Ensuring remote diagnostics for pathologists: an open letter to the US Congress [Letter]
Intratumoral Budding and Tumor Microenvironment in Pretreatment Rectal Cancer Biopsies Predict the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy
Tumor budding at the invasive tumor front (peritumoral budding) is an established prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, the significance of intratumoral budding (ITB) in pretreatment biopsies is still uncertain. Our study aims to investigate the association of ITB and tumor microenvironment in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies with pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Pretreatment biopsies of low-grade rectal cancer from 37 patients who underwent resection after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate ITB, type of tumor stroma, and intraepithelial lymphocytes. ITB was counted on a single hotspot in 1â€‰HPF upon pan-keratin immunohistochemical staining. Intraepithelial lymphocytes was graded semiquantitatively as "absent" (â‰¤2/HPF) or "present" (>2/HPF). The tumor stroma was classified as either immature type or maturing type. In pretreatment biopsies, ITB was observed in 34/37 patients (92%). High-grade ITB was significantly associated with a poor pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (tumor regression score 2 to 3, P<0.001; and higher posttreatment T stage, P=0.002). Immature type of stroma was significantly associated with both high-grade ITB in biopsies (P=0.02) and a poor pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (tumor regression score 2 to 3, P=0.005). In multivariate analysis, ITB and the type of stroma remained the significant parameters for prediction of response to neoadjuvant treatment. Our study indicates that ITB and tumor microenvironment in pretreatment biopsies are strong predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which may assist risk stratification and clinical management in rectal cancer patients.
Distinct pathways of pathogenesis of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas
Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm (IOPN) of the pancreas is classified as a variant of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in the WHO guidelines. However, the neoplastic cells of IOPNs are unique, with distinctive architecture/oncocytic cytoplasm. Although molecular/immunohistochemical features of other IPMN variants have been extensively studied, those of IOPNs have not been well characterized. Expression profile of antibodies associated with genetic alterations previously described for ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs) and IPMNs (SMAD4/Î²-catenin/p53/mesothelin/claudin-4) as well as antibodies to mucins and differentiation markers [MUC1/MUC2/MUC5AC/MUC6/CDX2/hepatocyte paraffin-1 (HepPar-1)] was investigated in 24 IOPNs and 22 IPMNs to assess the similarities/differences between these tumors. Expression of mesothelin and claudin-4 was dissimilar between these tumor types: A higher proportion of IOPNs labeled with mesothelin [21/24 (87.5Â %) of IOPNs, 6/22 (27Â %) of IPMNs, pÂ <Â 0.001], while the reverse was true for claudin-4 [2/23 (9Â %) of IOPNs, 9/22 (41Â %) of IPMNs, pÂ =Â 0.01]. The results of immunolabeling for SMAD4/Î²-catenin/p53 were similar in both: None of the cases showed SMAD4 loss in the intraductal components, and only 1/21 (5Â %) of IOPNs and 2/22 (9Â %) of IPMNs revealed abnormal Î²-catenin expression (pÂ =Â 0.49). Nuclear p53 accumulation was seen mostly in architecturally complex/high-grade dysplasia areas in both. Immunolabeling for MUC proteins showed that almost all lesions expressed MUC5AC. Twelve of the 24 (50Â %) IOPNs and 6/22 (27Â %) of IPMNs (pÂ =Â 0.11) labeled for MUC1, whereas 7/24 (29Â %) of IOPNs and 10/22 (45Â %) of IPMNs labeled for MUC2 (pÂ =Â 0.25). MUC6 was expressed in 8/9 (89Â %) of IOPNs (strong) and 6/21 (29Â %) of IPMNs (weak) (pÂ =Â 0.002). Fourteen of the 23 (61Â %) IOPNs and 4/22 (18Â %) of IPMNs labeled for HepPar-1 (pÂ =Â 0.003). These results show that IOPNs have distinct immunoprofile and provide support for the proposition that IOPN is a distinct entity developing through a mechanism different from other pancreatic ductal neoplasms.
