Neurology faculty comfort and experience with communication skills
Zhang, Cen; Kurzweil, Arielle; Pleninger, Perrin; Nelson, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Zabar, Sondra; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:Neurology faculty care for complex patients, teach, and work within multidisciplinary teams. It is imperative for faculty to have strong communication skills. METHODS:We surveyed NYU neurology teaching faculty to determine levels of comfort and experience over the past year with providing negative feedback to a trainee; debriefing after an adverse clinical outcome; and assisting a struggling colleague. We examined the relationship between levels of comfort and experience with 1) faculty self-identified sex and 2) number of years since completion of medical training. RESULTS:The survey was completed by 36/83 teaching neurology faculty (43 %); 17 (47 %) respondents were female and 21 (58 %) were ≤10 years post-training. The proportions of faculty who reported feeling uncomfortable were 44 % (16/36) for assisting a struggling colleague, 28 % (10/36) for providing negative feedback, and 19 % (7/36) for debriefing an adverse outcome. Proportions of faculty who reported they had no experience were 75 % (27/36) for assisting a struggling colleague, 39 % (14/36) for debriefing an adverse clinical event, and 17 % (6/36) for providing negative feedback. Female respondents and faculty who were ≤10 years post-training were more likely to report feeling uncomfortable with assisting a struggling colleague and to have had no experience doing so in the past year. On multivariate analyses accounting for sex and experience, sex remained independently associated with feeling uncomfortable with assisting a struggling colleague (OR = 12.2, 95 % CI: 2.1-69.6, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Faculty development may be needed to improve comfort and experience with challenging communication-based interactions. Female faculty and faculty early in their careers may benefit most.
Anatomical effects on the relationship between brain arterial diameter and length: The Northern Manhattan Study
Omran, Setareh Salehi; Khasiyev, Farid; Zhang, Cen; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Gutierrez, Jose
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:In patients with dolichoectasia, it is uncertain how dilatation and/or elongation relate to each other. We aimed to examine the correlation between arterial diameter and length within arteries and across the circle of Willis (COW). METHODS:We included stroke-free participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who underwent magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial artery diameters and lengths were obtained with semiautomated commercial software and were adjusted for head size. We first investigated the correlation between diameters and length using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We then built generalized linear models adjusted for demographics and risk factors. RESULTS:Among 1210 participants included in the analysis (mean age 71 Â± 9 years, 59% women, 65% Hispanic), a larger basilar artery (BA) diameter correlated with greater BA length (r = .3), and left and right middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameters correlated with one another (r = .4). Across the COW, BA diameter correlated with MCA diameters (rÂ =Â .3 for both). In adjusted analyses, MCA diameters were associated with larger posterior circulation diameters (Î²Â =Â 0.07), MCA and BA lengths (Î²Â =Â 0.003 and Î²Â =Â 0.002, respectively), presence of fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA), (Î²Â =Â 0.11), and a complete COW (Î²Â =Â -0.02). Similarly, BA length was associated with a fetal PCA (Î²Â =Â 1.1), and BA diameter was associated with anterior circulation diameters (Î² = 0.15) and presence of fetal PCA (Î² = -0.4). CONCLUSIONS:COW configuration should be considered when using arterial diameter cutoffs to define dolichoectasia. Further studies are needed to discern whether arterial diameter or length best identify individuals at risk of vascular events attributable to dolichoectasia.
Social Determinants of Health Attenuate the Relationship Between Race and Ethnicity and White Matter Hyperintensity Severity but not Microbleed Presence in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Bauman, Kristie M; Yaghi, Shadi; Lewis, Ariane; Agarwal, Shashank; Changa, Abhinav; Dogra, Siddhant; Litao, Miguel; Sanger, Matthew; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Zhang, Cen; Czeisler, Barry; Torres, Jose; Dehkharghani, Seena; Frontera, Jennifer A; Melmed, Kara R
BACKGROUND:The association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unclear. We hypothesized that social determinants of health (SDOHs) mediate the relationship between race and ethnicity and severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and microbleeds in patients with ICH. METHODS:We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of patients with ICH at two tertiary care hospitals between 2013 and 2020 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for the presence of microbleeds and WMH severity (defined by the Fazekas scale; moderate to severe WMH defined as Fazekas scores 3-6). We assessed for associations between sex, race and ethnicity, employment status, median household income, education level, insurance status, and imaging biomarkers of microvascular disease. A mediation analysis was used to investigate the influence of SDOHs on the associations between race and imaging features. We assessed the relationship of all variables with discharge outcomes. RESULTS:We identified 233 patients (mean age 62 [SD 16]; 48% female) with ICH. Of these, 19% were Black non-Hispanic, 32% had a high school education or less, 21% required an interpreter, 11% were unemployed, and 6% were uninsured. Moderate to severe WMH, identified in 114 (50%) patients, was associated with age, Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity, highest level of education, insurance status, and history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). In the mediation analysis, the proportion of the association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and the Fazekas score that was mediated by highest level of education was 65%. Microbleeds, present in 130 (57%) patients, was associated with age, highest level of education, and history of diabetes or hypertension (pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). Age, highest level of education, insurance status, and employment status were associated with discharge modified Rankin Scale scores of 3-6, but race and ethnicity was not. CONCLUSIONS:The association between Black non-Hispanic race and ethnicity and moderate to severe WMH lost significance after we adjusted for highest level of education, suggesting that SDOHs may mediate the association between race and ethnicity and microvascular disease.
