes; Branzetti, Jeremy; Cocks, Patrick; Greene, Richard E; Zabar, Sondra; Triola, Marc
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:A lack of educational continuity creates disorienting friction at the onset of residency. Few programs have harnessed the benefits of coaching, which can facilitate self-directed learning, competency development, and professional identity formation, to help ease this transition. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To describe the process of training faculty Bridge Coaches for the Transition to Residency Advantage (TRA) program for interns. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Nineteen graduate faculty educators participated in a coaching training course with formative skills assessment as part of a faculty development program starting in January 2020. Surveys (n = 15; 79%) and a focus group (n = 7; 37%) were conducted to explore the perceived impact of the training course on coaching skills, perceptions of coaching, and further program needs during the pilot year of the TRA program. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Faculty had strong skills around establishing trust, authentic listening, and supporting goal-setting. They required more practice around guiding self-discovery and following a coachee-led agenda. Faculty found the training course to be helpful for developing coaching skills. Faculty embraced their new roles as coaches and appreciated having a community of practice with other coaches. Suggestions for improvement included more opportunities to practice and receive feedback on skills and additional structures to further support TRA program encounters with coaches. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The faculty development program was feasible and had good acceptance among participants. Faculty were well-suited to serve as coaches and valued the coaching mindset. Adequate skills reinforcement and program structure were identified as needs to facilitate a coaching program in graduate medical education.
PMID: 36351566
ISSN: 1087-2981
CID: 5357372

Provider and administrator attitudes and experiences with implementing telebuprenorphine during the COVID-19 pandemic: a mixed-methods survey

Tofighi, Babak; Lopez, Rosalina; Araujo, Gabriela; Lee, Joshua D.; Samuels, Elizabeth A.; Wightman, Rachel S.; Butner, Jenna
ISSN: 1465-9891
CID: 5403282

Design and pilot implementation for the BETTER CARE-HF trial: A pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing two targeted approaches to ambulatory clinical decision support for cardiologists

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; Xia, Yuhe; Phillips, Lawrence M; Aminian, Rod; Diah, Ruth-Ann; Nagler, Arielle R; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Horwitz, Leora I; Katz, Stuart D; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Beart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, shortfalls in prescribing of proven therapies, particularly mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) therapy, account for several thousand preventable deaths per year nationwide. Electronic clinical decision support (CDS) is a potential low-cost and scalable solution to improve prescribing of therapies. However, the optimal timing and format of CDS tools is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:We developed two targeted CDS tools to inform cardiologists of gaps in MRA therapy for patients with HFrEF and without contraindication to MRA therapy: (1) an alert that notifies cardiologists at the time of patient visit, and (2) an automated electronic message that allows for review between visits. We designed these tools using an established CDS framework and findings from semistructured interviews with cardiologists. We then pilot tested both CDS tools (n = 596 patients) and further enhanced them based on additional semistructured interviews (n = 11 cardiologists). The message was modified to reduce the number of patients listed, include future visits, and list date of next visit. The alert was modified to improve noticeability, reduce extraneous information on guidelines, and include key information on contraindications. CONCLUSIONS:The BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce CArdiovascular REcommendations for Heart Failure) trial aims to compare the effectiveness of the alert vs. the automated message vs. usual care on the primary outcome of MRA prescribing. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two different types of electronic CDS interventions. If effective, our findings can be rapidly disseminated to improve morbidity and mortality for patients with HFrEF, and can also inform the development of future CDS interventions for other disease states. (Trial registration: NCT05275920).
PMID: 36640860
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5403312

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Tobacco Treatment Program Implementation at NCI-Designated Cancer Centers