Pleomorphic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: a variant commonly confused with adenocarcinoma
Most pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) have distinctive endocrine growth patterns and uniform nuclear morphology; they are regarded as relatively low-grade tumors. Significant nuclear pleomorphism is a feature that may raise concerns about aggressive behavior or even obscure the endocrine nature of the neoplasm. Eight PENs exhibiting marked nuclear pleomorphism (>20% of the tumor cells) were identified during a review of 136 PENs (5.9%) from the pathology files of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural (4 cases), and clinical features were reviewed. There were 6 males and 2 females ranging from 30 to 69 years (mean, 55 years). The tumors averaged 5.8 cm (range, 1.5-14 cm). Six tumors (75%) were initially misdiagnosed in 5 cases as adenocarcinoma and in one as solid-pseudopapillary tumor; in 2 cases, the misdiagnosis was based on fine needle aspiration cytology and in 4 on histologic examination. The architectural features of the tumors resembled those of other PENs, but the nuclei were markedly enlarged, irregularly shaped, and hyperchromatic, with frequent bizarre forms. Cells with pleomorphic nuclei also generally had abundant cytoplasm, sometimes with large perinuclear glassy inclusions. The mitotic rate was not elevated compared with other PENs, averaging 1.9 (range, 0-7) per 50 high power fields. Immunohistochemical findings were (number positive/number stained): chromogranin (8 of 8), synaptophysin (7 of 8), progesterone receptor (4 of 7), CD99 (2 of 5), S-100 protein (3 of 7), and p53 (0 of 6). Scattered cells expressed peptide hormones in a minority of cases. By electron microscopy, abundant dense core granules were identified, in some cases embedded within perinuclear arrays of intermediate filaments. Six patients underwent curative resection; at follow-up, 4 were free of disease at 11, 13, 30, 112 months (mean, 42 months), 1 developed liver metastases at 77 months and was alive with disease at 94 months, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Two patients had unresectable tumors and were alive with disease at 10 and 78 months. Striking nuclear pleomorphism may occur in otherwise typical PENs and commonly causes difficulties in the distinction from adenocarcinoma. There does not appear to be prognostic significance to these nuclear changes, and the morphologic features of pleomorphic PENs otherwise resemble those of their conventional counterparts.
Detection of cervical human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization in fetuses from women with squamous intraepithelial lesions
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the cervix of fetuses from mothers with documented squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS:Fetal cervical epithelium was obtained from the Human Fetal Tissue Repository as per Institutional Review Board protocol. Fetal cervical epithelium was dissected, fixed in formalin, and embedded in paraffin. Sections were tested by in situ hybridization using a wide-spectrum HPV DNA probe. Cases were specimens from mothers with low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and controls were specimens from women with no documented squamous intraepithelial lesions. RESULTS:A total of 14 controls and 10 cases were evaluated for HPV DNA. No reactivity was detected in the controls. Two cases showed focal intracellular reactivity with the HPV DNA probe. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrate fetal cervical HPV infection due to intrauterine exposure. These findings have important implications in understanding the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia and its management.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising within a bone infarct in a patient with sickle cell trait [Case Report]
Sarcoma associated with osteonecrosis or bone infarction is a rare but well-documented pathological event. In this report, a 69-year-old man with sickle cell trait presented with malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in his distal tibia. The resected tumor was found in association with a large medullary infarct that extended 10 cm proximal from the tumor site. Bone infarcts can be caused by a number of processes including corticosteroid overuse, alcoholism, dysbarism, and hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease. Patients with sickle cell anemia often develop osteonecrosis, but osteonecrosis has also been reported in people with sickle cell trait, albeit much more rarely. Our patient is only the third reported case of infarct-related bone sarcoma in a patient with sickle cell trait. Bone infarction may be a rare though serious consequence of sickle cell trait.
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: a histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization study
Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) forms a small but significant proportion of primary liver carcinomas. However, its diagnostic features are not well established, and this has possibly contributed to the variability in its reported clinical outcome in the literature. Many such tumors with features intermediate between hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (CC) may have been considered CC in the past based on positivity for "biliary differentiation" cytokeratins and the lack of availability of highly sensitive and specific hepatocellular markers. The utility of in situ hybridization for albumin mRNA, a recently available sensitive and specific hepatocellular marker, has not been reported in CHC. We investigated 27 CHCs with regard to their histomorphologic spectrum and association of these morphologies with immunohistochemical staining for different cytokeratins (CK7, CK19, and CK20; AE1; Cam 5.2), epithelial membrane antigen, polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein, and in situ hybridization for albumin mRNA. All 27 tumors contained areas morphologically intermediate between hepatocellular carcinoma and CC (transitional-type tumors), and in each case such areas formed at least 25% of the tumor. Nine (33%) tumors showed areas with "antler-like" morphology, a feature not previously described in CHC. Twenty-two of 23 tumors (96%) showed positive signals on in situ hybridization for albumin mRNA. Positivity for both hepatocellular (albumin mRNA) and biliary (keratin immunohistochemical profile) markers confirmed the light microscopic impression of biphenotypic differentiation in these tumors. Immunohistochemical positivity for all cytokeratins (except CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen, as well as the expression of albumin mRNA by in situ hybridization, did not show significant differences between hepatocellular carcinoma and CC-like areas. Based on the cytokeratin profile and results on polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen/alpha-fetoprotein alone, many such tumors would be classified as CC. However, the positivity for albumin mRNA by in situ hybridization proves that such an interpretation would not have been accurate. Clinically, CHCs showed many differences from pure hepatocellular carcinoma, including the absence of cirrhosis (0 of 27), rarity of serum hepatitis B or C marker positivity (4 of 27), and normal to only mildly elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels (median 187 ng/mL). The tumor followed an aggressive clinical course, with overall 3-and 5-year survival rates of 30% and 18%, and in the resected cases of 38% and 24%, respectively.