Psychological Outcome after Hemorrhagic Stroke is Related to Functional Status
Ecker, Sarah; Lord, Aaron; Gurin, Lindsey; Olivera, Anlys; Ishida, Koto; Melmed, Kara; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Frontera, Jennifer; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:To identify opportunities to improve morbidity after hemorrhagic stroke, it is imperative to understand factors that are related to psychological outcome. DESIGN/METHODS/METHODS:We prospectively identified patients with non-traumatic hemorrhagic stroke (intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage) between January 2015 and February 2021 who were alive 3-months after discharge and telephonically assessed 1) psychological outcome using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol, fatigue and sleep disturbance inventories and 2) functional outcome using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index. We also identified discharge destination for all patients. We then evaluated the relationship between abnormal psychological outcomes (T-score >50) and discharge destination other than home, poor 3-month mRS score defined as 3-5 and poor 3-month Barthel Index defined as <100. RESULTS:73 patients were included; 41 (56%) had an abnormal psychological outcome on at least one inventory. There were 41 (56%) patients discharged to a destination other than home, 44 (63%) with poor mRS score and 28 (39%) with poor Barthel Index. Anxiety, depression, emotional and behavioral dyscontrol and sleep disturbance were all associated with a destination other than home, poor mRS score, and poor Barthel Index (all p<0.05). Fatigue was related to poor mRS score and poor Barthel Index (p=0.005 and p=0.006, respectively). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Multiple psychological outcomes 3-months after hemorrhagic stroke are related to functional status. Interventions to improve psychological outcome and reduce morbidity in patients with poor functional status should be explored by the interdisciplinary team.
Training in Neurology: Objective Structured Clinical Examination Case to Teach and Model Feedback Skills in Neurology Residency
LaRocque, Joshua J; Grossman, Scott; Kurzweil, Arielle M; Lewis, Ariane; Zabar, Sondra; Balcer, Laura; Galetta, Steven L; Zhang, Cen
We describe an educational intervention for neurology residents aimed at developing feedback skills. An objective structured clinical examination case was designed to simulate the provision of feedback to a medical student. After the simulated case session, residents received structured, individualized feedback on their performance and then participated in a group discussion about feedback methods. Survey data were collected from the standardized medical student regarding residents' performance and from residents for assessments of their performance and of the OSCE case. This manuscript aims to describe this educational intervention and to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for feedback skills development.
Hemorrhagic Conversion Of Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With Hematoma Expansion [Meeting Abstract]
Palaychuk, Natalie; Changa, Abhinav; Dogra, Siddhant; Wei, Jason; Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron; Ishida, Koto; Zhang, Cen; Czeisler, Barry M.; Torres, Jose L.; Frontera, Jennifer; Dehkharghani, Seena; Melmed, Kara R.
Basilar artery curvature is associated with migraine with aura in the Northern Manhattan Study
Yang, Dixon; Zhang, Cen; Omran, Setareh S; Cucchiara, Brett; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Gutierrez, Jose
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Genetic and imaging studies demonstrate a link between vascular morphology and migraine with aura (MA). We examined the relationship between basilar artery (BA) curvature and MA in a population-based cohort of stroke-free participants. METHODS:This cross-sectional study included participants from the MRI substudy of the Northern Manhattan Study. Participants had structured migraine assessments at enrollment and underwent brain MR angiography. BA curvature was defined as the sum of the total BA horizontal deviation from midline at the distal tip, mid-pons, and vertebrobasilar junction, and was the primary independent variable in logistic regression analyses. BA measurements were obtained blinded to migraine status. We compared groups of all migraine vs no migraine, migraine without aura (MwoA) vs no migraine, and MA vs no migraine. RESULTS:Of 880 participants, 146 had MwoA and 32 had MA. Average BA curvatures were 15.2Â Â±Â 8.9Â mm in non-migraineurs, 15.8Â Â±Â 9.3Â mm in MwoA, and 18.5Â Â±Â 11.4Â mm in MA. In an adjusted model, greater BA curvature was associated with MA (OR 1.042 per mm, 95% CI 1.006-1.080) but not with MwoA (OR 1.014 per mm, 95% CI 0.993-1.035), when compared to non-migraineurs. CONCLUSIONS:Greater BA curvature was associated with MA. Given aura typically originates from the occipital cortex, understanding the physiopathology of this association may provide clues to migraine's underlying mechanisms and relationship with stroke.
Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Versus Aspirin in Patients With Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Bhatia, Kirtipal; Jain, Vardhmaan; Aggarwal, Devika; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Arora, Sameer; Hussain, Zeeshan; Uberoi, Guneesh; Tafur, Alfonso; Zhang, Cen; Ricciardi, Mark; Qamar, Arman
Background and Purpose:Antiplatelet therapy is key for preventing thrombotic events after transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke. Although the role of aspirin is well established, there is emerging evidence for the role of short-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in preventing recurrent stroke. Methods:We conducted a systematic review and study-level meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials comparing outcomes of early initiation of short-term DAPT (aspirin+P2Y12 inhibitor for up to 3 months) versus aspirin alone in patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. Primary efficacy outcome was risk of recurrent stroke and primary safety outcome was incidence of major bleeding. Secondary outcomes studied were risk of any ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause death. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Results:Four trials with a total of 21â€‰459 patients were included. As compared to aspirin alone, DAPT had a lower risk of recurrent stroke (RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.68â€“0.83]; P<0.001; I2=0%) but a higher risk of major bleeding events (RR, 2.22 [95% CI, 1.14â€“4.34], P=0.02, I2=46.5%). Patients receiving DAPT had a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.69â€“0.84], P<0.001, I2=0%) and recurrent ischemic events (RR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.67â€“0.82], P<0.001, I2=0%). Conclusions:As compared to aspirin alone, short-term DAPT within 24 hours of high-risk transient ischemic attack or mild-moderate ischemic stroke reduces the risk of recurrent stroke at the expense of higher risk of major bleeding.
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is Associated with Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Melmed, Kara R; Carroll, Elizabeth; Lord, Aaron S; Boehme, Amelia K; Ishida, Koto; Zhang, Cen; Torres, Jose L; Yaghi, Shadi; Czeisler, Barry M; Frontera, Jennifer A; Lewis, Ariane
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and hematoma expansion are independently associated with worse outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the relationship between SIRS and hematoma expansion remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our hospital from 2013 to 2020 with primary spontaneous ICH with at least two head CTs within the first 24 hours. The relationship between SIRS and hematoma expansion, defined as â‰¥6 mL or â‰¥33% growth between the first and second scan, was assessed using univariable and multivariable regression analysis. We assessed the relationship of hematoma expansion and SIRS on discharge mRS using mediation analysis. RESULTS:Of 149 patients with ICH, 83 (56%; mean age 67Â±16; 41% female) met inclusion criteria. Of those, 44 (53%) had SIRS. Admission systolic blood pressure (SBP), temperature, antiplatelet use, platelet count, initial hematoma volume and rates of infection did not differ between groups (all p>0.05). Hematoma expansion occurred in 15/83 (18%) patients, 12 (80%) of whom also had SIRS. SIRS was significantly associated with hematoma expansion (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.16 - 17.39, p= 0.02) on univariable analysis. The association remained statistically significant after adjusting for admission SBP and initial hematoma volume (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.40 - 23.41, p= 0.02). There was a significant indirect effect of SIRS on discharge mRS through hematoma expansion. A significantly greater percentage of patients with SIRS had mRS 4-6 at discharge (59 vs 33%, p=0.02). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SIRS is associated with hematoma expansion of ICH within the first 24 hours, and hematoma expansion mediates the effect of SIRS on poor outcome.
Another 'BEE'? - Brain-Eye-Ear (BEE) Disease Secondary to HbSC Disease Masquerading as Multiple Sclerosis [Case Report]
Wallach, Asya Izraelit; Borja, Maria J; Chen, Duan; Eisenberg, Rachel; Modi, Yasha S; Zhang, Cen; Shepherd, Timothy M; Nath, Avindra; Smith, Bryan; Scher, Jose U; Cho, Catherine; Kister, Ilya
Recurrent episodes of neurological dysfunction and white matter lesions in a young adult raise suspicion for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, occlusive retinopathy, hearing loss and absence of CSF oligoclonal bands are atypical for MS and should make the clinician consider an alternative diagnosis. We describe a man with hearing loss, visual signs and symptoms, and an accumulating burden of brain lesions, who was treated for a clinical diagnosis of MS for nearly two decades. Genetic testing revealed a unifying diagnosis.