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41


Predictive Value of a Genomic Classifier in Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Based on Nodule Size

Dublin, Jared C; Papazian, Michael; Zan, Elcin; Oweity, Thaira; Sun, Wei; Jacobson, Adam; Patel, Kepal; Brandler, Tamar C; Givi, Babak
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Genomic classifiers were developed to better guide clinicians in the treatment of indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITNs). To our knowledge, whether there is variation in the diagnostic accuracy of these tests depending on ITN size has not been previously studied. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To analyze the diagnostic performance of a genomic classifier in relation to ITN size. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:A case series study with medical records review was conducted including all patients with a cytologic diagnosis of ITN managed with genomic classifier testing and surgery from January 2015 to December 2018 at NYU Langone Health. Demographics, ITN characteristics, genomic profiles, treatment, and final pathologic findings were recorded. Data analysis was conducted from March to April 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary aim was to assess the positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, and specificity of a genomic classifier test (ThyroSeq) in relation to ITN size (<2, 2-4, and >4 cm). The secondary aim was to investigate the risk of cancer associated with genetic signatures. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 212 patients with 218 ITNs, 158 (74.5%) were women; median (SD) age was 49 (15.6) years. Genomic classifier results were positive in 173 ITNs (79.4%) treated with surgery. In this group of 173 positive ITNs, 46 (26.6%) were malignant on final pathologic testing. Overall, the observed cancer prevalence in the population was 23.9% (52 ITNs). In 45 ITNs that underwent surgery despite a negative genomic classifier interpretation, 6 (13.3%) were malignant. The PPV of a positive test was 27% and the NPV was 87%. The PPV and NPV findings improved as the ITN size increased (<2 cm [n = 98]: PPV, 25%; NPV, 79% vs >4 cm [n = 33]: PPV, 50%; NPV, 89%). Test specificity was higher in larger ITNs (<2 cm: 15% vs >4 cm: 40%; P = .01). Isolated RAS sequence variations were the most common variant identified in malignant nodules (11 [21.1%] of all ITNs), followed by BRAF variants (7 [13.5%] of all ITNs). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this case series, the performance of the ThyroSeq test improved for larger ITNs. The risk of cancer in large ITNs with negative test results was low. These data suggest that, in genomic classifier-negative ITNs larger than 4 cm, initial management of thyroid lobectomy may be sufficient.
PMID: 34734965
ISSN: 2168-619x
CID: 5038292

A Case of a Pituitary Stone

Charles, Stephanie; Agrawal, Nidhi; Zan, Elcin; Peck, Valerie
SCOPUS:85124263597
ISSN: 2376-0605
CID: 5165902

Prognostic Significance of Singular RAS Mutations in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]

Dublin, J C; Papazian, M; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Sun, W; Hodak, S; Baldwin, C K; Patel, K N; Brandler, T C; Givi, B
Introduction: The prognostic significance of a singular RAS mutation in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of malignancy and clinical outcomes of ITNs diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology with RAS mutations.
Method(s): All FNA ITNs that underwent ThyroSeq testing and thyroidectomy from 2014-2018 were reviewed. ITNs with RAS (N-, H-, or K-RAS) mutations identified on ThyroSeq testing were selected. Demographics, Bethesda classifications, genomic profiles, treatment, final pathology, and clinical outcomes were recorded.
Result(s): During the study period, 93 patients with cytologic diagnosis of ITN and RAS mutations were identified. The mean nodule size was 2.2 cm (range: 0.5-6.6 cm). Most nodules were classified as Bethesda III (77, 82.8%). NRAS mutations were the most common (53, 57%), followed by HRAS (24, 25.8%), and KRAS (16, 17.2%). The majority of patients were treated with thyroid lobectomy (67, 72%). On final pathology, 9 (10%) were diagnosed as malignant (follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma [FVPTC]) and were distributed among all 3 RAS variants (NRAS: 4 [7.5%]; HRAS: 4 [16.7%]; KRAS: 1 [6.3%]; p=0.4). Most FVPTCs were encapsulated (8, 88.9%). With a median follow up of 19 months (interquartile range = 8-35), no recurrences or progression was seen.
Conclusion(s): The risk of malignancy in ITNs with singular RAS mutations is low. All malignancies were low-risk. Our findings demonstrate a low incidence of high-risk malignancy in ITNs with RAS mutations, suggesting that initial management with conservative approaches such as thyroid lobectomy may be justified.
Copyright
EMBASE:2014943901
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5024622

Concordance of Initial and Repeat Molecular Analysis in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules [Meeting Abstract]