Hohl, Sarah D; Shoenbill, Kimberly A; Taylor, Kathryn L; Minion, Mara; Bates-Pappas, Gleneara E; Hayes, Rashelle B; Nolan, Margaret B; Simmons, Vani N; Steinberg, Michael B; Park, Elyse R; Ashing, Kimlin; Beneventi, Diane; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Goldstein, Adam O; King, Andrea; Kotsen, Chris; Presant, Cary A; Sherman, Scott E; Sheffer, Christine E; Warren, Graham W; Adsit, Robert T; Bird, Jennifer E; D'Angelo, Heather; Fiore, Michael C; Nguyen, Claire Van Thanh; Pauk, Danielle; Rolland, Betsy; Rigotti, Nancy A
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted cancer screening and treatment delivery, but COVID-19's impact on tobacco cessation treatment for cancer patients who smoke has not been widely explored. METHODS:We conducted a sequential cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 34 NCI-designated cancer centers participating in NCI's Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I), across three reporting periods: one prior to COVID-19 (January-June 2019) and two during the pandemic (January-June 2020, January-June 2021). Using McNemar's Test of Homogeneity, we assessed changes in services offered and implementation activities over time. RESULTS:The proportion of centers offering remote treatment services increased each year for Quitline referrals (56%, 68%, and 91%; p=.000), telephone counseling (59%, 79%, and 94%; p=.002), and referrals to Smokefree TXT (27%, 47%, and 56%; p=.006). Centers offering video-based counseling increased from 2020 to 2021 (18% to 59%; p=.006), Fewer than 10% of centers reported laying off tobacco treatment staff. Compared to early 2020, in 2021 C3I centers reported improvements in their ability to maintain staff and clinician morale, refer to external treatment services, train providers to deliver tobacco treatment, and modify clinical workflows. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid transition to new telehealth program delivery of tobacco treatment for patients with cancer. C3I cancer centers adjusted rapidly to challenges presented by the pandemic, with improvements reported in staff morale and ability to train providers, refer patients to tobacco treatment, and modify clinical workflows. These factors enabled C3I centers to sustain evidence-based tobacco treatment implementation during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:This work describes how NCI-designated cancer centers participating in the Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) adapted to challenges to sustain evidence-based tobacco use treatment programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This work offers a model for resilience and rapid transition to remote tobacco treatment services delivery and proposes a policy and research agenda for telehealth services as an approach to sustaining evidence-based tobacco treatment programs.
PMID: 35778237
ISSN: 1469-994x
CID: 5281522

Effectiveness of Goal-Directed and Outcome-Based Financial Incentives for Weight Loss in Primary Care Patients With Obesity Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighborhoods: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Ladapo, Joseph A; Orstad, Stephanie L; Wali, Soma; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Chung, Un Young Rebecca; Cuevas, Miguel A; Hernandez, Christina; Parraga, Susan; Ponce, Robert; Sweat, Victoria; Wittleder, Sandra; Wallach, Andrew B; Shu, Suzanne B; Goldstein, Noah J; Jay, Melanie
IMPORTANCE/UNASSIGNED:Financial incentives for weight management may increase use of evidence-based strategies while addressing obesity-related economic disparities in low-income populations. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To examine the effects of 2 financial incentive strategies developed using behavioral economic theory when added to provision of weight management resources. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/UNASSIGNED:Three-group, randomized clinical trial conducted from November 2017 to May 2021 at 3 hospital-based clinics in New York City, New York, and Los Angeles, California. A total of 1280 adults with obesity living in low-income neighborhoods were invited to participate, and 668 were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS/UNASSIGNED:Participants were randomly assigned to goal-directed incentives, outcome-based incentives, or a resources-only group. The resources-only group participants were given a 1-year commercial weight-loss program membership, self-monitoring tools (digital scale, food journal, and physical activity monitor), health education, and monthly one-on-one check-in visits. The goal-directed group included resources and linked financial incentives to evidence-based weight-loss behaviors. The outcome-based arm included resources and linked financial incentives to percentage of weight loss. Participants in the incentive groups could earn up to $750. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES/UNASSIGNED:Proportion of patients achieving 5% or greater weight loss at 6 months. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The mean (SD) age of the 668 participants enrolled was 47.7 (12.4) years; 541 (81.0%) were women, 485 (72.6%) were Hispanic, and 99 (14.8%) were Black. The mean (SD) weight at enrollment was 98.96 (20.54) kg, and the mean body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 37.95 (6.55). At 6 months, the adjusted proportion of patients who lost at least 5% of baseline weight was 22.1% in the resources-only group, 39.0% in the goal-directed group, and 49.1% in the outcome-based incentive group (difference, 10.08 percentage points [95% CI, 1.31-18.85] for outcome based vs goal directed; difference, 27.03 percentage points [95% CI, 18.20-35.86] and 16.95 percentage points [95% CI, 8.18-25.72] for outcome based or goal directed vs resources only, respectively). However, mean percentage of weight loss was similar in the incentive arms. Mean earned incentives was $440.44 in the goal-directed group and $303.56 in the outcome-based group, but incentives did not improve financial well-being. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:In this randomized clinical trial, outcome-based and goal-directed financial incentives were similarly effective, and both strategies were more effective than providing resources only for clinically significant weight loss in low-income populations with obesity. Future studies should evaluate cost-effectiveness and long-term outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ Identifier: NCT03157713.
PMID: 36469353
ISSN: 2168-6114
CID: 5378582

