Finding the Next Resident Physicians in the COVID-19 Global Pandemic: An Applicant Survey on the 2020 Virtual Urology Residency Match
OBJECTIVE:To assess interviewing applicant perceptions of a virtual urology residency interview in the setting of changes mandated by COVID-19 and to determine applicant preference for virtual or in person interviews. Applicant perceptions of multiple interview components were queried to identify program specific and interview modality specific strengths or weaknesses in the 2020 to 2021 Urology Match. METHODS:A 12 question multiple choice and free text survey was emailed to 66 virtually interviewed applicants for open residency positions at a metropolitan training program after conclusion of interviews. Items of interest included interview type preference, overall interview impression, and recommendations for improvement. RESULTS:A total of 50 of 66 (76%) applicants completed the survey corresponding to approximately 11% of the 2020 national urology applicant pool. A total of 49 of 50 (96%) respondents assessed faculty interaction and the virtual platform positively. A total of 38 of 50 (76%) was satisfied with their resident interaction and 32 of 50 (64%) applicants stated they were able to satisfactorily evaluate the site and program. Ultimately, 39 of 50 (78%) respondents would have preferred an in person interview to our virtual interview. Respondents cited challenges in assessing program culture and program physical site virtually. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The majority of survey respondents indicated a preference for in person interviews. A smaller proportion of applicants preferred virtual interviews citing their convenience and lower cost. Efforts to improve the virtual interview experience may focus on improving applicant-resident interaction and remote site assessment.
International teleconsultation on conjoined twins leading to a successful separation: a case report [Case Report]
Conjoined twins are identical twins that have incompletely separated in utero. The prognosis for conjoined twins is poor and management in a skilled tertiary care centre is paramount for definitive care. We describe our experience with a telemedical consultation on conjoined twins in The Dominican Republic from our eHealth centre in Valhalla, NY. The patients were two month old, female, pygopagus conjoined twins. A multidisciplinary teleconference was initiated with the patients, their family, the referring paediatrician and our team. Based on this teleconsultation, the team felt as though the twins may be amenable to a surgical separation. They presented to our centre in Valhalla, NY, for a detailed physical examination and series of imaging studies. Soon after, the patients underwent a successful 21â€‰h separation procedure and were discharged 12 weeks later. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of an international teleconsultation leading to a successful conjoined twin separation procedure.
Imipramine for refractory daytime incontinence in the pediatric population
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE:Lower urinary tract (LUT) and voiding dysfunction constitute a large percentage of pediatric urology referrals. Children with urinary incontinence unresponsive to behavioral modifications and traditional pharmacotherapy including anticholinergics and alpha blockers remain a challenge. We evaluated the impact of imipramine on treatment outcomes in children with refractory incontinence. STUDY DESIGN:Children â‰¤18 years of age with refractory non-neurogenic daytime incontinence prescribed imipramine were identified. Patient demographics and baseline testing were assessed, as well as medication dosing and side effects of all patients. The Vancouver Symptom Score (VSS) was completed at the initial consultation and each subsequent clinic visit. The questionnaire was self-administered and completed by patients and/or parents. Treatment success was defined as per the International Children's Continence Society (ICCS). RESULTS:One hundred and three patients (55 males and 48 females) met the inclusion criteria. The intention-to-treat response rate was 65% (complete 44, partial response 23). Sixteen (15.6%) patients were non-responders and 20 (19.4%) were lost to follow-up. There was no statistical difference between all groups with regards to age, baseline VSS, and dose. Of those children with complete follow-up (nÂ =Â 83), 44 (53%) experienced complete treatment response. Pre- and post-VSS were statistically different in both complete and partial response groups (complete 19.5-9.5; pÂ <Â 0.0001; partial 19.7-13; pÂ =Â 0.0002) (Table). Side effects were reported by 11 out of 83 (13.3%) patients; partial responders experienced a higher likelihood of side effects (26.1%; pÂ =Â 0.03). DISCUSSION:The mainstay of LUT dysfunction management in children is implementation of a bowel program and timed voiding regimen, with additional treatment modalities and pharmacotherapy added depending upon prevailing symptomatology. Daytime incontinence refractory urotherapy, anticholinergics, and/or non-selective alpha blockers can be difficult to treat, and can be unresponsive to parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS). We observed that over half of children with refractory daytime incontinence reported complete resolution of daytime accidents with imipramine. Limitations of the study include the retrospective nature, relatively small sample size and lack of control group. CONCLUSIONS:Two-thirds of children with refractory daytime incontinence experienced treatment response to imipramine, adding a valuable tool to the pediatric urologist's armamentarium in managing select, challenging patients.
Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Urachal Excision in Children
OBJECTIVE:To report the first exclusively pediatric series of robot-assisted urachal remnant excisions in children. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records of all children who underwent robot-assisted excision of urachal remnants from 2010 to 2016. For the procedure, a 3-port approach was performed in all cases. Excision of the urachus was performed, along with partial cystectomy if there was clear or suspected bladder involvement. Outcomes and complications were reviewed. RESULTS:Sixteen cases of robotic urachal excision were performed during the study period in patients aged 0.8-16.5 years. Complete excision was accomplished in all cases with no conversions. Partial cystectomy was performed in 11 cases, in which a urinary catheter was left for 1 day in all cases (no catheter was left in the absence of partial cystectomy). The only complication was a bladder leak requiring open surgical repair. There were no bowel injuries or hernias. The median operative time was 107 minutes. The length of stay was 2 days with partial cystectomy and 1 day without partial cystectomy. All patients were well at follow-up. CONCLUSION:We report the largest known series of robot-assisted urachal remnant excisions in children, demonstrating this minimally invasive approach to be safe and effective.
Male and female aphallia associated with severe urinary tract dysplasia [Case Report]
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Aphallia is exceedingly rare (1/30 million births). Previous reports have provided limited detail on associated urinary tract findings. OBJECTIVE:We reviewed urinary tract anomalies in two boys with aphallia (patients 1 and 2) and a girl with urinary tract dysplasia, a similar external appearance and lack of corporal tissue (patient 3), also consistent with aphallia. CASE REPORTS (FIGURE)/UNASSIGNED:Patients 1 and 2 both had a 46XY karyotype, bilateral descended testes in well-formed scrotums, and posterior skin tags containing rudimentary urethras. Patient 1 had a focal area of urethral narrowing; a posterior bladder diverticulum, which drained a ureter; bilateral grade 5 vesicoureteral reflux, with a right partial renal duplication; and hydronephrosis of all moieties. Patient 2 had posterior urethral valves and a bladder diverticulum. Right ureterovesical junction obstruction required a tapered reimplant and later conversion to right-to-left transureteroureterostomy. Patient 3 had a 46XX karyotype and fused, well-formed labia majora. A posterior skin tag was associated with a stenotic urogenital sinus, beyond which were a vagina posteriorly and a right refluxing ureter anteriorly. The left ureter was absent, and a miniscule pouch represented a maldeveloped or absent bladder. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries and normal MÃ¼llerian structures. Bilateral renal dysplasia necessitated renal transplant and the creation of an ileocecal neobladder and Mitrofanoff channel. Corporal tissue was diminutive or absent in all. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:We see from these three patients that corporal tissue absence can occur in both male and female patients. We propose that the term aphallia can apply to both sexes, as it is the absence of corporal tissue that defines this condition. This is the only report to include and characterize findings in both male and female aphallia patients. Labioscrotal folds develop with a smooth appearance, and, posteriorly, a urethral orifice or Urogenital (UG) sinus with skin tag may be seen. Obstruction at the level of the urethra was common. Severe urinary tract dysplasia was seen in all, a finding not consistently seen or characterized in previous reports. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In girls with severe urinary tract dysplasia and characteristic genital ambiguity, aphallia should be considered. Co-occurrence of aphallia and severe urinary tract dysplasia warrants further urinary tract imaging in all aphallia patients, including voiding cystourethrography, renal bladder ultrasound, and serum creatinine level. Urinary tract reconstruction may be performed without hampering future penile reconstruction, due to modern phallic reconstructive techniques.