Papazian, M; Dublin, J C; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Baldwin, C; Jacobson, A S; Hodak, S; Patel, K N; Brandler, T C; Givi, B
Introduction: Molecular tests such as ThyroSeq are recommended in the workup of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN). While repeat molecular testing is often performed after repeat fine needle aspiration (FNA) yields persistently indeterminate cytology, ThyroSeq's inter-test reliability is unclear. We assessed consistency of initial and repeat ThyroSeq analyses performed on samples from the same thyroid nodules.
Method(s): All thyroid nodules diagnosed as ITN on consecutive FNAs that received ThyroSeq with both biopsies from 2014-2018 at our institution, were reviewed. Initial analysis was ThyroSeq v2 while repeat was v2 or v3. Nodules with gene mutations, fusions, or copy number alterations (CNA) were considered ThyroSeq-positive.
Result(s): During the study period, 30 patients underwent ThyroSeq analysis on initial and repeat FNA samples (median interval=21 months). On initial testing, 27 (90%) nodules were ThyroSeq-negative and 3 (10%) low-risk mutations (RAS, EIF1AX, TSHR) were identified. Repeat ThyroSeq re-identified these 3 nodules and also interpreted 9 initially ThyroSeq-negative nodules as positive (kappa=0.286). All 9 molecular alterations were low-risk, most were identified on v3 (7, 77.8%), and CNA was the most common change (6, 66.7%). Of 12 patients with ThyroSeq-positive nodules, 8 underwent lobectomy. Final pathology identified low-risk malignancy in 3 nodules; the remainder were benign.
Conclusion(s): New findings on repeat ThyroSeq are possible. Whether these findings were detected by expanded panel or are the result of de-novo changes is unknown. The risk of missing high-risk changes appears to be low. More studies are needed to characterize the concordance of ThyroSeq analyses and natural evolution of ITNs.
Copyright
EMBASE:2014943979
ISSN: 1879-1190
CID: 5024612

Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia Localized and Excised After Pregnancy [Case Report]

Sum, Melissa; Hoda, Syed T; Rapp, Timothy; Zan, Elcin
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare osteomalacia characterized by paraneoplastic secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23. Concomitant occurrence of TIO during pregnancy is rarer still. Our objective was to report a young patient with debilitating fractures diagnosed with TIO who became pregnant and subsequently had her tumor localized by gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTATATE positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Case Report/UNASSIGNED:A 28 year-old woman with a 2-year history of stress fractures was found to have the following: (1) alkaline phosphatase level, 220 (reference range, 30-95) U/L; (2) phosphorus level, 2.1 (2.5-5.0) mg/dL; (3) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level, <8 (18-72) pg/mL; (4) 24-hour urine phosphorus level, 0.5 (0.3-1.3) g; and (5) fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, 1241 (reference range, <180) RU/mL. The patient became pregnant, and at term, a cesarean delivery was performed. Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/MRI showed a 9-mm intracortical mass in the right fibular head and right femoral and bilateral calcaneal stress fractures. The fibular lesion was resected; pathology showed a 1.5-cm lesion with positive fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 staining. Discussion/UNASSIGNED:This patient with TIO had an uneventful pregnancy and delivery. TIO is typically caused by benign mesenchymal tumors. Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/computed tomography has been used for localizing tumors causing TIO, yet MRI has superior contrast resolution over computed tomography. Therefore, it is not surprising that Ga-68 PET/MRI successfully localized this patient's tumor to the intracortical space of the fibular head and distinguished it from insufficiency fractures. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:To our knowledge, this is the first report of phosphate treatment in a pregnant patient with TIO and the first report of a tumor-inducing TIO being localized by Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/MRI.
PMCID:8573288
PMID: 34765732
ISSN: 2376-0605
CID: 5050752

Growth hormone secreting pituitary carcinomas: Case report and review of literature

Vekaria, Shivani; Chen, Fei; Zan, Elcin; William, Christopher; Sen, Chandra; Lebowitz, Richard; Zagzag, David; Warren, Floyd A; Brandler, Tamar C; Agrawal, Nidhi
OBJECTIVE:Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor, defined as a tumor of adenohypophyseal cells with systemic or craniospinal metastasis. We present a case of a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary carcinoma with a review of literature to better characterize this disease. DESIGN:Case report and literature review of 25 cases of GH-secreting pituitary carcinomas RESULTS: The age of diagnosis of GH-secreting carcinomas ranged 24-69 years old with a mean age of 44.4 with 52% of cases present in females. Mean latency period between diagnosis of acromegaly and transition to pituitary carcinoma was 11.4 years with mean survival being 3.4 years. CONCLUSION:Growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary carcinomas are rare and hard to distinguish from aggressive pituitary adenomas. From review of literature, treatment options include debulking surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy with dismal outcomes. There are no diagnostic markers or features which can predict metastatic progression of these tumors. Future studies with genomic landscapes and relevant tumor markers are needed to identify pituitary tumors most likely to metastasize.
PMID: 34607164
ISSN: 1532-2238
CID: 5067662

