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Glutamate accumulation in the red nucleus increases acutely after experimental spinal cord injury [Meeting Abstract]

Nockels, RP; Zhang, X; Jellish, WS; Pan, H; Wurster, R
ISSN: 0148-396x
CID: 2997892

Evidence for coassembly of mutant GABAC rho1 with GABAA gamma2S, glycine alpha1 and glycine alpha2 receptor subunits in vitro

Pan, Z H; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Lipton, S A
Functional coassembly of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)C rho1 subunits with GABAA (alpha1, beta2, and gamma2S) or glycine (alpha1, alpha2, and beta) subunits was examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. To facilitate this study, we took advantage of the unique gating and pharmacological properties of two mutant rho1 subunits, rho1(T314A) and rho1(T314A/L317A). When the rho1(T314A) subunit was coexpressed with GABA gamma2S, glycine alpha1 or glycine alpha2 subunits, GABA response properties were different from those of homomeric rho1(T314A) receptors. Additionally, the sensitivity of heteromeric rho1(T314A) and gamma2S receptors to picrotoxinin (PTX) blockade of GABA-evoked responses was altered compared to that of homomeric rho1(T314A) receptors. Changes in GABA response properties and picrotoxinin sensitivity were also observed when rho1(T314A) subunits were coexpressed with wild-type rho1 subunits. When rho1(T314A/L317A) subunits were coexpressed with GABA gamma2S, glycine alpha1 or glycine alpha2 subunits, suppression by GABA of spontaneously active current was reduced compared to that of homomeric rho1(T314A/L317A) receptors. Recovery of the spontaneous current from inhibition by GABA for GABA rho1(T314A/L317A)/gamma2S heteromeric receptors displayed an additional component. Coinjection of wild-type rho1 with gamma2S cRNAs at a ratio of 1 : 1 resulted in a > 10-fold reduction in GABA-evoked current. Furthermore, coexpression of wild-type rho1 and gamma2S subunits was found to shift the GABA dose-response curve. Our results provide functional evidence that the GABAC rho1 subunit can coassemble with the GABAA gamma2S subunit, and, at least in its mutated form, rho1 can also form heteromeric receptors with glycine alpha1 or alpha2 subunits in vitro
PMID: 10998097
ISSN: 0953-816X
CID: 92193

Redox modulation of recombinant human GABA(A) receptors

Pan, Z H; Zhang, X; Lipton, S A
We previously reported that GABA-evoked currents of rat retinal ganglion cells were modulated by redox agents. In this study, we further characterized the effects of redox modulation on GABA receptors using recombinant human subunits in the Xenopus oocyte expression system with two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. GABA receptors composed of subunits alpha(1-3), beta(1-3), gamma(1), gamma(2S,) and rho(1) were expressed. The sulfhydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol reversibly potentiated the responses of various combinations of functional recombinant GABA(A) subunits, whether expressed as triplets (alpha(1)beta(1-3)gamma(1,2S)), pairs (alpha(1-3)beta(1-3); beta(1-3)gamma(1,2S)), or singly (beta(2)). These effects of dithiothreitol were rapidly reversible, and the oxidizing agent 5-5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid exerted the opposite effect. In contrast to these effects on GABA(A) receptors, dithiothreitol had no effect on the responses of homomeric GABA rho(1) (GABA(C)) receptors. The degree of dithiothreitol potentiation of GABA(A) receptor responses depended on subunit composition. Co-expression of gamma(2S) with alpha(1)beta(1-3) subunits resulted in markedly less dithiothreitol potentiation of GABA-evoked currents than that observed for alpha(1-3)beta(1-3) subunits in the absence of gamma(2S). None the less, the magnitude of dithiothreitol potentiation could be restored by using a combination of lower GABA concentrations (5-10 microM) and higher dithiothreitol concentrations (5-20mM). N,N,N', N'-tetrakis(2-pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine, a high-affinity Zn(2+) chelator, also potentiated GABA(A) receptor currents. However, the potentiation produced by 10mM dithiothreitol was larger than that produced by saturating concentrations of N,N,N', N'-tetrakis(2-pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine (100 microM), implying that at least part of the effect of dithiothreitol was due to redox modulation rather than Zn(2+) chelation. Dithiothreitol also potentiated the spontaneous current of homomeric GABA(A) receptors composed of beta subunits. Mutation of a single cysteine residue in the M3 domain, yielding homomeric beta(3)(C313A) receptors, abrogated dithiothreitol potentiation of the spontaneous current.In summary, this study further characterizes the modulatory effects of redox agents on recombinant GABA(A) receptors. The degree of redox modulation of GABA(A) receptors depended on subunit composition. In contrast to their effect on GABA(A) receptors, redox agents were not found to modulate GABA(C) receptors composed of homomeric rho(1) subunits. Using site-directed mutagenesis, a cysteine residue was located in the beta(3) subunit which may comprise one of the redox-active sites that underlies the modulation of heteromeric GABA(A) receptors by reducing and oxidizing agents
PMID: 10854765
ISSN: 0306-4522
CID: 92194