Can a simple question predict prolonged uroflow lag times in children?
OBJECTIVE:It is our experience that some children with bowel and bladder dysfunction (BBD) who have bladder neck dysfunction had a tendency to complain of dizziness when we subjected the patients with dizziness to tilt-table testing to confirm the diagnosis of autonomic dysfunction. From these findings we postulated that patients who complain of dizziness are likely to have prolonged lag times that are a proxy for bladder neck dysfunction (BND). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:This was an Institute Review Board-approved study in which we enrolled new patients in a sequential fashion who were referred to our outpatient urology offices for evaluation of BBD over a 3-month period. All patients were asked if they frequently experienced dizziness when they rapidly stood from a sitting or lying down position or when they raised their head rapidly. An analysis of the following parameters was undertaken: prevalence of dizziness, bladder neck dysfunction, and comorbid psychiatric problems. Uroflowmetry findings were analyzed as well. RESULTS:Tilt-table group: In the tilt-table group the median age of the patients was 14.5 (4.5-18) years for the five males and five females who were tested. All males and four out of five females experienced a blood pressure drops of 20Â mmHg or more on table tilting and three experienced syncope. All patients had prolonged lag times, with an average lag time of 16.5Â s. All these patients were able to tolerate alpha-blockers once they were adequately hydrated and salt loaded. Alpha-blocker dosing was increased gradually. In the questionnaire group, 212 patients were initially enrolled: 125 girls and 87 boys. Eleven of 12 males and eleven of 16 females had prolonged lag times when dizziness was present. Sensitivity was 92% and 69%, specificity was 80% and 91% respectively for male and females. Analysis of the psychiatric history revealed a statistically significant association with dizziness and neuropsychiatric problems in the patients and family members. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We have been able to show a high degree of sensitivity in male patients and a high degree of specificity in female patients that a simple question, "Do you get dizzy on rising in the morning or with rapid standing?", is a reliable marker for BND in children. We have also seen that there is an association between dizziness and psychiatric problems in patients and in family members. It appears from our results and the available literature that autonomic dysfunction is commonly associated with BND and dizziness can be a simple proxy question to identify this problem.
Tunneled buccal mucosa tube grafts for repair of proximal hypospadias
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Buccal mucosa is the favored graft material for patients with long urethral defects and a paucity of skin. Since 2007, we have used the novel tunneled buccal mucosa tube graft urethroplasty technique in these patients. We describe this operative technique and report our surgical and functional outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Between 2007 and 2013, 37 males with proximal hypospadias underwent tunneled buccal mucosa tube graft urethroplasty. After the penile shaft was optimized at a prior stage a free buccal graft was tubularized and tunneled under the intact ventral shaft skin and into the glans. We retrospectively reviewed all charts to report our results. We assessed uroflowmetry and bladder ultrasound for post-void residual urine. RESULTS:The overall complications rate in 34 patients with more than 1-year followup was 32% (11), including fistula in 5, proximal stricture in 4 and meatal stenosis in 2. In the first 10 patients a total of 7 complications (70%) developed but there were only 4 complications in the next 24 (16%). Surgeon experience was the only significant predictor of complications (p = 0.003). We obtained uroflow and post-void residual urine data on 13 of 37 patients, of whom 9 achieved a normal flow pattern and post-void residual urine, and 4 had a blunted flow pattern. CONCLUSIONS:The novel technique of the tunneled buccal mucosa tube graft in patients with proximal hypospadias represents a good alternative for a long urethroplasty in patients with a paucity of skin. After the learning curve plateaus the rate and degree of complications decrease. Furthermore, voiding function is adequate, as assessed by uroflow studies and post-void residual urine measurement.
