Trends in Prediabetes Among Youths in the US From 1999 Through 2018
Assessment of Changes in Rural and Urban Primary Care Workforce in the United States From 2009 to 2017
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Access to primary care clinicians, including primary care physicians and nonphysician clinicians (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) is necessary to improving population health. However, rural-urban trends in primary care access in the US are not well studied. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To assess the rural-urban trends in the primary care workforce from 2009 to 2017 across all counties in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:In this cross-sectional study of US counties, county rural-urban status was defined according to the national rural-urban classification scheme for counties used by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in the county-level distribution of primary care clinicians from 2009 to 2017 were examined. Data were analyzed from November 12, 2019, to February 10, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Density of primary care clinicians measured as the number of primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants per 3500 population in each county. The average annual percentage change (APC) of the means of the density of primary care clinicians over time was calculated, and generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for county-level sociodemographic variables obtained from the American Community Survey. Results/UNASSIGNED:The study included data from 3143 US counties (1167 [37%] urban and 1976 [63%] rural). The number of primary care clinicians per 3500 people increased significantly in rural counties (2009 median density: 2.04; interquartile range [IQR], 1.43-2.76; and 2017 median density: 2.29; IQR, 1.57-3.23; Pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and urban counties (2009 median density: 2.26; IQR. 1.52-3.23; and 2017 median density: 2.66; IQR, 1.72-4.02; Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). The APC of the mean density of primary care physicians in rural counties was 1.70% (95% CI, 0.84%-2.57%), nurse practitioners was 8.37% (95% CI, 7.11%-9.63%), and physician assistants was 5.14% (95% CI, 3.91%-6.37%); the APC of the mean density of primary care physicians in urban counties was 2.40% (95% CI, 1.19%-3.61%), nurse practitioners was 8.64% (95% CI, 7.72%-9.55%), and physician assistants was 6.42% (95% CI, 5.34%-7.50%). Results from the generalized estimating equations model showed that the density of primary care clinicians in urban counties increased faster than in rural counties (Î²â€‰=â€‰0.04; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05; Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:Although the density of primary care clinicians increased in both rural and urban counties during the 2009-2017 period, the increase was more pronounced in urban than in rural counties. Closing rural-urban gaps in access to primary care clinicians may require increasingly intensive efforts targeting rural areas.
Antihypertensive Use and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias among Older Adults in the USA
BACKGROUND:Epidemiological evidence on different classes of antihypertensives and risks of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) is inconclusive and limited. This study examined the association between antihypertensive use (including therapy type and antihypertensive class) and ADRD diagnoses among older adults with hypertension. METHODS:A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 539 individuals aged â‰¥ 65 years who used antihypertensives and had ADRD diagnosis selected from 2013 to 2018 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data. The predictors were therapy type (monotherapy or polytherapy) and class of antihypertensives defined using Multum Lexicon therapeutic classification (with calcium channel blockers [CCBs] as the reference group). Weighted logistic regression was used to assess the relationships of therapy type and class of antihypertensives use with ADRD diagnosis, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status. RESULTS:We found no significant difference between monotherapy and polytherapy on the odds of ADRD diagnosis. As to monotherapy, those who used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) had significantly lower odds of developing AD compared to those who used CCBs (OR 0.36, 95 % CI 0.13-0.99). CONCLUSIONS:Findings of the study suggest the need for evidence-based drug therapy to manage hypertension in later adulthood and warrant further investigation into the mechanism underlying the protective effect of antihypertensives, particularly ACEIs, against the development of AD among older adults with hypertension.
Geographical and Temporal Analysis of Tweets Related to COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease in the US
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 600 million confirmed cases worldwide since December 2021. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is both a risk factor for COVID-19 mortality and a complication that many COVID-19 patients develop. This study uses Twitter data to identify the spatiotemporal patterns and correlation of related tweets with daily COVID-19 cases and deaths at the national, regional, and state levels. We collected tweets mentioning both COVID-19 and CVD-related words from February to July 2020 (Eastern Time) and geocoded the tweets to the state level using GIScience techniques. We further proposed and validated that the Twitter user registration state can be a feasible proxy of geotags. We applied geographical and temporal analysis to investigate where and when people talked about COVID-19 and CVD. Our results indicated that the trend of COVID-19 and CVD-related tweets is correlated to the trend of COVID-19, especially the daily deaths. These social media messages revealed widespread recognition of CVD"™s important role in the COVID-19 pandemic, even before the medical community started to develop consensus and theory supports about CVD aspects of COVID-19. The second wave of the pandemic caused another rise in the related tweets but not as much as the first one, as tweet frequency increased from February to April, decreased till June, and bounced back in July. At the regional level, four regions (Northeast, Midwest, North, and West) had the same trend of related tweets compared to the country as a whole. However, only the Northeast region had a high correlation (0.8"“0.9) between the tweet count, new cases, and new deaths. For the second wave of confirmed new cases, the major contributing regions, South and West, did not ripple as many related tweets as the first wave. Our understanding is that the early news attracted more attention and discussion all over the U.S. in the first wave, even though some regions were not impacted as much as the Northeast at that time. The study can be expanded to more geographic and temporal scales, and with more physical and socioeconomic variables, with better data acquisition in the future.
