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Prognostic value of the Walch classification for patients before and after shoulder arthroplasty performed for osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff

Simovitch, Ryan W; Hao, Kevin A; Elwell, Josie; Antuna, Samuel; Flurin, Pierre-Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Schoch, Bradley S; Roche, Christopher P; Ehrlich, Zachary A; Colasanti, Christopher; Zuckerman, Joseph D
BACKGROUND:The Walch classification is commonly used by surgeons when determining the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). However, its utility in prognosticating patient clinical state before and after TSA remains unproven. We assessed the prognostic value of the modified Walch glenoid classification on preoperative clinical state and postoperative clinical and radiographic outcomes in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). METHODS:A prospectively collected, multicenter database for a single-platform TSA system was queried for patients with rotator cuff-intact OA and minimum 2 year follow-up after anatomic (aTSA) and reverse TSA (rTSA). Differences in patient-reported outcome scores (Simple Shoulder Test, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Shoulder Function score), combined patient-reported and clinical-input scores (Constant, University of California-Los Angeles shoulder score, Shoulder Arthroplasty Smart Score), active range of motion values (forward elevation [FE], abduction, external rotation [ER], internal rotation [IR], and radiographic outcomes (humeral and glenoid radiolucency line rates, scapula notching rate) were stratified and compared by glenoid deformity type per the Walch classification for aTSA and rTSA cohorts. Comparisons were performed to assess the ability of the Walch classification to predict the preoperative, postoperative, and improved state after TSA. RESULTS:1008 TSAs were analyzed including 576 aTSA and 432 rTSA. Comparison of outcomes between Walch glenoid types resulted in 15 pairwise comparisons of 12 clinical outcome metrics, yielding 180 total Walch glenoid pairwise comparisons for each clinical state (preoperative, postoperative, improvement). Of the 180 possible pairwise Walch glenoid type and metric comparisons studied for aTSA and rTSA cohorts, <6% and <2% significantly differed in aTSA and rTSA cohorts, respectively. Significant differences based on Walch type were seen after adjustment for multiple pairwise comparisons in the aTSA cohort for FE and ER preoperatively, the Constant score postoperatively, and for abduction, FE, ER, Constant score, and SAS score for pre- to postoperative improvement. In the rTSA cohort, significant differences were only seen in abduction and Constant score both postoperatively and for pre- to postoperative improvement. There were no statistically significant differences in humeral lucency rate, glenoid lucency rate (aTSA), scapular notching rate (rTSA), complication rates, or revision rates between Walch glenoid types after TSA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although useful for describing degenerative changes to the glenohumeral joint, we demonstrate a weak association between preoperative glenoid morphology according to the Walch classification and clinical state when evaluating patients undergoing TSA for rotator cuff-intact OA. Alternative glenoid classification systems or predictive models should be considered to provide more precise prognoses for patients undergoing TSA for rotator cuff-intact OA.
PMID: 37778653
ISSN: 1532-6500
CID: 5613122

Why has reverse total shoulder arthroplasty become the procedure of choice for primary shoulder arthroplasty? [Editorial]

Zuckerman, Joseph D
PMID: 37774832
ISSN: 1532-6500
CID: 5613092

Two-year clinical outcomes and complication rates in anatomic and reverse shoulder arthroplasty implanted with Exactech GPS© intraoperative navigation