An Evaluation of Alternative Technology-Supported Counseling Approaches to Promote Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Changes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

St-Jules, David E; Hu, Lu; Woolf, Kathleen; Wang, Chan; Goldfarb, David S; Katz, Stuart D; Popp, Collin; Williams, Stephen K; Li, Huilin; Jagannathan, Ram; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Kharmats, Anna Y; Sevick, Mary Ann
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Although technology-supported interventions are effective for reducing chronic disease risk, little is known about the relative and combined efficacy of mobile health strategies aimed at multiple lifestyle factors. The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of technology-supported behavioral intervention strategies for managing multiple lifestyle-related health outcomes in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:, age ≥40 years), T2D, and CKD stages 2-4 were randomized to an advice control group, or remotely delivered programs consisting of synchronous group-based education (all groups), plus (1) Social Cognitive Theory-based behavioral counseling and/or (2) mobile self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. All programs targeted weight loss, greater physical activity, and lower intakes of sodium and phosphorus-containing food additives. RESULTS:Of 256 randomized participants, 186 (73%) completed 6-month assessments. Compared to the ADVICE group, mHealth interventions did not result in significant changes in weight loss, or urinary sodium and phosphorus excretion. In aggregate analyses, groups receiving mobile self-monitoring had greater weight loss at 3 months (P = .02), but between 3 and 6 months, weight losses plateaued, and by 6 months, the differences were no longer statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:When engaging patients with T2D and CKD in multiple behavior changes, self-monitoring diet and physical activity demonstrated significantly larger short-term weight losses. Theory-based behavioral counseling alone was no better than baseline advice and demonstrated no interaction effect with self-monitoring.
PMID: 35752400
ISSN: 1532-8503
CID: 5282392

Navigating COVID-19 and related challenges to completing clinical trials: Lessons from the PATRIOT and STEP-UP randomized prevention trials