Allosteric modulation of zinc on GABA rho1 receptors revealed from the M2 domain mutations [Meeting Abstract]

Cheung, Wing S.; Zhang, Xishan; Lipton, Stuart A.; Pan, Zhuo-Hua
ISSN: 0190-5295
CID: 92195

Agonist-induced closure of constitutively open gamma-aminobutyric acid channels with mutated M2 domains

Pan, Z H; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Lipton, S A
Ligand-gated ion channels display a fundamental property-channels remain virtually closed at rest and open upon agonist binding. Here we show that substituting alanines for either of two amino acid residues (T314 or L317) in the M2 region of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rho1 subunit results in spontaneous channel opening in the absence of ligand. Surprisingly, for two single point mutants (T314A or L317A), application of very low concentrations of agonist partially suppressed this spontaneous current, while higher concentrations re-activated the receptors. When both of these sites were mutated (T314A/L317A), GABA nearly completely suppressed the constitutive current and did not re-activate the current even at very high concentrations. This study provides important new insights into the structure-function relationship of ligand-gated ion channels, where modification of the structure of the channel pore region not only alters the allosteric transition of the receptor protein but also reverses the polarity of agonist regulation of channel gating. Our results suggest that the sites where these two residues are located are structurally critical for channel gating
PMID: 9177245
ISSN: 0027-8424
CID: 92192

Evidence for co-assembly of GABA rho-1 with GABA-A or glycine subunit in vitro [Meeting Abstract]

Pan, Zhuo-Hua; Zhang, Dongxian; Zhang, Xishan; Lipton, Stuart A.
ISSN: 0190-5295
CID: 92196

Mutations in GABA receptor's M2 domain open the channel gate and produce dual agonist effects [Meeting Abstract]

Pan, Zhuo-Hua; Zhang, Dongxian; Zhang, Xishan; Lipton, Stuart A.
ISSN: 0190-5295
CID: 92197

GABA rho subunits mutated in the channel domain display spontaneous, GABA-suppressible currents and co-assemble with GABA-A and glycine receptor subunits [Meeting Abstract]

Pan, Zhuo-Hua; Zhang, Dongxian; Zhang, Xishan; Lipton, Stuart A.
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 92198

Cloning of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type C receptor subunit in rat retina with a methionine residue critical for picrotoxinin channel block

Zhang, D; Pan, Z H; Zhang, X; Brideau, A D; Lipton, S A
Ionotropic receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are important to inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian retina, mediating GABAA and GABAC responses. In many species, these responses are blocked by the convulsant picrotoxinin (PTX), although the mechanism of block is not fully understood. In contrast, GABAC responses in the rat retina are extremely resistant to PTX. We hypothesized that this difference could be explained by molecular characterization of the receptors underlying the GABAC response. Here we report the cloning of two rat GABA receptor subunits, designated r rho 1 and r rho 2 after their previously identified human homologues. When coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, r rho 1/r rho 2 heteromeric receptors mimicked PTX-resistant GABAC responses of the rat retina. PTX resistance is apparently conferred in native heteromeric receptors by r rho 2 subunits since homomeric r rho 1 receptors were sensitive to PTX; r rho 2 subunits alone were unable to form functional homomeric receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that a single amino acid residue in the second membrane-spanning region (a methionine in r rho 2 in place of a threonine in r rho 1) is the predominant determinant of PTX resistance in the rat receptor. This study reveals not only the molecular mechanism underlying PTX blockade of GABA receptors but also the heteromeric nature of native receptors in the rat retina that underlie the PTX-resistant GABAC response
PMID: 8524843
ISSN: 0027-8424
CID: 92191


ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 92199