Youderian, Ari R; Greene, Alexander T; Polakovic, Sandrine V; Davis, Noah Z; Parsons, Moby; Papandrea, Rick F; Jones, Richard B; Byram, Ian R; Gobbato, Bruno B; Wright, Thomas W; Flurin, Pierre-Henri; Zuckerman, Joseph D
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:We compare the two-year clinical outcomes of both anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (ATSA and RTSA) utilizing intraoperative navigation compared to traditional positioning techniques. We also examine the effect of glenoid implant retroversion on clinical outcomes. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:In both ATSA and RTSA, computer navigation will be associated with equal or better outcomes with fewer complications. Final glenoid version and degree of correction will not show outcome differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:A total of 216 ATSAs and 533 RTSAs were performed using preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Matched cohorts (2:1) for age, gender and follow-up for cases without intraoperative navigation were compared using all standard shoulder arthroplasty clinical outcome metrics. Two sub-analyses were performed on navigated cases comparing glenoids positioned greater or less than 10° of retroversion and glenoids corrected more or less than 15°. RESULTS:for dislocations. No difference was found in the revision rate, glenoid implant loosening, acromial stress fracture rates, or scapular notching. Navigated RTSA patients demonstrated significant improvements over non-navigated patients in internal rotation, external rotation, maximum lifting weight, the simple shoulder test (SST), Constant, and shoulder arthroplasty smart (SAS) scores. For the navigated sub-cohorts, ATSA cases with a higher degree of final retroversion showed significant improvement in pain, Constant, ASES, SST, UCLA and SPADI. No significant differences were found in the RTSA sub-cohort. Higher degrees of version correction showed improvement in external rotation, SST and Constant scores for ATSA and forward elevation, internal rotation, pain, SST, Constant, ASES, UCLA, SPADI, and SAS scores for RTSA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The use of intraoperative navigation shoulder arthroplasty is safe, produces at least equally as good outcomes at two years compared to standard instrumentation without any increased risk of complications. The effect of final implant position above or below 10° of glenoid retroversion and correction more or less than 15° do not negatively impact outcomes.
PMID: 37348780
ISSN: 1532-6500
CID: 5542912

Comparison of trends of inpatient charges among primary and revision shoulder arthroplasty over a decade: a regional database study

Simcox, Trevor; Papalia, Aidan G; Passano, Brandon; Anil, Utkarsh; Lin, Charles; Mitchell, William; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Virk, Mandeep S
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:This study examined trends in inpatient charges for primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and revision total shoulder arthroplasty (revTSA) over the past decade. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System was queried for patients undergoing primary aTSA, rTSA, HA, and revTSA from 2010 to 2020 using International Classification of Diseases procedure codes. The primary outcome measured was total charges per encounter. Secondary outcomes included accommodation and ancillary charges, charges covered by insurance, and facility volume. Ancillary charges were defined as fees for diagnostic and therapeutic services and accommodation charges were defined as fees associated with room and board. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess differences between high- and low-volume centers. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:During the study period, 46,044 shoulder arthroplasty cases were performed: 18,653 aTSA, 4002 HA, 19,253 rTSA, and 4136 revTSA. An exponential increase in rTSA (2428%) and considerable decrease in HA (83.9%) volumes were observed during this period. Total charges were the highest for rTSA and revTSA and the lowest for aTSA. Subgroup analysis of revTSA by indication revealed that total charges were the highest for periprosthetic fractures. For aTSA, rTSA, and HA, high-volume centers achieved significantly lower total charges compared to low-volume centers. Over the study period, total inpatient charges increased by 57.2%, 38.4%, 102.4%, and 68.4% for aTSA, rTSA, HA, and revTSA, outpacing the inflation rate of 18.7%. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Total inpatient charges for all arthroplasty types increased dramatically from 2010 to 2020, outpacing inflation rates, but high-volume centers demonstrated greater success at mitigating charge increases compared to low-volume centers.
PMID: 37969516
ISSN: 2666-6383
CID: 5610812

No difference in complications between two-week vs. six-week duration of sling immobilization after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

Alben, Matthew G; Gambhir, Neil; Kingery, Matthew T; Halpern, Robert; Papalia, Aidan G; Kwon, Young W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Virk, Mandeep S
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of our study was to compare the outcomes and complications after a two- vs. six-week duration of sling immobilization following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We conducted a retrospective review from our institutional database on 960 patients treated by primary rTSA between 2011 and 2021. Patients were separated into two cohorts of postoperative sling immobilization (a two-week and six-week group). Multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate what factors were associated with patients experiencing either a postoperative complication or requiring reoperation. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .73). DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:Shorter duration of sling immobilization (two weeks) does not incur additional risk of complications compared to standard duration (six weeks) of sling immobilization following rTSA.
PMID: 37969500
ISSN: 2666-6383
CID: 5610782

