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Geographic Analysis of Mobile Stroke Unit Treatment in a Dense Urban Area: The New York City METRONOME Registry

Kummer, Benjamin R; Lerario, Mackenzie P; Hunter, Madeleine D; Wu, Xian; Efraim, Elizabeth S; Salehi Omran, Setareh; Chen, Monica L; Diaz, Ivan L; Sacchetti, Daniel; Lekic, Tim; Kulick, Erin R; Pishanidar, Sammy; Mir, Saad A; Zhang, Yi; Asaeda, Glenn; Navi, Babak B; Marshall, Randolph S; Fink, Matthew E
Background Mobile stroke units (MSUs) reduce time to intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. Whether this advantage exists in densely populated urban areas with many proximate hospitals is unclear. Methods and Results We evaluated patients from the METRONOME (Metropolitan New York Mobile Stroke) registry with suspected acute ischemic stroke who were transported by a bi-institutional MSU operating in Manhattan, New York, from October 2016 to September 2017. The comparison group included patients transported to our hospitals via conventional ambulance for acute ischemic stroke during the same hours of MSU operation (Monday to Friday, 9 am to 5 pm). Our exposure was MSU care, and our primary outcome was dispatch-to-thrombolysis time. We estimated mean differences in the primary outcome between both groups, adjusting for clinical, demographic, and geographic factors, including numbers of nearby designated stroke centers and population density. We identified 66 patients treated or transported by MSU and 19 patients transported by conventional ambulance. Patients receiving MSU care had significantly shorter dispatch-to-thrombolysis time than patients receiving conventional care (mean: 61.2 versus 91.6 minutes; P=0.001). Compared with patients receiving conventional care, patients receiving MSU care were significantly more likely to be picked up closer to a higher mean number of designated stroke centers in a 2.0-mile radius (4.8 versus 2.7, P=0.002). In multivariable analysis, MSU care was associated with a mean decrease in dispatch-to-thrombolysis time of 29.7 minutes (95% CI, 6.9-52.5) compared with conventional care. Conclusions In a densely populated urban area with a high number of intermediary stroke centers, MSU care was associated with substantially quicker time to thrombolysis compared with conventional ambulance care.
PMID: 31795824
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 4252122

Safety and tolerability of early noninvasive ventilatory correction using bilevel positive airway pressure in acute ischemic stroke

Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Zhang, Yi; Alexandrov, Anne W; Harrigan, Mark R; Sisson, April; Zhao, Limin; Brethour, Mary; Cava, Luis; Balucani, Clotilde; Barlinn, Kristian; Patterson, Damon E; Giannopoulos, Sotirios; DeWolfe, Jennifer; Alexandrov, Andrei V
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Hypercapnia can induce intracranial blood-flow steal from ischemic brain tissues, and early initiation of noninvasive ventilator correction (NIVC) may improve cerebral hemodynamics in acute ischemic stroke. We sought to determine safety and tolerability of NIVC initiated on hospital admission without polysomnography study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients were evaluated for the presence of a proximal arterial occlusion, daytime sleepiness, or history of obstructive sleep apnea, and acceptable pulse oximetry readings while awake (96%-100% on 2 to 4 L supplemental oxygen delivered by nasal cannula). NIVC was started on hospital admission as standard of care when considered necessary by treating physicians. NIVC was initiated using bilevel positive airway pressure at 10 cmH(2)O inspiratory positive airway pressure and 5 cmH(2)O expiratory positive airway pressure in combination with 40% fraction of inspired oxygen. All potential adverse events were prospectively documented. RESULTS:Among 356 acute ischemic stroke patients (median NIHSS score, 5; interquartile range, 2-13), 64 cases (18%) received NIVC (median NIHSS score, 12; interquartile range, 6-17). Baseline stroke severity was higher and proximal arterial occlusions were more frequent in NIVC patients compared to the rest (P<0.001). NIVC was not tolerated by 4 patients (7%). Adverse events in NIVC included vomiting (n=1), aspiration pneumonia (n=1), respiratory failure/intubation (n=1), hypotension requiring pressors (n=1), and facial skin breakdown (n=3). The in-hospital mortality rate was 13% in NIVC patients and 8% in the rest (P=0.195). Neurological improvement during hospitalization tended to be greater in the NIVC group (median NIHSS score decrease, 2 points; interquartile range, 0-4) compared to the rest (median NIHSS score decrease, 1; interquartile range, 0-2; P=0.078). CONCLUSIONS:In acute ischemic stroke patients with proximal arterial occlusion and excessive sleepiness or obstructive sleep apnea, NIVC can be initiated early with good tolerability and a relatively small risk of serious complications.
PMID: 21372308
ISSN: 1524-4628
CID: 4945042