Were Women Staying on Track with Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Antenatal Care Settings? A Cross-Sectional Study in Senegal
A significant gap exists between high rates of antenatal care attendance and low uptake of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in Senegal. This study aims to investigate whether IPTp-SP is delivered per Senegal's national guidelines and to identify factors affecting the delivery of IPTp-SP at antenatal care visits. A secondary analysis was conducted using the 2014 and 2016 Senegal's Service Provision Assessment. The study sample consists of 1076 antenatal care across 369 health facilities. Multiple logit regression models were used to estimate the probability of receiving IPTp-SP during the antenatal care visit based on prior receipt of IPTp-SP and gestational age during the current pregnancy. At an antenatal care visit, the probability of receiving IPTp-SP is 84% (95% CI = [83%, 86%]) among women with no IPTp-SP history and 85% (95% CI = [79%, 92%]) among women with one prior dose. Women who visit a facility in the top quintile of the proportion of IPTp trained staff have a nearly 4-fold higher odds of receiving IPTp compared to those who visit a facility in the bottom quintile (95% CI = [1.54, 9.80]). The dose and timing of IPTp-SP provided in antenatal care settings in Senegal did not always conform with the national guideline. More training for providers and patient engagement is warranted to improve the uptake of IPTp-SP in antenatal care visits.
Continuity of Care and Healthcare Costs among Patients with Chronic Disease: Evidence from Primary Care Settings in China
Background/UNASSIGNED:Though critical to primary care, continuity of care has rarely been examined in China. This study aims to assess the relationship between continuity of care and healthcare costs among patients with chronic diseases within primary care settings in China. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In this cross-sectional study, we used a social health insurance claims dataset of 1406 patients with hypertension and/or diabetes in Yuhuan City, Zhejiang Province collected in 2017-2019. We measured continuity of care using the Bice-Boxerman Continuity of Care (COC) Index, Herfindahl Index (HI), Sequential Continuity of Care (SECON) Index, Usual Provider of Care (UPC), and a binary variable indicating whether a patient's UPC was a primary care provider. We examined the associations between continuity of care and healthcare costs in the same period and the subsequent year, using ordinary least squares regression for the outpatient costs and two-part regression for the inpatient costs. Based on the regression coefficients, we predicted costs saved if each continuity measure was set to 1 from the status quo. Results/UNASSIGNED:When optimum continuity were to be achieved, 7.12-27.29% of total outpatient costs and 55.38-73.35% of total inpatient costs could be saved compared to the status quo during the two-year study period. If optimum continuity were to be achieved in the first year, 7.47%-21.78% of total outpatient costs and 8.84-40.22% of total inpatient costs could be saved in the second-year. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Care continuity indicators were consistently associated with reduced outpatient costs and hospitalization risks. Future health reform in China should further enhance continuity of care in primary care.
Generation 1.5: Years in the United States and Other Factors Affecting Smoking Behaviors Among Asian Americans
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Generation 1.5, immigrants who moved to a different country before adulthood, are hypothesized to have unique cognitive and behavioral patterns. We examined the possible differences in cigarette smoking between Asian subpopulations who arrived in the United States at different life stages. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Using the Asian subsample of the 2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we tested this Generation 1.5 hypothesis with their smoking behavior. This dataset was chosen because its large sample size allowed for a national-level analysis of the Asian subsamples by sex, while other national datasets might not have adequate sample sizes for analysis of these subpopulations. The outcome variable was defined as whether the survey respondent had ever smoked 100 cigarettes or more, with the key independent variable operationalized as whether the respondent was: 1) born in the United States; 2) entered the United States before 12; 3) entered between 12 and 19; and 4) entered after 19. Logistic regressions were run to examine the associations with covariates including the respondent's age, educational attainment, and household income. Results/UNASSIGNED:Asian men who entered before 12 were less likely to have ever smoked 100 cigarettes than those who immigrated after 19; for Asian women, three groups (born in the United States, entered before 12, entered between 12 and 19) were more likely to have smoked 100 cigarettes than those who immigrated after 19. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:While Asian men who came to the United States before 12 were less at risk for cigarette smoking than those who immigrated in adulthood, the pattern was the opposite among Asian women. Those who spent their childhood in the United States were more likely to smoke than those who came to the United States in adulthood. These patterns might result from the cultural differences between US and Asian countries, and bear policy relevance for the tobacco control efforts among Asian Americans.