Differentiation of Jugular Foramen Paragangliomas versus Schwannomas Using Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI

Pires, A; Nayak, G; Zan, E; Hagiwara, M; Gonen, O; Fatterpekar, G
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Accurate differentiation of paragangliomas and schwannomas in the jugular foramen has important clinical implications because treatment strategies may vary but differentiation is not always straightforward with conventional imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of both qualitative and quantitative metrics derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging using golden-angle radial sparse parallel MR imaging to differentiate paragangliomas and schwannomas in the jugular foramen. MATERIALS AND METHODS:test. A univariate logistic model was created with a binary output, paraganglioma or schwannoma, using a wash-in rate as a variable. Additionally, lesions were clustered on the basis of the wash-in rate and washout rate using a 3-nearest neighbors method. RESULTS:< .001). All 30 lesions were classified correctly by using a 3-nearest neighbors method. CONCLUSIONS:Paragangliomas at the jugular foramen can be reliably differentiated from schwannomas using golden-angle radial sparse parallel MR imaging-dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging when imaging characteristics cannot suffice.
PMID: 34503944
ISSN: 1936-959x
CID: 5033132

The need for completion thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy in the treatment of indeterminate thyroid nodules [Meeting Abstract]

Dublin, J; Papazian, M; Brandler, T; Zan, E; Oweity, T; Baldwin, C; Jacobson, A; Hodak, S; Patel, K; Givi, B
The majority of malignancies identified in indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) are low risk. Therefore, the need for total thyroidectomy or adjuvant treatment such as completion thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in the treatment of ITNs is uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the likelihood of a need for total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy in the management of ITNs. All ITNs diagnosed on FNA cytology from 2014-2018 at NYU Langone Health were reviewed. ITNs managed with surgery were selected. Demographics, nodule characteristics, final pathology, treatment detail, and clinical outcomes were recorded. During the study period, 218 patients with surgically excised ITNs were identified. One hundred forty-two (65.1%) patients underwent thyroid lobectomy (TL), and 76 (34.9%) had total thyroidectomy (TT) upfront. In the lobectomy group, 26 (18.3%) had a malignant nodule on final surgical pathology, 8 (5.6%) underwent completion thyroidectomy, and 5 (3.5%) received RAI. In the total thyroidectomy group, 26 (34.2%) were diagnosed as malignant, and 14 (18.4%) received RAI. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) was the most common malignant diagnosis in both groups (TL: 20, 76.9%; TT: 12, 46.2%). Adenomatous nodule was the most common benign diagnosis (TL: 55, 72.5%; TT: 15, 51.2%). NIFTP accounted for 28.2% (40) of nodules treated with lobectomy and 27.6% (21) of nodules treated with upfront total thyroidectomy. In the entire cohort, only two (1%) patients had significant pathology in the contralateral lobe (1 [0.5%] with papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC] and 1 [0.5%] with multifocal micro-PTC). Of all 218 ITNs, only 19 patients (8.7%) received RAI. With a median follow-up of 31.5 months (interquartile range = 21-39.5), no recurrences or progression was seen. The need for completion thyroidectomy or adjuvant RAI therapy in the treatment of ITN was low in our series. These data suggest that initial management of ITNs with lobectomy might be sufficient in the majority of cases
EMBASE:636273228
ISSN: 1557-9077
CID: 5179432

[68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/MRI in the diagnosis and management of recurrent head and neck paraganglioma with spinal metastasis

Kim, Sean H; Roytman, Michelle; Kamen, Emily; Skafida, Myrto; Strauss, Sara; Lin, Eaton; Kutler, David; Zan, Elcin; Ivanidze, Jana
Most head and neck paragangliomas (PGLs) are biochemically silent and often present with recurrence and metastases in association with hereditary syndromes. Whole-body functional imaging is increasingly used to detect tumor extent and guide treatment planning of PGLs. [68Ga]-DOTATATE, which targets somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) overexpression, has emerged as a sensitive functional imaging modality in PGLs. We present a patient with metastatic glomus caroticum PGL in whom [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/MRI provided a more accurate characterization of metastatic extent, as compared to gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the neck and whole body [18F]-FDG PET/CT. We then review the current literature and discuss the imaging implications of [68Ga]-DOTATATE PET/MRI in PGLs.
PMID: 34392071
ISSN: 1873-4499
CID: 5004502

Tumor sphericity as predictor of tumor changes in patients with HPV positive oropharyngeal carcinoma

Chapter by: Galavis, Paulina E.; Kim, Gene; Tam, Moses; Zan, Elcin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Kenneth
in: AIP Conference Proceedings by
[S.l.] : American Institute of Physics Inc., 2021
pp. ?-?
ISBN: 9780735440944
CID: 4896982