Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Accumulation of Neurofascin at nodes of Ranvier is regulated by a Paranodal Switch

Zhang, Yanqing; Yuen, Stephanie; Peles, Elior; Salzer, James L
The paranodal junctions flank mature nodes of Ranvier and provide a barrier between ion channels at the nodes and juxtaparanodes. These junctions also promote node assembly and maintenance by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, we examine their role in the accumulation of NF186, a key adhesion molecule of PNS and CNS nodes. We previously showed NF186 is initially targeted/accumulates via its ectodomain to forming PNS (hemi)nodes by diffusion trapping whereas it is later targeted to mature nodes by a transport-dependent mechanism mediated by its cytoplasmic segment. To address the role of the paranodes in this switch, we compared accumulation of NF186 ectodomain and cytoplasmic domain constructs in wild type vs. paranode defective, i.e. Caspr-null mice. Both pathways are affected in the paranodal mutants. In the PNS of Caspr-null mice, diffusion trapping mediated by the NF186 ectodomain aberrantly persists into adulthood whereas the cytoplasmic domain/transport-dependent targeting is impaired. In contrast, accumulation of NF186 at CNS nodes does not undergo a switch - it is predominantly targeted to both forming and mature CNS nodes via its cytoplasmic domain and requires intact paranodes. FRAP analysis indicates the paranodes provide a membrane diffusion barrier that normally precludes diffusion of NF186 to nodes. Linkage of paranodal proteins to the underlying cytoskeleton likely contributes to this diffusion barrier based on 4.1B and βII spectrin expression in Caspr-null mice. Together, these results implicate the paranodes as membrane diffusion barriers that regulate targeting to nodes and highlight differences in the assembly of PNS and CNS nodes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNodes of Ranvier are essential for effective saltatory conduction along myelinated axons. A major question is how the various axonal proteins that comprise the multimeric nodal complex accumulate at this site. Here we examine how targeting of NF186, a key nodal adhesion molecule, is regulated by the flanking paranodal junctions. We show the transition from diffusion-trapping to transport-dependent accumulation of NF186 requires the paranodal junctions. We also demonstrate that these junctions are a barrier to diffusion of axonal proteins into the node and highlight differences in PNS and CNS node assembly. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of node assembly and the pathophysiology of neurological disorders in which impaired paranodal function contributes to clinical disability.
PMID: 32554548
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 4485102

Localized Myosin II Activity Regulates Assembly and Plasticity of the Axon Initial Segment

Berger, Stephen L; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Yuen, Stephanie; Khatri, Latika; Pfennig, Sylvia; Zhang, Yanqing; Agullo-Pascual, Esperanza; Caillol, Ghislaine; Zhu, Min-Sheng; Rothenberg, Eli; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V; Delmar, Mario; Leterrier, Christophe; Salzer, James L
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential generation and a locus of activity-dependent homeostatic plasticity. A multimeric complex of sodium channels, linked via a cytoskeletal scaffold of ankyrin G and beta IV spectrin to submembranous actin rings, mediates these functions. The mechanisms that specify the AIS complex to the proximal axon and underlie its plasticity remain poorly understood. Here we show phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC), an activator of contractile myosin II, is highly enriched in the assembling and mature AIS, where it associates with actin rings. MLC phosphorylation and myosin II contractile activity are required for AIS assembly, and they regulate the distribution of AIS components along the axon. pMLC is rapidly lost during depolarization, destabilizing actin and thereby providing a mechanism for activity-dependent structural plasticity of the AIS. Together, these results identify pMLC/myosin II activity as a common link between AIS assembly and plasticity.
PMID: 29395909
ISSN: 1097-4199
CID: 2947452