Salovaara, Priscilla K; Li, Christine; Nicholson, Andrew; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Natarajan, Sundar
BACKGROUND/AIMS/UNASSIGNED:High follow-up is critical in randomized clinical trials. We developed novel approaches to modify in-person visits and complete follow-up during COVID-19. Since these strategies are broadly applicable to circumstances wherein follow-up is difficult, they may help in contingency planning. The objective of this article is to develop and evaluate new approaches to replace detailed, in-person study visits for two trials focused on preventing diabetic foot complications. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A quasi-experimental pre-post design compared approaches for follow-up during COVID-19 to approaches pre-COVID-19. Study subjects were outpatients at two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Following a research "hold," research resumed in February 2021 for Self-monitoring, Thermometry and Educating Patients for Ulcer Prevention (STEP UP) (n = 241), which focused on preventing recurrent foot ulcers, and in April 2021 for Preventing Amputation by Tailored Risk-based Intervention to Optimize Therapy (PATRIOT) (n = 406), which focused on preventing pre-ulcerative and ulcerative lesions. To complete data collection, we shortened visits, focused on primary and secondary outcomes, and conducted virtual visits when appropriate. For STEP UP, we created a 20-min assessment process that could be administered by phone. Since PATRIOT required plantar photographs to assess foot lesions, we conducted short face-to-face visits. We explored differences and assessed proportion completing visit, visit completion/100 person-months and compared COVID-19 to pre- COVID-19 using unadjusted risk ratios, incidence rate ratios, all with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Finally, we report time-to-visit curves. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:In both studies, participants whose follow-up concluded pre- COVID-19 seemed older than those whose follow-up concluded during COVID-19 (PATRIOT: 68.0 (67.2, 68.9) versus 65.2 years (61.9, 68.5); STEP UP: 67.5 (66.2, 68.9) versus 65.3 (63.3, 67.3)). For STEP UP, we completed 91 visits pre- COVID-19 (37.8% (31.6%, 44.2%)) and 63 visits during COVID-19 (78.8% (68.2%, 87.1%)). This was over 1309 person-months pre-COVID-19, and over 208.8 person-months during COVID-19; the visit completion rate/100 person-months were: pre-COVID-19 7.0 (5.6, 8.5), COVID-19 30.2 (23.2, 38.6); risk ratio: 2.1 (1.7, 2.5); and incidence rate ratio 4.3 (3.1, 5.9). Similarly, for PATRIOT, we completed 316 visits pre-COVID-19 (77.8% (73.5%, 81.8%)) and 27 assessments during COVID-19 (84.4% (67.2%, 94.7%)). This was over 1192.7 person-months pre-COVID-19 and 39.3 person-months during COVID-19. The visit completion rate/100 person-months in PATRIOT were: pre-COVID-19 2.7 (2.4, 3.0), COVID-19 6.9 (4.5, 10); risk ratio 1.1 (0.9, 1.3); incidence rate ratio 2.6 (1.8, 3.8). For both studies, the follow-up curves began separating at < 2 months. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:We achieved higher completion rates during COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID-19 by modifying visits and focusing on primary and secondary outcomes. These strategies prevent excessive missing data, support more valid conclusions, and improve efficiency. They may provide important alternative strategies to achieving higher follow-up in randomized clinical trials.
PMID: 36562090
ISSN: 1740-7753
CID: 5388942

Sleep disturbances are underappreciated in prostate cancer survivorship

Gong, Fred; Loeb, Stacy; Siu, Katherine; Myrie, Akya; Orstad, Stephanie; Kenfield, Stacey A; Morgans, Alicia; Thakker, Sameer; Robbins, Rebecca; Carter, Patricia; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Nolasco, Tatiana Sanchez; Byrne, Nataliya; Gupta, Natasha
BACKGROUND:The prevalence of sleep disturbances among prostate cancer (PCa) survivors, and extent of urologist involvement in sleep care are not well-studied. METHODS:PCa survivors (n = 167) and urologists (n = 145) were surveyed about sleep disturbances and survivorship care practices. RESULTS:Most PCa survivors had sleep disturbances, including 50.9% with poor sleep quality, 18.0% with clinical/severe insomnia, and 36.5% at high-risk for sleep apnea. Few urologists routinely screened for sleep disturbances, as recommended in national cancer survivorship guidelines. CONCLUSIONS:Optimal PCa survivorship care should incorporate screening for sleep disturbances, addressing comorbid factors affecting sleep and referring to sleep medicine when appropriate.
PMID: 36543892
ISSN: 1476-5608
CID: 5395012

The impact of COVID-19 on the treatment of opioid use disorder in carceral facilities: a cross-sectional study