Treatment of Glenoid Wear with the Use of Augmented Glenoid Components in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Scoping Review

Contreras, Erik S; Kingery, Matthew T; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Virk, Mandeep S
» Treatment of glenoid bone loss continues to be a challenge in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Although correcting glenoid wear to patient's native anatomy is desirable in TSA, there is lack of consensus regarding how much glenoid wear correction is acceptable and necessary in both anatomic and reverse TSA.» Use of augmented glenoid components is a relatively new treatment strategy for addressing moderate-to-severe glenoid wear in TSA. Augmented glenoid components allow for predictable and easy correction of glenoid wear in the coronal and/or axial planes while at the same time maximizing implant seating, improving rotator cuff biomechanics, and preserving glenoid bone stock because of off-axis glenoid reaming.» Augmented glenoid components have distinct advantages over glenoid bone grafting. Glenoid bone grafting is technically demanding, adds to the surgical time, and carries a risk of nonunion and graft resorption with subsequent failure of the glenoid component.» The use of augmented glenoid components in TSA is steadily increasing with easy availability of computed tomography-based preoperative planning software and guidance technology (patient-specific instrumentation and computer navigation).» Although different augment designs (full wedge, half wedge, and step cut) are available and a particular design may provide advantages in specific glenoid wear patterns to minimize bone removal (i.e. a half wedge in B2 glenoids), there is no evidence to demonstrate the superiority of 1 design over others.
PMID: 38096492
ISSN: 2329-9185
CID: 5588872

Inpatient Charges, Complication, and Revision Rates for Shoulder Arthroplasty in Parkinson's Disease: A Regional Database Study

Papalia, Aidan G; Kingery, Matthew T; Romeo, Paul V; Simcox, Trevor; Lin, Charles; Anil, Utkarsh; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Virk, Mandeep S
BACKGROUND:Parkinson's Disease (PD) is an established risk factor for higher rates of complications and revision surgery following shoulder arthroplasty, yet the economic burden of PD remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study is to compare rates of complication and revisions as well as inpatient charges for shoulder arthroplasty procedures between PD and non-PD patients using an all-payer statewide database. METHODS:Patients undergoing primary shoulder arthroplasty from 2010-2020 were identified from the New York (NY) Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database. Study groups were assigned based on concomitant diagnosis of PD at time of index procedure. Baseline demographics, inpatient data, and medical comorbidities were collected. Primary outcomes measured were accommodation, ancillary, and total inpatient charges. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complication and reoperation rates. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate effect of PD on shoulder arthroplasty revision and complication rates. All statistical analysis was performed using R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing; Vienna, Austria). RESULTS:39,011 patients (429 PD versus 38,582 non-PD) underwent 43,432 primary shoulder arthroplasties (477 PD versus 42,955 non-PD) with mean follow-up duration of 2.9 +/- 2.8 years. The PD cohort was older (72.3 +/- 8.0 versus 68.6 +/- 10.4 years, p<0.001), with greater male composition (50.8% versus 43.0%, p=0.001), and higher mean Elixhauser scores (1.0 +/- 4.6 versus 7.2 +/- 4.3, p<0.001). The PD cohort had significantly greater accommodation charges ($10,967 vs $7,661, p<0.001) and total inpatient charges ($62,000 and $56,000, p<0.001). PD patients had significantly higher rates of revision surgery (7.7% versus 4.2%, p=0.002) and complications (14.1% versus 10.5%, p=0.040), as well as significantly higher incidences of readmission at 3- and 12-months postoperatively. After controlling for age and baseline comorbidities, PD patients had 1.64 times greater odds of reoperation compared to non-PD patients (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.10, 2.37], p = 0.012) and a hazard ratio of 1.54 for reoperation when evaluating revision-free survival following primary shoulder arthroplasty (HR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.07, 2.20], p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS:PD confers a longer length of stay, higher rates of postoperative complications and revisions, and greater inpatient charges in patients undergoing TSA. Knowledge of the associated risks and resource requirements of this population will aid surgeons in their decision making as they continue to provide care to a growing number of patients affected by PD.
PMID: 37224916
ISSN: 1532-6500
CID: 5508422

Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on need for operative intervention for idiopathic adhesive capsulitis

Bi, Andrew S.; Papalia, Aidan G.; Romeo, Paul V.; Schoof, Lauren H.; Kwon, Young W.; Rokito, Andrew S.; Zuckerman, Joseph D.; Virk, Mandeep S.
Background: The exact pathogenesis of idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (IAC) is not fully understood, but an inflammatory profibrotic cascade, largely mediated by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF- β1) has been implicated. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) both decrease the activity of TGF-β1. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ACE-Is or ARBs use on the need for operative intervention in IAC. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients from a single institutional database with IAC, divided into two cohorts, with and without ACE-I and/or ARB use as the primary exposure and a minimum 2-year follow-up. The primary outcome measured was the incidence of operative intervention including manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) and arthroscopic capsular release (ACR). Additional multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations between ACE-I/ARB use and likelihood of undergoing an operative procedure. Results: A total of 17,645 patients met inclusion criteria, with 5424 patients in the ACE-I/ARB cohort and 12,221 in the non-ACE-I/ARB cohort. Overall, 422 (2.4%) patients underwent surgical treatment, 378 (2.1%) ACR, and 74 (0.4%) MUA. There was no significant difference between cohorts in the frequency of surgical procedures or time to procedure since diagnosis. There were no significant differences between individual ACE-Is or ARBs, although Losartan was found to have a trend of decreased rate of intervention (31.7% vs. 36.8%, P = .209) when compared to patients not on losartan that did not reach statistical significance. Patient factors predictive of undergoing MUA/ACR were diabetes (P = .013), obesity (P < .001), and male sex (P < .001). Increasing patient age reduces the likelihood of undergoing operative intervention, with patients aged 50-70 years (P = .022) and age >70 years (P < .001) demonstrating reduced odds as compared to patients aged <30 years. Conclusion: Patients with IAC have an overall low (2.4%) rate of requiring surgical intervention. While the antifibrotic mechanism of ACE inhibitors and ARBs did not significantly affect the rate of requiring surgical intervention, male gender, obesity, younger age, and diabetes, all increased the risk for operative intervention. Losartan, specifically, may have a disease modifying effect on IAC that should be investigated with larger controlled trials.
ISSN: 2666-6383
CID: 5567702

CORR Insights®: Higher Surgeon Volume is Associated With a Lower Rate of Subsequent Revision Procedures After Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A National Analysis [Comment]

Zuckerman, Joseph D
PMID: 37017591
ISSN: 1528-1132
CID: 5591722

Fact or fiction: the "5 mm Rule" in greater tuberosity fractures of the proximal humerus

Ryan, Devon J; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purposes of this study were 1) to assess the outcome of nonoperative management of GT fractures with > 5 mm of displacement and 2) to assess whether there is a correlation between degree of displacement and outcome. METHODS:This study was a retrospective review of consecutive low-energy GT fractures from 2011 to 2020. Radiographs from all visits were reviewed. The direction of maximal displacement was assessed. Subjects were stratified based on the amount of maximal displacement: Group 1: 0-5 mm, Group 2: 5-10 mm, Group 3: > 10 mm. Range of motion (ROM) at the time of final follow-up was assessed. The presence of persistent shoulder pain after healing was noted, as well as whether supplemental subacromial corticosteroid injection was provided as part of long-term treatment. RESULTS:A cohort of 93 fractures comprised the study group. Mean age was 62 years. Mean follow-up was 20 months. All fractures went on to union. Mean displacement was 6.2 mm. There were 43 patients in Group 1, 43 in Group 2, and 7 in Group 3. Maximal displacement was most commonly inferolateral or lateral, accounting for a combined 77% of all patients. There was no difference in final ROM between displacement groups, with at least 155 degrees of forward elevation and 45 degrees of ER in all three groups. There was no difference between Group 1 and Groups 2/3 in frequency of persistent pain or likelihood of receiving a steroid injection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our findings do not support a discrete 5 mm displacement threshold for surgical repair of isolated greater tuberosity fractures.
PMID: 36346475
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5357212