Primary renal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma: a case report [Case Report]
A 16-year-old female patient presented to our emergency department with a left upper extremity radiculopathy prompting several imaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck revealed multiple cervical vertebrae lesions and computed tomography imaging demonstrated a 15-cm calcified mass originating from the left kidney and extending into the surrounding structures. Pathologic assessment of the open left radical nephrectomy specimen revealed a primary renal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a tumor that has only been documented in 5 prior case reports in the literature.
Long term outcomes of lymphatic sparing laparoscopic varicocelectomy
OBJECTIVE:To assess the long-term occurrence of hydroceles and varicocele recurrence in patients receiving lymphatic sparing laparoscopic varicocelectomy (LSLV) compared to those receiving plain laparoscopic varicocelectomy (PLV), and also to assess the growth of testicular volume postoperatively. METHODS:We employed a standard three-trocar configuration. The spermatic vessels were identified in the retroperitoneum above the internal inguinal ring. Lymphatics were dissected free from the spermatic artery and veins based on laparoscopic appearance. The spermatic artery and veins were divided between plastic locking clips. We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients who underwent laparoscopic varicocelectomy between June 2003 and January 2009. RESULTS:Of a total of 97 patients, 67 underwent LSLV with mean follow-up of 45.8 Â± 20.7 months and 30 underwent PLV with mean follow-up of 40.8 Â± 25.3 months (p = 15). There was a 4.5% hydrocele rate in the LSLV group compared to 43.3% in the PLV group. Of the patients who underwent a PLV and subsequently developed a hydrocele, 31% (n = 4) required a hydrocelectomy, vs none of those who developed a hydrocele after LSLV. Varicocele rate was 6% in the LSLV group vs 3.3% in the PLV group. However, when the artery was not preserved, the probability of recurrence in the LSLV group was 1.3%. Time to hydrocele formation was 16 months in the LSLV group vs 37 months in the PLV group. There was catch-up testicular growth in both groups. CONCLUSIONS:There appears to be increased risk of need for a hydrocelectomy after a PLV as compared to LSLV. Performing a lymphatic sparing, non-artery preserving, laparoscopic varicocelectomy has success and complication rates comparable with those of subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy. There appears to be excellent catch-up testicular growth with either laparoscopic varicocelectomy technique.
A conservative approach to testicular rupture in adolescent boys
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Management for blunt trauma with breach of the renal capsule or bladder (extraperitoneal) has largely become nonsurgical since a conservative approach proved to be effective and safe. Currently the recommendation for managing testicular rupture is surgical exploration and dÃ©bridement or orchiectomy. We report outcomes in boys diagnosed with testicular rupture and treated without surgical intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:In the last year we conservatively treated 7 consecutive boys with delayed presentation of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Patients were treated with scrotal support, antibiotics to prevent abscess, rest, analgesics and serial ultrasound. We report clinical information and outcomes. RESULTS:The 7 boys were 11 to 14 years old and presented 1 to 5 days after injury. Trauma was to the left testis in 3 cases and to the right testis in 4. Patients presented with mild to moderate pain and similar scrotal swelling. Ultrasound findings consistently revealed hematocele and increased echogenicity. Blood flow was present in the injured portion of the testes in 3 cases and to the remainder of the affected testicle in 6 of the 7 boys. In the remaining boy an adequate waveform was not seen in either testicle, which the radiologist thought was secondary to prepubertal status. Other findings included scrotal edema, irregular contour and seminiferous tubule extrusion. Followup was greater than 6 months in all cases. Five boys were seen at the office and the 2 remaining had telephone followup. In all cases hematocele resolved, testicular size stabilized without atrophy and echogenicity normalized in the 5 patients with followup ultrasound. One patient required surgical repair of hydrocele 4 months after trauma but no other patient needed surgical exploration. No abscess or infection developed. CONCLUSIONS:A conservative approach in a select group of adolescent boys with testicular rupture can result in resolution of the fracture and maintenance of testicular architectural integrity.