Saunders, Elizabeth C; Satcher, Milan F; Monico, Laura B; McDonald, Ryan D; Springer, Sandra A; Farabee, David; Gryczynski, Jan; Nyaku, Amesika; Reeves, Donald; Kunkel, Lynn E; Schultheis, Alysse M; Schwartz, Robert P; Lee, Joshua D; Marsch, Lisa A; Waddell, Elizabeth Needham
While the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted healthcare delivery everywhere, persons with carceral system involvement and opioid use disorder (OUD) were disproportionately impacted and vulnerable to severe COVID-associated illness. Carceral settings and community treatment programs (CTPs) rapidly developed protocols to sustain healthcare delivery while reducing risk of COVID-19 transmission. This survey study assessed changes to OUD treatment, telemedicine use, and re-entry support services among carceral and CTPs participating in the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded study, Long-Acting Buprenorphine vs. Naltrexone Opioid Treatments in Criminal Justice System-Involved Adults (EXIT-CJS) study. In December 2020, carceral sites (n = 6; median pre-COVID 2020 monthly census = 3468 people) and CTPs (n = 7; median pre-COVID 2020 monthly census = 550 patients) participating in EXIT-CJS completed a cross-sectional web-based survey. The survey assessed changes pre- (January-March 2020) and post- (April-September 2020) COVID-19 in OUD treatment, telemedicine use, re-entry supports and referral practices. Compared to January-March 2020, half of carceral sites (n = 3) increased the total number of persons initiating medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) from April-September 2020, while a third (n = 2) decreased the number of persons initiated. Most CTPs (n = 4) reported a decrease in the number of new admissions from April-September 2020, with two programs stopping or pausing MOUD programs due to COVID-19. All carceral sites with pre-COVID telemedicine use (n = 5) increased or maintained telemedicine use, and all CTPs providing MOUD (n = 6) increased telemedicine use. While expansion of telemedicine services supported MOUD service delivery, the majority of sites experienced challenges providing community support post-release, including referrals to housing, employment, and transportation services. During the COVID-19 pandemic, this small sample of carceral and CTP sites innovated to continue delivery of treatment for OUD. Expansion of telemedicine services was critical to support MOUD service delivery. Despite these innovations, sites experienced challenges providing reintegration supports for persons in the community. Pre-COVID strategies for identifying and engaging individuals while incarcerated may be less effective since the pandemic. In addition to expanding research on the most effective telemedicine practices for carceral settings, research exploring strategies to expand housing and employment support during reintegration are critical.
PMID: 36529829
ISSN: 2194-7899
CID: 5394902

Perceptions of the Healthcare System Among Black Men with Previously Undiagnosed Diabetes and Prediabetes

Rony, Melissa; Quintero-Arias, Carolina; Osorio, Marcela; Ararso, Yonathan; Norman, Elizabeth M; Ravenell, Joseph E; Wall, Stephen P; Lee, David C
OBJECTIVE:Given the significant disparities in diabetes burden and access to care, this study uses qualitative interviews of Black men having HbA1c levels consistent with previously undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes to understand their perceptions of the healthcare system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:We recruited Black men from Black-owned barbershops in Brooklyn, NY, who were screened using point-of-care HbA1c tests. Among those with HbA1c levels within prediabetes or diabetes thresholds, qualitative interviews were conducted to uncover prevalent themes related to their overall health status, health behaviors, utilization of healthcare services, and experiences with the healthcare system. We used a theoretical framework from the William and Mohammed medical mistrust model to guide our qualitative analysis. RESULTS:Fifty-two Black men without a prior history of diabetes and an HbA1c reading at or above 5.7% were interviewed. Many participants stated that their health was in good condition. Some participants expressed being surprised by their abnormal HbA1c reading because it was not previously mentioned by their healthcare providers. Furthermore, many of our participants shared recent examples of negative interactions with physicians when describing their experiences with the healthcare system. Finally, several participants cited a preference for incorporating non-pharmaceutical options in their diabetes management plans. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:To help alleviate the disparity in diabetes burden among Black men, healthcare providers should take a more active role in recognizing and addressing their own implicit biases, engage in understanding the specific healthcare needs and expectations of each patient, and consider emphasizing non-medication approaches to improve glycemic control.
PMID: 36520369
ISSN: 2196-8837
CID: 5382352