Akt Regulates Axon Wrapping and Myelin Sheath Thickness in the PNS

Domenech-Estevez, Enric; Baloui, Hasna; Meng, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yanqing; Deinhardt, Katrin; Dupree, Jeff L; Einheber, Steven; Chrast, Roman; Salzer, James L
The signaling pathways that regulate myelination in the PNS remain poorly understood. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, activated in Schwann cells by neuregulin and the extracellular matrix, has an essential role in the early events of myelination. Akt/PKB, a key effector of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 1A, was previously implicated in CNS, but not PNS myelination. Here we demonstrate that Akt plays a crucial role in axon ensheathment and in the regulation of myelin sheath thickness in the PNS. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt in DRG neuron-Schwann cell cocultures dramatically decreased MBP and P0 levels and myelin sheath formation without affecting expression of Krox20/Egr2, a key transcriptional regulator of myelination. Conversely, expression of an activated form of Akt in purified Schwann cells increased expression of myelin proteins, but not Krox20/Egr2, and the levels of activated Rac1. Transgenic mice expressing a membrane-targeted, activated form of Akt under control of the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase promoter, exhibited thicker PNS and CNS myelin sheaths, and PNS myelin abnormalities, such as tomacula and myelin infoldings/outfoldings, centered around the paranodes and Schmidt Lanterman incisures. These effects were corrected by rapamycin treatmentin vivo Importantly, Akt activity in the transgenic mice did not induce myelination of nonmyelinating Schwann cells in the sympathetic trunk or Remak fibers of the dorsal roots, although, in those structures, they wrapped membranes redundantly around axons. Together, our data indicate that Akt is crucial for PNS myelination driving axonal wrapping by unmyelinated and myelinated Schwann cells and enhancing myelin protein synthesis in myelinating Schwann cells. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Although the role of the key serine/threonine kinase Akt in promoting CNS myelination has been demonstrated, its role in the PNS has not been established and remains uncertain. This work reveals that Akt controls several key steps of the PNS myelination. First, its activity promotes membrane production and axonal wrapping independent of a transcriptional effect. In myelinated axons, it also enhances myelin thickness through the mTOR pathway. Finally, sustained Akt activation in Schwann cells leads to hypermyelination/dysmyelination, mimicking some features present in neuropathies, such as hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies or demyelinating forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Together, these data demonstrate the role of Akt in regulatory mechanisms underlying axonal wrapping and myelination in the PNS.
PMID: 27098694
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 2079372

Label-free imaging of Schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy

Lim, Hyungsik; Sharoukhov, Denis; Kassim, Imran; Zhang, Yanqing; Salzer, James L; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V
Understanding the dynamic axon-glial cell interaction underlying myelination is hampered by the lack of suitable imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate third harmonic generation microscopy (THGM) for label-free imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in live culture and ex vivo and in vivo tissue. A 3D structure was acquired for a variety of compact and noncompact myelin domains, including juxtaparanodes, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, and Cajal bands. Other subcellular features of Schwann cells that escape traditional optical microscopies were also visualized. We tested THGM for morphometry of compact myelin. Unlike current methods based on electron microscopy, g-ratio could be determined along an extended length of myelinated fiber in the physiological condition. The precision of THGM-based g-ratio estimation was corroborated in mouse models of hypomyelination. Finally, we demonstrated the feasibility of THGM to monitor morphological changes of myelin during postnatal development and degeneration. The outstanding capabilities of THGM may be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of myelin formation and pathogenesis.
PMID: 25453108
ISSN: 0027-8424
CID: 1370562

Identification of the Cysteine Residue Responsible for Disulfide Linkage of Na+ Channel alpha and beta2 Subunits