Prognostic factors in pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: an analysis of 136 cases with a proposal for low-grade and intermediate-grade groups
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:In some organs (eg, the lung), endocrine tumors are classified on the basis of mitotic rate and necrosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in pancreatic endocrine neoplasms recently treated at a single institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:In 136 patients undergoing surgery from 1979 to 1998, the influence on disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of tumor size, mitotic rate, vascular invasion, necrosis, metastases, and nuclear grade was determined. Cases were further grouped according to an existing proposed classification system and then regrouped on the basis of mitotic rate (< 2 mitoses per 50 high-power fields v higher) and necrosis (present or absent) into low- and intermediate-grade groups. RESULTS:Correlations with DFS and DSS in univariate analysis included < or = 2 mitoses per 50 high-power fields (P =.001, P =.002), vascular invasion (P =.02, P =.04), size < or = 2 cm (P =.01, P =.05), metastases (P =.0002, P =.07), necrosis (P =.002, P =.16), and nuclear grade (P =.04, P =.33), respectively. By multivariate analysis, for DFS, tumor necrosis and presence of metastases retained significance (P =.01, P =.04, respectively). For DSS, only mitotic rate was a prognostic factor (P =.02). Among the 18 macroadenomas, eight borderline tumors, and 48 low-grade carcinomas, there was no significant difference in DSS between any groups (P =.3). However, in evaluating our newly proposed groups, the differences in DFS and DSS between low- and intermediate-grade groups were highly significant (P =.0007, P =.006, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms exhibit a spectrum of biologic behavior, and the proposed benign (macroadenoma) and borderline groups contain potentially aggressive tumors. An alternative system based on mitotic rate and necrosis correlates strongly with survival without specifically designating any group as benign.
Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presenting as a breast mass. A case report [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon cutaneous soft tissue neoplasm with a tendency to recur but rarely metastasize. It occurs at almost any site but usually in the trunk and extremities. DFSP mimicking a primary breast lesion has not been reported before. CASE/METHODS:A 30-year-old female presented with an eight-month history of a breast mass that was aspirated, revealing a spindle cell neoplasm. The diagnosis of DFSP was made on excisional biopsy. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The diagnosis of DFSP may be problematic, especially when it presents clinically as a primary breast lesion.
Intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: an analysis of in situ and invasive carcinomas in 28 patients
BACKGROUND:Intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are intraductal tumors with variable amounts of papilla formation, mucin production, and cytoarchitectural atypia. Associated invasive carcinomas, reported to occur in up to 30% of patients, often are mucinous and clinically indolent. METHODS:The clinical and pathologic features of 28 IPMNs resected at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1983 and 1997 were reviewed. RESULTS:There were 16 females and 12 males with a mean age of 68 years (range, 44-79 years) and a mean tumor size of 4.5 cm (range, 1.5-11.0 cm). The head of the gland was the predominant tumor site (89%). Abdominal pain, weight loss, and acholic stool were the most common symptoms at presentation. According to histology, two types of papillae were identified: intestinal (22 patients) and pancreatobiliary (6 patients). In the intraductal component, cytologic atypia was minimal (i.e., intraductal papillary-mucinous [IPM] adenoma) in 2 patients and moderate (IPM borderline tumor) in 5 patients, and severe atypia (IPM carcinoma in situ) was seen at least focally in 21 patients. In addition, invasive carcinoma was identified in 15 patients (53%), 4 of whom had only microscopic foci. Invasive carcinoma was of the mucinous type (colloid) in six patients and of the tubular type (conventional ductal adenocarcinoma) in nine patients. At a median follow-up of 35 months, four patients died of disease; two of these patients had only borderline atypia with no identified in situ or invasive carcinoma in the sections submitted. Eighteen patients had no evidence of disease, 1 patient was alive with recurrent disease, and 5 patients died of other causes. The actuarial 5-year disease free survival rate was 78%. Of the 14 patients with invasive carcinoma, 5 of 6 patients with colloid type tumors were free of tumor at a mean of 55 months. Of the patients with tubular type invasive carcinoma, two patients died of their disease (at 4 years and 7 years), three patients died of other causes, and four patients were alive (three were free of disease, and one experienced disease recurrence) at an average follow-up of 7.5 years. CONCLUSIONS:Two distinct patterns of intraductal papillae are seen in patients with IPMNs: intestinal and pancreatobiliary. Both in situ and invasive carcinoma may be encountered more commonly than previously recognized. Tubular type invasive carcinomas occur as well as mucinous type (colloid) carcinomas. Although the neoplasms are less aggressive as a group than conventional pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, patients with IPMNs may pursue a deadly course, even in the absence of identifiable invasive carcinoma. Conversely, patients with tubular type invasive carcinoma arising in the background of IPMN may follow a more favorable course than patients with conventional ductal adenocarcinoma without IPMN, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the IPMN component in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.