Meditation and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis Using Data From the Health and Retirement Study 2000"“2016
Objective: We aimed to assess the association between meditation practice and cognitive function over time among middle-aged and older adults. Method: We included Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants assessed for meditation practice in the year 2000 as part of the HRS alternative medicine module (n = 1,160) and were followed up for outcomes over 2000"“2016 period. We examined the association between meditation â‰¥ twice a week vs none/less frequent practice and changes in the outcomes of recall, global cognitive function, and quantitative reasoning using generalized linear regression models. Stratified analyses among persons with/without self-reported baseline depressive symptoms were conducted to assess the link between meditation and cognitive outcomes. Results: Among our full study sample, meditation â‰¥ twice a week was not significantly associated with total recall [Î² = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.57; p = 0.61], global cognitive function [Î² = 0.05; 95% CI: -1.01, 1.12; p = 0.92], and quantitative reasoning [Î² = -11.48; 95% CI: -31.27, 8.32; p = 0.26]. However, among those who did not have self-reported depressive symptoms at baseline, meditation â‰¥ twice a week was associated with improvement in cognitive outcomes such as total recall [Î² = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.18; p = 0.01] and global cognitive function [Î² = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.40; p = 0.01] over time. Conclusions: Frequent meditation practice might have a protective effect on cognitive outcomes over time, but this protection could be limited to those without self-reported baseline depressive symptoms. Future studies could incorporate more precise meditation practice assessment, investigate the effect of meditation on cognitive outcomes over time, and include more rigorous study designs with randomized group assignment. Pre-registration: This study is not preregistered.
Medical Expenditures Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Adults in the United States by Age, 2015-2019
BACKGROUND:Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common disorder that affects both children and adults. However, for adults, little is known about ADHD-attributable medical expenditures. OBJECTIVE:To estimate the medical expenditures associated with ADHD, stratified by age, in the US adult population. DESIGN/METHODS:Using a two-part model, we analyzed data from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for 2015 to 2019. The first part of the model predicts the probability that individuals incurred any medical costs during the calendar year using a logit model. The second part of the model estimates the medical expenditures for individuals who incurred any medical expenses in the calendar year using a generalized linear model. Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic region, Charlson comorbidity index, insurance, asthma, anxiety, and mood disorders. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Adults (18 +) who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2015 to 2019 (N = 83,776). MAIN MEASURES/METHODS:Overall and service specific direct ADHD-attributable medical expenditures. KEY RESULTS/RESULTS:A total of 1206 participants (1.44%) were classified as having ADHD. The estimated incremental costs of ADHD in adults were $2591.06 per person, amounting to $8.29 billion nationally. Significant adjusted incremental costs were prescription medication ($1347.06; 95% CI: $990.69-$1625.93), which accounted for the largest portion of total costs, and office-based visits ($724.86; 95% CI: $177.75-$1528.62). The adjusted incremental costs for outpatient visits, inpatient visits, emergency room visits, and home health visits were not significantly different. Among older adults (31 +), the incremental cost of ADHD was $2623.48, while in young adults (18-30), the incremental cost was $1856.66. CONCLUSIONS:The average medical expenditures for adults with ADHD in the US were substantially higher than those without ADHD and the incremental costs were higher in older adults (31 +) than younger adults (18-30). Future research is needed to understand the increasing trend in ADHD attributable cost.
Racial Discrimination and Sleep Quality during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Findings from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study
Previous research has documented the association between racial discrimination and poor sleep quality. However, few studies have examined this association during the COVID-19 pandemic when racial discrimination is on the rise due to structural injustice and racism against people of color. Using data from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, a nationally representative survey of US adults, we assessed the association between racial discrimination and sleep quality among overall adults and by race and ethnicity. We found that racial discrimination during the pandemic was significantly associated with higher risks of poor sleep quality among non-Hispanic Black (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.13-4.25) and Asian (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.53-4.94) participants, but not among the other groups. The results suggested that sleep quality among Black and Asian populations may have been disproportionately affected by racial discrimination during the pandemic. Further study is needed to assess the causal relationship between racial discrimination and sleep quality.