Chen, Chunling; Calhoun, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Yanqing; Lopez-Santiago, Luis; Zhou, Ningna; Davis, Tigwa H; Salzer, James L; Isom, Lori L
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels in the brain are composed of a single pore-forming alpha subunit, one non-covalently linked beta subunit (beta1 or beta3), and one disulfide-linked beta subunit (beta2 or beta4). The final step in Na(+) channel biosynthesis in central neurons is concomitant alpha-beta2 disulfide linkage and insertion into the plasma membrane. Consistent with this, Scn2b (encoding beta2) null mice have reduced Na(+) channel cell surface expression in neurons, and action potential conduction is compromised. Here we generated a series of mutant beta2 cDNA constructs to investigate the cysteine residue(s) responsible for alpha-beta2 subunit covalent linkage. We demonstrate that a single cysteine-to-alanine substitution at extracellular residue Cys-26, located within the immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, abolishes the covalent linkage between alpha and beta2 subunits. Loss of alpha-beta2 covalent complex formation disrupts the targeting of beta2 to nodes of Ranvier in a myelinating co-culture system and to the axon initial segment in primary hippocampal neurons, suggesting that linkage with alpha is required for normal beta2 subcellular localization in vivo. WT beta2 subunits are resistant to live cell Triton X-100 detergent extraction from the hippocampal axon initial segment, whereas mutant beta2 subunits, which cannot form disulfide bonds with alpha, are removed by detergent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that alpha-beta2 covalent association via a single, extracellular disulfide bond is required for beta2 targeting to specialized neuronal subcellular domains and for beta2 association with the neuronal cytoskeleton within those domains.
PMID: 22992729
ISSN: 0021-9258
CID: 185522

Assembly and maintenance of nodes of ranvier rely on distinct sources of proteins and targeting mechanisms

Zhang, Yanqing; Bekku, Yoko; Dzhashiashvili, Yulia; Armenti, Stephen; Meng, Xiaosong; Sasaki, Yo; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Salzer, James L
We have investigated the source(s) and targeting of components to PNS nodes of Ranvier. We show adhesion molecules are freely diffusible within the axon membrane and accumulate at forming nodes from local sources, whereas ion channels and cytoskeletal components are largely immobile and require transport to the node. We further characterize targeting of NF186, an adhesion molecule that pioneers node formation. NF186 redistributes to nascent nodes from a mobile, surface pool. Its initial accumulation and clearance from the internode require extracellular interactions, whereas targeting to mature nodes, i.e., those flanked by paranodal junctions, requires intracellular interactions. After incorporation into the node, NF186 is immobile, stable, and promotes node integrity. Thus, nodes assemble from two sources: adhesion molecules, which initiate assembly, accumulate by diffusion trapping via interactions with Schwann cells, whereas ion channels and cytoskeletal components accumulate via subsequent transport. In mature nodes, components turnover slowly and are replenished via transport. VIDEO ABSTRACT:
PMID: 22243749
ISSN: 1097-4199
CID: 149962

Nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments are ankyrin G-dependent domains that assemble by distinct mechanisms

Dzhashiashvili, Yulia; Zhang, Yanqing; Galinska, Jolanta; Lam, Isabel; Grumet, Martin; Salzer, James L
Axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier are sites of action potential generation and propagation, respectively. Both domains are enriched in sodium channels complexed with adhesion molecules (neurofascin [NF] 186 and NrCAM) and cytoskeletal proteins (ankyrin G and betaIV spectrin). We show that the AIS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) nodes both require ankyrin G but assemble by distinct mechanisms. The AIS is intrinsically specified; it forms independent of NF186, which is targeted to this site via intracellular interactions that require ankyrin G. In contrast, NF186 is targeted to the node, and independently cleared from the internode, by interactions of its ectodomain with myelinating Schwann cells. NF186 is critical for and initiates PNS node assembly by recruiting ankyrin G, which is required for the localization of sodium channels and the entire nodal complex. Thus, initial segments assemble from the inside out driven by the intrinsic accumulation of ankyrin G, whereas PNS nodes assemble from the outside in, specified by Schwann cells, which direct the NF186-dependent recruitment of ankyrin G
PMID: 17548513
ISSN: 0021-9525
CID: 73381

Loss of testicular orphan receptor 4 impairs normal myelination in mouse forebrain

Zhang, Yanqing; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Xie, Shaozhen; Wang, Liang; Lee, Yi-Fen; Chang, Shu-Shi; Chang, Chawnshang
Testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) has been suggested to play important roles in the development and functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). We find reduced myelination in TR4 knockout (TR4(-/-)) mice, which is particularly obvious in forebrains and in early developmental stages. Further analysis reveals that CC-1-positive (CC-1+) oligodendrocytes are decreased in TR4(-/-) forebrains. The O4+ signals are also reduced in TR4(-/-) forebrains when examined at postnatal d 7. However, the number and proliferation rate of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFalphaR+) oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) remain unaffected in these regions, suggesting that loss of TR4 interrupts oligodendrocyte differentiation. This is further supported by the observation that CC-1+ oligodendrocytes derived from 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporating OPCs are significantly reduced in TR4(-/-) forebrains. We also find higher Jagged1 expression levels in axon fiber-enriched regions in TR4(-/-) forebrains, suggesting a more activated Notch signaling in these regions that correlates with previous reports showing that Notch activation inhibits oligodendrocyte differentiation. Together, our results suggest that TR4 is required for proper myelination in the CNS and is particularly important for oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation in the forebrain regions. The altered Jagged1-Notch signaling in TR4(-/-) forebrain underlies a potential mechanism that contributes to the reduced myelination in the forebrain.
PMID: 17227886
ISSN: 0888-8809
CID: 1884032

Androgen receptor (AR) NH2- and COOH-terminal interactions result in the differential influences on the AR-mediated transactivation and cell growth

Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Ting, Huei-Ju; Lin, Wen-Jye; Yang, Zhiming; Zhang, Yanqing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yeh, Shuyuan; Pimplikar, Sanjay W; Chang, Chawnshang
Early reports showed that androgen receptor (AR) NH2- and COOH-terminal (N-C) interaction was important for full AR function. However, the influence of these interactions on the AR in vivo effects remains unclear. Here we tested some AR-associated peptides and coregulators to determine their influences on AR N-C interaction, AR transactivation, and AR coregulator function. The results showed that AR coactivators such as ARA70N, gelsolin, ARA54, and SRC-1 can enhance AR transactivation but showed differential influences on the N-C interaction. In contrast, AR corepressors ARA67 and Rad9 can suppress AR transactivation, with ARA67 enhancing and Rad9 suppressing AR N-C interaction. Furthermore, liganded AR C terminus-associated peptides can block AR N-C interaction, but only selective peptides can block AR transactivation and coregulator function. We found all the tested peptides can suppress prostate cancer LNCaP cell growth at different levels in the presence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, but only the tested FXXLF-containing peptides, not FXXMF-containing peptides, can suppress prostate cancer CWR22R cell growth. Together, these results suggest that the effects of AR N-C interactions may not always correlate with similar effects on AR-mediated transactivation and/or AR-mediated cell growth. Therefore, drugs designed by targeting AR N-C interaction as a therapeutic intervention for prostate cancer treatment may face unpredictable in vivo effects.
PMID: 15514032
ISSN: 0888-8809
CID: 2505542

ARA67/PAT1 functions as a repressor to suppress androgen receptor transactivation

Zhang, Yanqing; Yang, Yue; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Chawnshang
The androgen receptor (AR) may recruit multiple coregulators for proper or optimal transactivation. Here we report the identification and characterization of ARA67/PAT1 as an AR coregulator from a prostate cDNA library. ARA67/PAT1 was screened out as an AR N terminus interacting protein. Interaction mapping shows that the cooperation of multiple domains within ARA67/PAT1 may be required for the maximal interaction with AR. ARA67/PAT1 functions as a repressor with better suppressive effects on AR compared to glucocorticoid receptor and estrogen receptor. Further mechanism dissection reveals that the interrupted AR cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling may play a major role in ARA67/PAT1 mediated suppression on AR. Together, these results suggest that ARA67/PAT1 may function as a novel repressor that can modulate AR function in prostate cancer.
PMID: 14729952
ISSN: 0270-7306
CID: 2505532